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The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic and Persian: واقعه غدیر خم) took place in February 632. It was where, among other things, the Islamic prophet Muhammad announced that "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla." Shia Muslims believe this to be the appointment of Ali as Muhammad's successor. Most Muslims accept the historicity of the event, but not all believe that this constituted an appointment of Ali as the successor to the Prophet. The day's anniversary in the Islamic Calendar (18 Dhu al-Hijjah) is celebrated by Muslims (primarily Shias) as Eid al-Ghadeer.

The event of Ghadir Khumm
Also called Eid Al-Ghadeer
Observed by Muslims
Type Islam
Significance Appointment of Ali as the successor of Muhammad, according to Shia Muslims
Observances Prayers, gift-giving, festive meals, as well as reciting the Du'a Nudba
Date 18 Dhu al-Hijjah
2017 date 9 September[1][2]

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Ten years after the migration and on the last days of Dhu al-Qi'dah (coinciding with February 632), Muhammad moved from Medina to Mecca accompanied by thousands of his followers. He only once attended Hajj rituals, a few months before he died. Since this Hajj took place in the last year of his life, he made his farewells to people. Ali was in Yemen, preaching Islam, when he was informed about Muhammad's Hajj, so he moved towards Mecca together with some people and joined Muhammad before rituals began. When the rituals of Hajj were finished, Muhammad left Mecca for Medina together with other Muslims.[3][4]

QuranEdit

Revelation of the verse of announcementEdit

On Thursday the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah (19 March), after the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Muslims arrived at Ghadir Khumm. According to Sunni traditional narratives, this verse was revealed during the event:[5][6][7]

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ [8] O Messenger! proclaim the (message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not, thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith (5:67).[9]

According to the verse, Muhammad was obliged to proclaim an important message. The verse clearly denotes the importance of the message, by saying that if he does not announce it, then he has not performed his mission. After revelation of the verse, Muhammad ordered the caravan to stop, and ordered those who had passed Ghadir Khumm to return, and for them to wait there until the arrival of those who were still on their way.[10][11] Sunni Muslims, however, believe neither the verse was revealed at Ghadir Khumm nor it was about anyone's appointment as successor, rather it was God's command to Prophet Muhammad to proclaim every message of Islam without fearing anyone.[12] The Shia cite more than 360 Sunnis traditional scholars who have mentioned about Ghadir and its connection with the mentioned verse.[13]

Revelation of the verse of Ikmal al-DinEdit

According to Shia scholar Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini's work Al-Ghadir, immediately after Muhammad had finished his speech, the following verse of the Quran was revealed:[14][15][16]

This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (5:3).

Sunni Muslims believe this verse was revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophet Muhammad on the Day of Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul Hijja.[17]

HadithEdit

 
The Investiture of Ali at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, AD 1309/8 Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
 
Mosque at Johfa, the Hejaz, Saudi Arabia
  Works related to The Last Sermon of Muhammad by Shia Accounts at Wikisource
  Works related to The Last Sermon of Muhammad by Sunni Accounts at Wikisource
The event of Ghadir Khumm
Arabic حدیث غدیر خم
Romanization Hadeeth Ghadeer Khumm
Literal meaning Narration of Khumm pond

The Hadith of the pond of Khumm (Arabic: غدير خم‎) is an account of a speech given by Muhammad on 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah of 10 AH in the Islamic calendar (Sunday, March 15, 632 AD)[18] at Ghadir Khumm, now near the city of al-Juhfah, in present-day Saudi Arabia.[19] It has been interpreted variously by the two main sects of Islam. The Shia generally maintain that in this hadith Muhammad appointed Ali as his heir and successor. The Sunnis, on the other hand, do not deny Muhammad's declaration about Ali at Ghadir Khumm, but they argue that he was simply urging the audience to hold his cousin and son-in-law in high esteem and affection.[18]

It was very hot. About one hundred ten thousand people were there. By the order of Muhammad a rostrum of camel saddles was made. After performing the Zuhr prayer, Muhammad made the long speech now known as the Ghadir Sermon (Arabic: خطبة الغدير). He recited numerous verses from the Quran, and reminded the people of their deeds, and warned them about the future. However, he spoke its most well-known sentence when he raised Ali's hand and said, "whomever I am his Mawla, this Ali is his Mawla."[20][21] When Abu Bakr & Umar heard this, they said to Ali: "O son of Abu Talib, you have become the Mawla of every male and every female believer, morning and evening, congratulations."[22][23][24]

On the way back to Medina from Mecca, Muhammad ordered his companions to stop at Ghadir Khum and delivered the following sermon (in brief)

O people, Allah the Most Kind the Omniscient has told me that no apostle lives to more than half the age of him who had preceded him. I think I am about to be called (to die) and thus I must respond. I am responsible and you are responsible, then what do you say?' They said, 'We witness that you have informed, advised and striven. May Allah bless you.' He said, 'Do you not bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Apostle, and that His Heaven is true, His Hell is true, death is true, the Resurrection after death is true, that there is no doubt that the Day of Judgment will come, and that Allah will resurrect the dead from their graves?' They said, 'Yes, we bear witness.' He said, 'O Allah, bear witness.' Then he said, 'O people, Allah is my Lord and I am the lord of the believers. I am worthier of believers than themselves. Of whomsoever I had been Mawla, Ali here is to be his Mawla.[a] O Allah, be a supporter of whoever supports him (Ali) and an enemy of whoever opposes him and divert the Truth to Ali.'

O people, I will go ahead of you and you will arrive at my Pond (in Heaven) which is wider than the distance between Basra and San'a. It has receptacles as numerous as the stars, and two cups of gold and two of silver. I will ask you about the two weighty things that I have left for you when you come to me to see how you dealt with them. The greater weighty thing is Allah's book—the Holy Qur'an. One end is in Allah's hand and the other is in your hands. Keep it and you will not deviate. That other weighty thing is my family (Ahl al-Bayt) and my descendents. The Most Kind the Omniscient had told me that both of them, would not separate until they come to my Pond.

Another similar narration of part of the hadith goes as follows,

O people! Reflect on the Quran and comprehend its verses. Look into its clear verses and do not follow its ambiguous parts, for by Allah, none shall be able to explain to you its warnings and its mysteries, nor shall anyone clarify its interpretation, other than the one that I have grasped his hand, brought up beside myself,(and lifted his arm), the one about whom I inform you that whomever I am his Mawla, this Ali is hisMawla; and he is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother, the executor of my will (Wasiyyi), whose appointment as your guardian and leader has been sent down to me from Allah, the mighty and the majestic.[25]

There are other versions of this hadith that say,

I have left two matters with you. As long as you hold to them, you will not go the wrong way. They are the Book of Allah and the Sunna of His Prophet."

— Malik ibn Anas, Muwatta Imam Malik[26]

I leave for you the Quran alone you shall uphold it.

— Sahih Muslim 15/19, nu 1218; Sunan ibn Majah 25/84, Sunan Abu Dawood 11/56

NarratorsEdit

The event of Ghadir Khumm has been revealed in both Shia and Sunni sources. However, Sunnis disagree with the Shia interpretation of this Hadith. Narrators of the Hadith of Ghadir Khum are many, including:

This Hadith is considered to be Hasan by many scholars, and some consider it Sahih. Furthermore, all Shia Hadith scholars, and some great Sunni scholars, consider this Hadith to be Mutawatir. Shia scholar Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini collected all the references for the event of Ghadir Khum from Sunni sources and issued them together with all other reasons for this event in eleven volumes in of his book Al-Ghadir.[33]

CitationsEdit

The above hadith have been cited in various Sunni sources including:

Interpretation or analysisEdit

The word mawla is significant in the first narration of this hadith, and can refer to a client, patron, friend, partner, ally or numerous other similar relationships.[215] Twenty-seven(27) different meanings are given for the word mawla and hence the exact meaning should be derived from their syntactical and situational contexts.[216]

Unlike the words "Imam, Ameer, Khalifah, Ulil-Amr, Sultan" which are very clear words to describe leader, the word 'Mawla' is more ambiguous.[217][218][citation needed] However, Shias argue that the context of the sermon makes it clear that the word Mawla is meant as leader.[219]

The current knowledge of Muhammad's life is mainly based on sources such as Ibn Hisham, al-Ṭabarī, Ibn Saʿd, etc. that are silent over Muhammad’s stop at Ghadir Khumm. Even when the writers mentioned the event, they said nothing about his speech. Similarly, western biographers of Muhammad make no mention of what happened at Ghadir Khumm. However the account of this event has been recorded by al-Yakubi who is famous for his sympathy for Shiite cause, and it appears in canonical collections as in the Musnad of Ibn Hanbal. Almost all Sunnis scholars accept Muhammad's declaration about Ali being a 'Mawla' at Ghadir Khumm, but they argue that he was simply urging the audience to hold his cousin and son-in-law in high esteem and affection.[18]

AftermathEdit

Oath of allegianceEdit

Only then, Muhammad left the rostrum, and gave the order for the establishment of a tent in which Ali would sit to receive the allegiance oath of Muslims. Thousands of people, group by group, including women, went to him and saluted and congratulated him as Amir al-Mu'minin, commander of the faithful. Umar ibn Al-Khattab was the first to offer congratulations.[3][220][33]

On the completion of Muhammad's sermon, Umar (Umar al-Khattab) said, "Congratulations to you, Ali! This morning has brought you a great blessing. Today you have become the Mawla of all believing men and women." At a later occasion when Umar was asked about his special treatment to Ali as compared to other companions, his reply was, "He is my master."[221][222][223][224] Shi'a Believe that, with Muhammad's approbation he recited verses in honour of Ali. The verse are recorded in Ibn Shahrashoub and affirms that ʿAlī was named as the successor of Muhammad on the day of Ghadir Khum.[18]

Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani, writes in his book, Mawaddat al-Qurba in Mawadda 5, that many companions quoted Umar in different places as having said that Muhammad made Ali the chief and leader of the nation and that Muhammad announced publicly that Ali was their master. Umar was also quoted saying that on the day of that announcement, a handsome youth was sitting besides him and that the youth said to him, "Surely, the Prophet has bound a covenant which none but a hypocrite would break. So Umar! Avoid breaking it." When Umar told Muhammad about the incident, Muhammad said that the youth was not of Adam's (Adem) progeny but was Gabriel (Jibril) and was stressing the point about Ali.

Rashidun CaliphateEdit

After the death of Muhammad, a gathering at Saqifah elected Abu Bakr, rather than Ali, to be the successor of Muhammad as the first Rashidun Caliph. This choice was disputed by some Muslims, who believed that Ali had been appointed as successor. This dispute led to the schism between Sunnis and Shias.

Umayyad CaliphateEdit

After the First Fitnah, during the days of the Umayyad Caliphate, when Muawiyah arrived (in Mecca) during one of his pilgrimages, accordingly, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas came to see him, and they happened to mention Ali. Muawiyah disparaged Ali. As a result, Sa`d became angry and said: "You are speaking of this man! I have heard the Messenger of Allah—peace and salutation of Allah be upon him—declare (On the day of Ghadir): "Of whomsoever I am the Mawla, then Ali is his Mawla." I have (also) heard him say: 'You Ali are to me in position that Harun was to Musa, except that there is no prophet after me (See Hadith of position)." And I have heard him announce: "Today I am indeed going to hand over the banner to a person who loves Allah and his Messenger, and Allah and his Messenger also loves him."[225]

Eid al-GhadeerEdit

Shias celebrate the occasion of Muhammad declaring Ali as a Mawla, on the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah.[18][226] Fasting, doing Ghusl (ritual bath), reciting the Du'a Nudba and giving food to believers is among recommended practice of Eid al-Ghadeer. It is a public holiday in Telangana, India.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Man kunṫu mawlāhu fa-ʿAlī mawlāh (Arabic: مَـن كُـنـت مَـولاه فَـعَـلي مَـولاه‎).[18]

ReferencesEdit

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  5. ^ Al-Suyuti, from Dur al-Manthur, based on the authority of Ibn Asakir, Ibn Mardawayh and Ibn Abi Hatim, who narrated from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri
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  42. ^ Musnad, narrated by Riyah bin al-Harith, from some of the Ansar, vol. 5 p. 419
  43. ^ Musnad, narrated by Riyah bin al-Harith, from some people, vol. 5 p. 419
  44. ^ Musnad, narrated by Sa'id bin Ubayda, from ibn Burayda, from his father, vol. 5 p. 358
  45. ^ Musnad, narrated by Sa'id bin Ubayda from another direction vol. 5 p. 358
  46. ^ Musnad, narrated by Umar bin Maymun, from Ibn Abbas, vol. 1 p. 331
  47. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abu Ubayd, from Ibn Maymun, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 4 p. 372
  48. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abdul-Malik, from Zayd bin Arqam, vol. 4 p. 370
  49. ^ Musnad, narrated by To Atiya, vol. 4 p. 370
  50. ^ Musnad, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from another chain of narrators, vol. 4 p. 281
  51. ^ Musnad, narrated by Al-Bara' bin Aazib from another chain of narrators, vol. 4 p. 282
  52. ^ Musnad, narrated by Abu Maryam and one of Imam Ali's Companions, vol. 1, p. 152
  53. ^ Musnad, narrated by Ibn Abbas, vol. 1 p. 331
  54. ^ Al-Khasa'is, Sa'id bin Wahhab, from five or six persons p. 21
  55. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Sa'id bin Wahhab, from six persons – p. 26 and 40
  56. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Zayd bin Yathigh, from six persons—p. 26
  57. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Amr bin Sa'd, from six persons, Al-Khasa'is, p. 21
  58. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Amr Dhi Mur, to some persons p. 40
  59. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Ibn Abbas bin Burayda, p. 21
  60. ^ Al-Khasa'is, From another direction to Ibn Abbas from Burayda, p. 21
  61. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Sa'id bin Umayr, from ibn Burayda, from his father, p. 21
  62. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Aamir bin Wathila, p. 24
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  64. ^ Al-Khasa'is, narrated by Abu at-Tufayl, from Zayd bin Arqam-Al Khasa'is, p. 21
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  109. ^ The History of Damascus, narrated by Ibn Umar, vol. 2 p. 83
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  111. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Jundu' bin Amr bin Mazin, vol. 1 p. 308
  112. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la bin Murra, vol. 3 p. 233
  113. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu Ayyub, vol. 5 p. 6
  114. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Abu at-Tufeil, from Abu Qudama, vol. 5 p. 276
  115. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la, from Aamir bin Leyla, vol. 3 p. 93
  116. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Ya'la bin Murra, from Yazid or Zayd bin Shuraheel, vol. 2 p. 233
  117. ^ Usud al-Ghabah, narrated by Hudhayfa bin Usayd and Aamir bin Leyla bin Zamra, vol. 3 p. 92
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