Third Balochistan conflict

The Third Balochistan Conflict refers to an insurgency by Baloch separatists against the Pakistani government lasting from 1963 till 1969 with the aim to force Pakistan to share revenues from gas reserves in Balochistan, freeing up of Baloch prisoners and dissolution of One Unit Scheme.

Third Balochistan Conflict
Part of the Insurgency in Balochistan

Physical map of Balochistan, Pakistan, where the fighting took place.
Date1963 – 1969
Location
Result

Ceasefire and end of insurgency[3]

Belligerents
 Pakistan Parrari
PFAR
Baloch Liberation Front
Bugti militia
Supported by:
Afghanistan[1]
Iraq Iraq[2]
 Syria[2]
Commanders and leaders
Pakistan Ayub Khan
Pakistan Yahya Khan
Sher Mohammad Marri
Mir Ali Mengal
Units involved
 Pakistan Army
 Pakistan Air Force
Parrari
PFAR
BLF
Bugti militia

Background

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Following the introduction of a new constitution in 1956 which limited provincial autonomy and enacted the 'One Unit' concept of political organisation in Pakistan.[4][5] Tension continued to grow amid consistent political disorder and instability at the federal level.[4][5] Multiple Baloch parliament members were dismissed.[6] The federal government tasked the Pakistan Army with building several new bases in key areas of Balochistan.[4][5]The Basic Democracies during Ayub military regime gave an indirect representation which created democratic problems in Pakistan as the representation of the Baloch was reduced in the non-democratic constitution of 1962 as the baloch provinces and territories were merged into West Pakistan. The unrelenting denial of the military regime to lodge the Baluch interests, and the brandishing of such interest as sub-nationalist, took several political protesters to drive for a separate Baluch state and radical and leftist Baluch political parties like Baluch National Liberation Front, and the Baluch Student Organization were launched and they started agitations and protests against Ayub regime. They organized and arranged different gatherings in different areas of Baluchistan and as a result, the second rebellion in Baluchistan broke out from the Marri tribal area in 1962.

Insurgency

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Sher Muhammad Bijrani Marri led like-minded militants into guerrilla warfare from 1963 to 1969 by creating their own insurgent bases.[7][8][9][10][4][5] Their goal was to force Pakistan to share revenue generated from the Sui gas fields with the tribal leaders and lifting of One Unit Scheme.[11][10] The insurgents bombed railway tracks and ambushed convoys and raided on military camps.[6][12][10]

PFAR

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Popular Front for Armed Resistance, or PFAR, was a separatist organisation[1] formed during the 1960s.[1] The group is responsible for series of bomb blasts in Pakistan.[4][5] Most of outfit's activists were trained in Afghanistan. For the outfit, Afghanistan was good place to obtain weaponry and others goods.[1][8]

Parrari

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Parrari or Parari was a terrorist outfit founded by Sher Mohammad Marri in the 1962. The outfit was responsible for series of attacks against Pakistani civilians and security forces. The outfit continued its attacks until 1969.[4][5][11][13].Sher Mohammad Marri was the first Baloch to use the tactics of modern guerrilla warfare against the government. In early 1960s his Parari fighters attacked the Pakistani Armed Forces in the Marri area and in Jahlawan under Mir Ali Muhammad Mengal.[11] This campaign came to an end in 1967 with the declaration of a general amnesty.[11][4][5]

Bugti militia

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Bugti militia also actively partook in this conflict against Pakistan armed forces.

Balochistan Liberation Front the group was founded by Jumma Khan in 1964 in Damascus, and played an important role in the 1968–1973 insurgency in Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran [7] which ultimately spilled over into Pakistan [7] with BLF launching raids on Pakistani outposts.[7][4][5][2] Iraq openly and quite actively supported this group against Pakistan and Iran by providing financial support, weapons and training which ultimately led to 1973 raid on the Iraqi embassy in Pakistan.[2][8] Syria also provided support to this group.[2][8]

Military response

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The Pakistan Army retaliated by destroying the militant camps.[6][4][5] Pakistan Army bombed multiple villages with separatist presence. Pakistan Air Force also led a bombing campaign on the tribal areas with separatist presence[4][5][6] which not only destroyed multiple separatist bases but also destroyed vast agricultural farmland.[6]

Ceasefire and Aftermath

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This insurgency ended in 1969, with the Baloch separatists agreeing to a ceasefire granting general amnesty to the separatists as well as freeing the separatists. In 1970 Pakistani President Yahya Khan abolished the "One Unit" policy,[11][4][6][10][14] which led to the recognition of Balochistan as the fourth province of West Pakistan[4][5] (present-day Pakistan), including all the Balochistani princely states, the High Commissioners Province, and Gwadar, an 800 km2 coastal area purchased from Oman by the Pakistani government.[15]

See also

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References

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  1. ^ a b c d "Popular Front for Armed Resistance". South Asia Terrorism Portal Index (SATP). Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Baluch Liberation Front – Mapping Militant Organisation". web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
  3. ^ Malik, Fida Hussain (2019). Balochistan (1st ed.). Korangi Town: Ameena Saiyid (published January 2019). p. 51. ISBN 978-969-716-071-6.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Thistle and the Drone.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Native Population And Original Form Of Government.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Baloch ethnicity and history" (PDF).
  7. ^ a b c d Baloch conflict with Iran and Pakistan.
  8. ^ a b c d Baloch nationalism and Soviet temptation.
  9. ^ Pakistan and the Balochistan conundrum.
  10. ^ a b c d Development Strategies, Identities, and Conflict in Asia.
  11. ^ a b c d e Farhan Hanif Siddiqi (4 May 2012). The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements. Routledge. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-1-136-33696-6.
  12. ^ Development Strategies, Identities, and Conflict in Asia.
  13. ^ J. Jongman, Albert (1988). Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, & Literature. Transaction Publisher. ISBN 1-4128-0469-8.
  14. ^ "Asia Report No. 119". Pakistan: The Worsening Conflict in Balochistan. International Crisis Group. 14 September 2006. p. 4.
  15. ^ Newspaper, From the (2018-12-18). "Purchase of Gwadar". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2024-05-20.

Further reading

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