Thiệu Trị (Hanoi: [tʰiəw˧˨ʔ t͡ɕi˧˨ʔ], Hán tự: 紹治, lit. "inheritance of prosperity"; 6 June 1807 – 4 November 1847), personal name Nguyễn Phúc Miên Tông or Nguyễn Phúc Tuyền, was the third emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty. He was the eldest son of Emperor Minh Mạng, and reigned from 14 February 1841 until his death on 4 November 1847.
|Emperor Thiệu Trị|
Imperial edict of emperor Thiệu Trị (written in Classical Chinese)
|Emperor of Đại Nam|
|Reign||11 February 1841 – 4 October 1847|
|Emperor of Nguyễn dynasty|
|Reign||11 February 1841 – 4 October 1847|
|Born||June 16, 1807|
Imperial City, Huế, Việt Nam
|Died||October 4, 1847 (aged 40)|
Imperial City, Huế, Đại Nam
|Spouse||Empress Từ Dụ |
more than 200 concubines
|Issue||64 including 29 princes and 35 princesses, including:|
Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Bảo
Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Nhậm
Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Y
Nguyễn Phúc Hồng Cai
|Mother||Empress Tá Thiên|
Emperor Thiệu Trị was much like his father, Minh Mạng, and carried on his conservative policies of isolationism and the entrenchment of Confucianism. Highly educated in the Confucian tradition, Thiệu Trị had some curiosity about the West, but like his father was very suspicious of all non-Vietnamese outsiders. At this same time, the French were in a colonial race with Great Britain and were pushing hard for stronger relations with Indochina. This, just as in the reign of Minh Mạng, also brought up Christian missionaries, mostly Spanish and French, who ignored the ban. When Trị began to imprison the missionaries, it prompted an immediate response from France. In 1843, the French government sent a military expedition to Indochina with orders to protect and defend French interests, free the illegal missionaries, if possible without causing an international incident.
Trị's determination to eliminate all Roman Catholic missionaries from his country could not be reconciled with a peaceful relationship with France. In 1845, this almost prompted a clash between Vietnam and the American warship USS Constitution which attempted to force Trị to free the missionary Dominique Lefèbvre, who had repeatedly come to Vietnam illegally multiple times. The French task force reached Tourane on 23 March 1847, and demanded that the safety of French nationals be assured and for Thiệu Trị to cease the persecution of missionaries.
The imperial mandarins put off delivering the emperor's reply and fighting broke out. Thiệu Trị had fortified the coast, but the French forces easily defeated the Vietnamese due to the Nguyễn Dynasty's inferior equipment. All of the Vietnamese coastal forts were destroyed and three Nguyễn junks were sunk before the French squadron sailed away. Thiệu Trị called all missionaries enemy spies and demanded that all Christians should be executed on the spot. The mandarins did not put this order into effect and Emperor Thiệu Trị died shortly afterwards; no missionaries were actually ever executed during his reign.
|Rank||Title||Name||Year of birth-dead||Note|
|Consort Quý||Empress Nghi Thiên Chương
The Empress Dowager Từ Dụ
The Great Empress Dowager Từ Dụ
The Great Grand Empress Dowager Từ Dụ
|Phạm Thị Hằng||1810–1902||Hometown Gò Công
Phạm Đăng Hưng's daughter
From palace lady before the emperor coronation, she becomes the second rank consort Thành, now there are no one be the first rank consort so she was the highest rank of the harem.
She was Emperor Tự Đức's mother.
3 years later, she becomes the first rank consort Quý, the highest rank of the harem, just under Imperial Noble Consort (the title for the official wife of the Emperor instead of The Empress)
After he son became the emperor, he promoted her the title The Empress Dowager Từ Dụ. Emperor Hàm Nghi promoted her the title The Great Empress Dowager Từ Dụ. And Thành Thái Emperor promoted her the title The Great Grand Empress Dowager Từ Dụ
|Consort Lệnh||The first rank consort Lệnh||Nguyễn Thị Nhậm||Her hometown is An Giang
Nguyễn Văn Nhơn's daughter
From palace lady before the emperor coronation, she becomes the second rank consort Trinh, just under Consort Thành of Phạm Đăng family.
3 years later, she becomes the first rank consort Lệnh, now she under Consort Quý Phạm Đăng family and Consort Lương of Võ family.
|Consort Lương||The first rank Consort Lương||Võ Thị Viên||1815–1880||Her hometown is Thừa Thiên province.
Nguyễn Hữu Linh's daughter.
From palace lady before the emperor coronation, she becomes the third rank concubine Lương, under consort Thành and Consort Trinh at the second rank, and the third rank concubine Quý who died before. After 3 years she became the first rank consort Lương just under the first rank consort Quý of Phạm Đăng family
|Consort Thục||The second rank consort Thục||Nguyễn Thị Xuyên||Her hometown is Quảng Bình province. Nguyễn Văn Phụng's daughter and Concubine Nhu's young sister.
From palace lady before the emperor coronation, she becomes the third rank concubine Đức. After 3 years she became the second rank consort Thục, she was the only one who had the title of Second rank consort now. Her son, Hồng Y, emperor Dục Đức's father, and emperor Great grand father of Thành Thái emperor.
|Concubine Quý||The third rank concubine Quý||Đinh Thị Hạnh||1808–1885||She died before her husband became the emperor. Her son is the first and the oldest prince of the emperor, who was feed by The great grand empress dowager Thuận Thiên, the emperor's grand mother, Gia Long's wife. Her son was expected to become the next emperor but The emperor change d his mind at the end.|
|Concubine Thụy||The Third rank concubine Thụy
The Great consort dowager
The third rank concubine Đoan
|Trương Thị Thận||1817-18889||She is Hiệp Hòa emperor's mother.
From palace lady before the emperor coronation, she becomes the fourth rank concubine Huy, then become The third rank concubine Thụy.
Hiệp Hòa emperor promoted her the title The Imperial noble consort dowager, her position now just under Empress Dowager Từ Dụ, after her son was deposed, she was stripped the consort dowager title and comeback to the position of the concubine.
|Concubine Đức||The Third rank concubine Đức||Nguyễn Thị Huyên||1816–1892||From palace lady before the emperor coronation, she becomes the fourth rank concubine Ý, then become The third rank concubine Đức|
|Concubine Kỷ||The Third rank concubine Kỷ||Trương Thị Vĩnh||She was the maid palace with no title, but she born Prince Hồng Cai, so she is grand mother of Kiến Phúc emperor, Hàm Nghi emperor and Đồng Khánh emperor and Khải Định Emperor great grand mother, Bảo Đại Emperor Great Great Grand mother, so he promoted her the title of Third rank concubine Kỷ|
|Concubine Nhu||The fourth rank concubine Nhu||Nguyễn Thị Yên||She was The second rank consort Thục's old sister|
|Concubine Nhàn||The fifth rank concubine Nhàn||Phan Thị Kháng|
|Concubine Thuận||The fifth rank concubine Thuận||Hoàng Thị Dĩnh|
|Lady||The sixth rank lady||Nguyễn Đình Thị Loan|
|Hồ Thị Nghi|
|The seventh rank lady||Ngô Thị Xuân|
|Lady||The ninth rank lady||Trương Thị Thúy||1810–1894|
|Nguyễn Thị Kinh|
|Mai Thị Tiêm||1814–1877|
|Võ Thị Duyên|
|Phan Thị Diệu|
|Nguyễn Thị Phương|
|Nguyễn Thị Vị|
|Trần Thị Sâm|
|Phan Thị Thục|
|Đỗ Thị Trinh|
|Trương Thị Lương|
|Nguyễn Thị Khuê|
|Phan Thị Quý|
|Maid Palace||Nguyễn Viết Thị Lệ||?-1872|
|Nguyễn Hòa Thị Hân|
|Bùi Thị Bút|
|Nguyễn Thị Huệ|
|Hồ Thị Ý Nhi|
|Nguyễn Thị Hương Nhị|
|Nguyễn Đức Thị Ân|
- Erica J. Peters – Appetites and Aspirations in Vietnam: 2011 -Page 32 "Tự Đức (1847–1883) Minh Mạng's eldest son, Thiệu Trị, ruled from his father's death in 1841 until his own demise in 1847. Thiệu Trị passed over his eldest son to leave the throne to his second son, who ruled from 1847 to 1883"
- Jacob Ramsay Mandarins and Martyrs: The Church and the Nguyen Dynasty 2008 "The start of Thiệu Trị's reign saw, for example, an immediate revival of Buddhism at court. A devout Buddhist, Thiệu Trị ordered elaborate mourning rites for his father's funeral."
- Nghia M. Vo Saigon: A History −2011 Page 59 "In March 1843, the Heroine arrived in Đà Nẳng harbor, asking for the release of five imprisoned missionaries. King Thiệu Trị complied."
- Charles Keith – Catholic Vietnam: A Church from Empire to Nation −2012 Page 46 "The French raids at Đà nẵng in 1847 ended Thiệu Trị's more relaxed policies toward Catholics, and his successor the Tự Đức emperor, who came to power shortly thereafter, issued in the late 1840s and early 1850s a new wave of edicts ..."
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Thiệu TrịDied: 1847
| Emperor of Đại Nam