Theodore of Tarsus
Theodore of Tarsus (Greek: Θεόδωρος Ταρσού, 602 – 19 September 690) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 668 to 690. Theodore grew up in Tarsus, but fled to Constantinople after the Persian Empire conquered Tarsus and other cities. After studying there, he relocated to Rome and was later installed as the Archbishop of Canterbury. Accounts of his life appear in two 8th-century texts. Theodore is best known for his reform of the English Church and establishment of a school in Canterbury.
Theodore of Tarsus
|Archbishop of Canterbury|
Eastern Orthodox icon of Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury
|Term ended||19 September 690|
|Consecration||26 March 668|
|Died||19 September 690|
|Feast day||19 September|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
Eastern Orthodox Church
Theodore's life can be divided into the time before his arrival in Britain as Archbishop of Canterbury, and his archiepiscopate. Until recently, scholarship on Theodore had focused on only the latter period since it is attested in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English (c 731), and also in Stephen of Ripon's Vita Sancti Wilfrithi (early 700s), whereas no source directly mentions Theodore's earlier activities. However, Michael Lapidge and Bernard Bischoff have reconstructed his earlier life based on a study of texts produced by his Canterbury School.
Theodore was of Byzantine Greek descent, born in Tarsus in Cilicia, a Greek-speaking diocese of the Byzantine Empire. Theodore's childhood saw devastating wars between Byzantium and the Persian Sassanid Empire, which resulted in the capture of Antioch, Damascus, and Jerusalem in 613-614. Persian forces captured Tarsus when Theodore was 11 or 12 years old, and evidence exists that Theodore had experience of Persian culture. It is most likely that he studied at Antioch, the historic home of a distinctive school of exegesis, of which he was a proponent. Theodore also knew Syriac culture, language and literature, and may even have travelled to Edessa. The Syriac Acts of Saint Milus of Persia, which was incorporated into the Old English Martyrology, was probably brought to England by Theodore.
Though a Greek could live under Persian rule, the Muslim conquests, which reached Tarsus in 637, certainly drove Theodore from Tarsus; if he did not flee earlier, Theodore would have been 35 years old when he left his birthplace. Having returned to the Eastern Roman Empire, he studied in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople, including the subjects of astronomy, ecclesiastical computus (calculation of the date of Easter), astrology, medicine, Roman civil law, Greek rhetoric and philosophy, and the use of the horoscope.
At some time before the 660s, Theodore had travelled west to Rome, where he lived with a community of Eastern monks, probably at the monastery of St. Anastasius. At this time, in addition to his already profound Greek intellectual inheritance, he became learned in Latin literature, both sacred and secular. The Synod of Whitby (664) having confirmed the decision in the Anglo-Saxon Church to follow Rome, in 667, when Theodore was aged 66, the see of Canterbury happened to fall vacant. Wighard, the man chosen to fill the post, unexpectedly died. Wighard had been sent to Pope Vitalian by Ecgberht, king of Kent, and Oswy, king of Northumbria, for consecration as archbishop. Following Wighard's death, Theodore was chosen by Vitalian upon the recommendation of Hadrian (later abbot of St. Peter's, Canterbury). Theodore was consecrated archbishop of Canterbury in Rome on 26 March 668, and sent to England with Hadrian, arriving on 27 May 669.
Archbishop of CanterburyEdit
Theodore conducted a survey of the English church, appointed various bishops to sees that had lain vacant for some time, and then called the Synod of Hertford (673) to institute reforms concerning the proper calculation of Easter, episcopal authority, itinerant monks, the regular convening of subsequent synods, marriage and prohibitions of consanguinity, and other matters. He also proposed dividing the large diocese of Northumbria into smaller sections, a policy which brought him into conflict with Wilfrid, who had become Bishop of York in 664. Theodore deposed and expelled Wilfrid in 678, dividing his dioceses in the aftermath. The conflict with Wilfrid continued until its settlement in 686–687.
In 679 Aelfwine, the brother of King Ecgfrith of Northumbria, died in battle against the Mercians. Theodore's intervention prevented the escalation of the war and resulted in peace between the two kingdoms, with King Æthelred of Mercia paying weregild compensation for Aelfwine's death.
Theodore and Hadrian established a school in Canterbury, providing instruction in both Greek and Latin, resulting in a "golden age" of Anglo-Saxon scholarship:
- They attracted a large number of students, into whose minds they poured the waters of wholesome knowledge day by day. In addition to instructing them in the Holy Scriptures, they also taught their pupils poetry, astronomy, and the calculation of the church calendar ... Never had there been such happy times as these since the English settled Britain.
Theodore also taught sacred music, introduced various texts, knowledge of Eastern saints, and may even have been responsible for the introduction of the Litany of the Saints, a major liturgical innovation, into the West. Some of his thoughts are accessible in the Biblical Commentaries, notes compiled by his students at the Canterbury School. Of immense interest is the text, recently attributed to him, called Laterculus Malalianus. Overlooked for many years, it was rediscovered in the 1990s, and has since been shown to contain numerous interesting elements reflecting Theodore's trans-Mediterranean formation. A record of the teaching of Theodore and Adrian is preserved in the Leiden Glossary.
Theodore called other synods, in September 680 at Hatfield, Hertfordshire, confirming English orthodoxy in the Monothelite controversy, and circa 684 at Twyford, near Alnwick in Northumbria. Lastly, a penitential composed under his direction is still extant.
Theodore died in 690 at the age of 88, having held the archbishopric for twenty-two years. He was buried in Canterbury at the church known today as St. Augustine's Abbey; at the time of his death it was called St. Peter's church.
Like the archbishops of Canterbury before him, Theodore is venerated as a saint. His saint's day is 19 September in the Catholic Church, Church of England, Eastern Orthodox Church, and Episcopal Church (USA). He is also recorded on this day in the Roman Martyrology. Canterbury also recognises a feast of his ordination on 26 March.
- Farmer 2004, pp. 496–497.
- Bunson 2004, p. 881; Bowle 1979, p. 160; Bowle 1971, p. 41; Ramsey 1962, p. 2; Johnson & Zabel 1959, p. 403.
- Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 8–9
- Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", p. 4
- Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 7–8
- Stevenson 1998, p. 256.
- Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", p. 10
- Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 17–18
- Lapidge 1995, Chapter 1: "The Career of Archbishop Theodore", pp. 21–22
- Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.1.
- Chisholm 1911.
- Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.2 (Appointments: Bisi to East Anglia, Aelfric Putta to Rochester, Hlothhere to Wessex, and Ceadda after reconsecration to Mercia)
- Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.5 (Canons of Hertford)
- Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.21.
- Bede & Plummer 1896, 4.2.
- Bischoff & Lapidge 1994, p. 172.
- Bischoff & Lapidge 1994.
- Stevenson 1995.
- Siemens 2007, pp. 18–28.
- Lapidge, Michael (2006). The Anglo-Saxon Library. Oxford: Oxford UP. pp. 33, 87–88. ISBN 978-0-19-923969-6.
- Cantor 1993, p. 164.
- Collier & Barham 1840, p. 250.
- Bede; Plummer, Charles (1896). Historiam ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum: Historiam abbatum; Epistolam ad Ecgberctum; una cum Historia abbatum auctore anonymo. Oxford, United Kingdom: e Typographeo Clarendoniano.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bischoff, Bernhard; Lapidge, Michael (1994). Biblical Commentaries from the Canterbury School of Theodore and Hadrian. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-33089-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bowle, John (1979). A History of Europe: A Cultural and Political Survey. London, United Kingdom: Secker and Warburg.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bowle, John (1971). The English Experience: A Survey of English History from Early to Modern Times. London, United Kingdom: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bunson, Matthew (2004). OSV's Encyclopedia of Catholic History. Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing. ISBN 1-59276-026-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Cantor, Norman F. (1993). The Civilization of the Middle Ages: A Completely Revised and Expanded Edition of Medieval History, the Life and Death of a Civilization. New York, New York: HarperCollins Publishers, Incorporated. ISBN 0-06-017033-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Theodore (archbishop)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Collier, Jeremy; Barham, Francis Foster (1840). An Ecclesiastical History of Great Britain (Volume 1). London, United Kingdom: William Straker.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Earle, J. J.; Plummer, Charles (1899). Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Oxford, United Kingdom.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Farmer, David Hugh (2004). Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Fifth ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860949-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Haddan, Arthur West; Stubbs, William; Wilkins, David (1869). Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Johnson, Edgar Nathaniel; Zabel, Orville J. (1959). An Introduction to the History of Western Tradition, Volume 1. Ginn.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lapidge, Michael (1995). Archbishop Theodore: Commemorative Studies on his Life and Influence. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-48077-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ramsey, Michael (1962). Constantinople and Canterbury: A Lecture in the University of Athens: 7 May 1962. S.P.C.K.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Raine, James; Stephanus, Eddius (1879). "Vita Wilfridi Episcopi auctore Eddio Stephano". The Historians of the Church of York and its Archbishops, Issue 71, Volume 1. London, United Kingdom: Longman & Co.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Siemens, James R. (2007). "Christ's Restoration of Humankind in the Laterculus Malalianus, 14". The Heythrop Journal. 48 (1): 18–28. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2265.2007.00303.x.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Stevenson, Jane (1995). The 'Laterculus Malalianus' and the School of Archbishop Theodore. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-37461-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Stevenson, Jane (1998). "Ephraim the Syrian in Anglo-Saxon England" (PDF). Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies. 1 (2): 253–272.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Theodore 1 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England
- St Theodore of Tarsus the Archbishop of Canterbury (OCA)
- Catholic Online
(vacant four years)
| Archbishop of Canterbury