The event of Ghadir Khumm
The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) took place in February 632. It was where, among other things, the Islamic prophet Muhammad announced that "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla." Shia Muslims believe this to be the appointment of Ali as Muhammad's successor. Most Muslims accept the historicity of the event, but not all believe that this constituted an appointment of Ali as the successor to the Prophet. The day's anniversary in the Islamic Calendar (18 Dhu al-Hijjah) is celebrated by Muslims (primarily Shias) as Eid al-Ghadeer.
|The event of Ghadir Khumm|
|Also called||Eid Al-Ghadeer|
|Observed by||Muslims (primarily Shias)|
|Significance||Appointment of Ali as the successor of Muhammad, according to Shia|
|Observances||Prayers, gift-giving, festive meals, as well as reciting the Du'a Nudba|
|Date||18 Dhu al-Hijjah|
|2017 date||9 September|
Ten years after the migration and on the last days of Dhu al-Qi'dah (coinciding with February 632), Muhammad moved from Medina to Mecca accompanied by thousands of his followers. He only once attended Hajj rituals, a few months before he died. Since this Hajj took place in the last year of his life, he made his farewells to people. Ali was in Yemen, preaching Islam, when he was informed about Muhammad's Hajj, so he moved towards Mecca together with some people and joined Muhammad before rituals began. When the rituals of Hajj were finished, Muhammad left Mecca for Medina together with other Muslims.
Revelation of the verse of announcementEdit
O Messenger! proclaim the (message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not, thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith (5:67).
According to the verse, Muhammad was obliged to proclaim an important message. The verse clearly denotes the importance of the message, by saying that if he does not announce it, then he has not performed his mission. After revelation of the verse, Muhammad ordered the caravan to stop, and ordered those who had passed Ghadir Khumm to return, and for them to wait there until the arrival of those who were still on their way. Sunni Muslims, however, believe neither the verse was revealed at Ghadir Khumm nor it was about anyone's appointment as successor, rather it was God's command to Prophet Muhammad to proclaim every message of Islam without fearing anyone.
- Works related to The Last Sermon of Muhammad by Shia Accounts at Wikisource
- Works related to The Last Sermon of Muhammad by Sunni Accounts at Wikisource
It was very hot. About one hundred ten thousand people were there. By the order of Muhammad a rostrum of camel saddles was made. After performing the Zuhr prayer, Muhammad made the long speech now known as the Ghadir Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الغدير). He recited numerous verses from the Quran, and reminded the people of their deeds, and warned them about the future. However, he spoke its most well-known sentence when he raised Ali's hand and said, "whomever I am his master, this Ali is his master (Mawla)." When Abu Bakr & Umar heard this, they said to Ali: "O son of Abu Talib, you have become the master of every male and every female believer, morning and evening, congratulations." 
Revelation of the verse of Ikmal al-DinEdit
This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (5:3).
Oath of allegianceEdit
Only then, Muhammad left the rostrum, and gave the order for the establishment of a tent in which Ali would sit to receive the allegiance oath of Muslims. Thousands of people, group by group, including women, went to him and saluted and congratulated him as Amir al-Mu'minin, commander of the faithful. Umar ibn Al-Khattab was the first to offer congratulations.
Narrators of the eventEdit
The event of Ghadir Khumm has been revealed in both Shia and Sunni sources. However, Sunnis disagree with the Shia interpretation of this Hadith. Narrators of the Hadith of Ghadir Khum are many, including:
- Ahl al-Bayt: Ali, Fatimah, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali
- 110 Sahabah (companions) of Muhammad: Umar, Uthman, Aisha, Abu Hurairah, Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, Salman the Persian, Ammar ibn Yasir, Zubayr ibn al-Awam, Jabir ibn Abd Allah, and others, who were all present at Ghadir Khum and narrated the event directly.
- 83 of the Tabi‘un (followers): Salim ibn Abd-Allah, Umar II, Tawus ibn Kaysan, and etc.
- 360 Sunni scholars of 2nd to 4th century AH: Abū ʿAbdullāh Muhammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfīʿī (the founder of the Shafi'i school), Ahmad ibn Hanbal (the founder of the Hanbali school), Al-Nasa'i, Ibn al-Maghazili, Ahmad ibn Abd Allah, and Ahmad ibn Abd Rabbih.
- Shia Hadith scholars: Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni, Ibn Babawayh, Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Sharif al-Murtaza, and etc.
This Hadith is considered to be Hasan by many scholars, and some consider it Sahih. Furthermore, all Shia Hadith scholars, and some great Sunni scholars, consider this Hadith to be Mutawatir. Shia scholar Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini collected all the references for the event of Ghadir Khum from Sunni sources and issued them together with all other reasons for this event in eleven volumes in of his book Al-Ghadir.
Shias celebrate the occasion of Muhammad appointing Ali as his successor. Fasting, doing Ghusl (ritual bath), reciting the Du'a Nudba and giving food to believers is among recommended practice of Eid al-Ghadeer. It is a public holiday in Telangana, India.
After the death of Muhammad, a gathering at Saqifah elected Abu Bakr, rather than Ali, to be the successor of Muhammad as the first Rashidun Caliph. This choice was disputed by some Muslims, who believed that Ali had been appointed as successor. This dispute led to the schism between Sunnis and Shias.
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