The Tenth Planet
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The Tenth Planet is the partly missing second serial of the fourth season in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in four weekly parts from 8 to 29 October 1966. It was William Hartnell's last regular appearance as the First Doctor, and the first story to feature the process later termed regeneration, whereby the lead character, The Doctor, undergoes a transformation into a new physical form. Patrick Troughton makes his first, uncredited appearance as the Second Doctor.
|029 – The Tenth Planet|
|Doctor Who serial|
The Cybermen take over the Snowcap base from General Cutler.
|Directed by||Derek Martinus|
|Written by||Kit Pedler|
Gerry Davis (episodes 3, 4)
|Script editor||Gerry Davis|
|Produced by||Innes Lloyd|
|Incidental music composer||Stock music|
|Length||4 episodes, 25 minutes each|
|Episode(s) missing||1 episode (4)|
|First broadcast||8 October 1966|
|Last broadcast||29 October 1966|
The serial is also notable as the first story to feature the Cybermen, a race of malevolent cyborgs that became a recurring adversary in later Doctor Who stories. The "tenth planet" in the title makes reference to a fictional lost planet in Earth's Solar System; at the time of production, the Solar System was generally held to consist of nine planets, prior to the redesignation of Pluto as a minor planet.
The Tenth Planet is an incomplete Doctor Who serial – one of many serials that were affected by the BBC's policy of wiping archived programmes in the 1960s and 70s. Only three of the four episodes are currently held in the BBC archives; the last episode remains missing, although several short clips, including the regeneration sequence, have been discovered intact. In 2013, The Tenth Planet was released on DVD with a full-length animated reconstruction of its missing footage.
The Doctor and his companions Ben and Polly arrive in the TARDIS at the South Pole in the year 1986. Nearby they find the Snowcap Base, a space tracking station commanded by General Cutler. The base is supervising the mission of the Zeus IV spaceship, running a routine probe on the Earth's atmosphere. The spaceship is drawn off-course by an unknown force, and Snowcap monitoring staff discover a new, unknown planet approaching Earth. Recognising identical landmasses to those of Earth, the Doctor reveals that this is Mondas, the Earth's long-lost twin planet, and that its inhabitants will soon be visiting Earth.
A mysterious spaceship lands in the snow and three robotic creatures emerge. They kill the guards and infiltrate Snowcap Base, where they overpower the humans and take control of the base. They reveal that they are Cybermen, a race once like human beings who have gradually replaced their bodies with mechanical parts and eliminated the "weakness" of emotion from their brains. The Cybermen prevent the base staff from saving the Zeus IV, and it is destroyed by the gravitational pull of Mondas. The emotionless Cybermen state that the lives of the crew are irrelevant to them. The Cybermen explain that Mondas is absorbing energy from Earth and will soon destroy it. They propose to take humans back to Mondas and turn them into Cybermen.
General Cutler, the Snowcap base personnel and the Doctor's companions mount a resistance to the Cybermen, overpowering them and killing them with their own cyberweapons. Cutler plans to destroy Mondas using a Z-bomb, one of a series of powerful nuclear bombs that are placed at strategic points around the world, and contacts Space Command HQ in Geneva. The chief scientist Dr. Barclay expresses concerns that the radiation caused by the exploding planet would cause immense loss of life on Earth, and Ben argues that Mondas might destroy itself anyway when it absorbs too much energy. Meanwhile, the Doctor collapses from exhaustion.
Faced with dissent, Cutler orders Ben to be imprisoned in a cabin with the Doctor. Ben escapes and, together with Barclay, sabotages the Z-bomb rocket. Cutler attempts to fire the Z-bomb, but the engines fail on the launchpad. Cutler threatens to kill Ben, Barclay, and the Doctor, but is interrupted by the sudden arrival of a new squadron of Cybermen who kill Cutler. The Doctor, realising that Mondas is approaching destruction, attempts to mediate with the Cybermen, offering them a home on Earth. The Cybermen take Polly back to their spaceship as a hostage.
As the Cybermen take over Space Command in Geneva, the Doctor realises that their plan is to destroy the Earth with the remaining Z-bombs, thus saving Mondas. The Cybermen order the humans to disarm the Z-bomb and send Ben, Barclay, Haines and Dyson into the bomb chamber. Ben surmises that the reason the Cybermen send humans to do this work is that the Cybermen are highly susceptible to radiation. In a stand-off, the Cybermen take the Doctor as a hostage. Using radioactive rods from the reactor chamber as a weapon against the Cybermen, Ben and the crew regain control of the base. Just as more Cybermen enter the Tracking Room, Mondas explodes. Disconnected from their power source on Mondas, all the remaining Cybermen collapse. Geneva Space Command contacts the base to announce that the Cyberman threat has ended.
Ben rescues the Doctor and Polly from the Cybermen's spaceship. The Doctor seems deeply troubled, and states mysteriously that "it's far from being all over" before abruptly departing alone. Ben and Polly follow the Doctor through the snow and find him inside the TARDIS. The Doctor feebly opens the door from the console room and collapses to the floor. Before the astonished eyes of his companions, he is enveloped in a strange light and transforms into a younger man.
All four episodes of this story feature a specially designed graphics sequence used for the opening titles and closing credits. Designed by Bernard Lodge, they were intended to resemble a computer printout. In the opening credits for the first episode, Kit Pedler is incorrectly identified as "Kitt Pedler". In the opening credits for the third episode, Gerry Davis is incorrectly identified as "Gerry Davies."
William Hartnell did not appear in the third episode. On the Monday before the programme was due to be recorded, he sent a telegram to the production team informing them that he was too ill to work. Gerry Davis rewrote the script to explain the Doctor's absence (his sudden collapse) and gave his dialogue to other characters, most noticeably Ben. This was not as much of an interruption to the episode's production as it would seem, as all four episodes had been written so that Hartnell would have relatively little to do in case of just such an event. The original draft of episode 4 did not feature the Doctor regenerating at the end.
The First Doctor's last words were originally scripted as something similar to "No... no, I simply will not give in!" Time was running short towards the end of production, and director Derek Martinus opted not to record the line, wanting to ensure that the regeneration sequence was recorded as well as possible. As a result, the First Doctor's last words were simply "Ah! Yes. Thank you. That's good, keep warm." The line cut from the script by Martinus suggested that the Doctor was refusing to give in to the regeneration process. In 2017, Doctor Who writer Steven Moffat exploited this idea and created an extended narrative around the Doctor delaying his regeneration for the episode "Twice Upon a Time". The episode uses original footage from The Tenth Planet alongside new scenes with David Bradley replacing William Hartnell, in which the First Doctor meets his future self, the Twelfth Doctor, played by Peter Capaldi.
During the regeneration sequence at the end of the final episode, Patrick Troughton momentarily makes an appearance — uncredited — as the Second Doctor. Although this was William Hartnell's last regular appearance as The Doctor, he would reprise the role of the First Doctor on only one occasion: the tenth anniversary serial The Three Doctors.
The last episode of this serial is missing. It is possibly the most sought-after of the missing episodes, because it contains the historic first regeneration scene (even though a low-quality, truncated copy of this sequence survives and is held in the BBC Archives), and also because it is William Hartnell's final episode. In fact, it is included in a list of the twenty most wanted missing programmes, drawn up by the British National Film Theatre alongside the BBC studio footage from the Apollo 11 landings (which is currently held only in soundtrack form).
Popular myth has it that the only surviving telerecording copy of the fourth episode was lost when loaned out to the children's programme Blue Peter in 1973 when they wished to use a clip from it in a feature on the tenth anniversary of Doctor Who. Although a print of The Daleks' Master Plan Episode 4 ("The Traitors") was loaned to Blue Peter and not returned to the BBC Film Library, there was never a copy of The Tenth Planet Episode 4 there to have been loaned. Another department – BBC Enterprises – was still offering all four episodes for sale to foreign broadcasters until the end of the following year and would not, in any case, have loaned out master negatives.
In 1992, a man named Roger K. Barrett (later revealed to be an alias; it being based on the real name of Syd Barrett) claimed to have a videotape recording of Episode 4 of this story, and offered to sell it to the BBC for £500. Before this was revealed as a hoax, the BBC produced a special introduction for an intended VHS release of the story, hosted by Michael Craze, two versions of which were filmed: one explaining that Episode 4 was still missing, the other introducing the story as if it were complete. A documentary called "Missing in Action", made in 1993 and narrated by Nicholas Courtney, also mentions the hoax.
For the 2013 DVD release, episode 4 was animated by Planet 55 Studios.
Broadcast and receptionEdit
|Episode||Title||Run time||Original air date||UK viewers|
|1||"Episode 1"||23:08||8 October 1966||5.5||16mm t/r|
|2||"Episode 2"||23:15||15 October 1966||6.4||16mm t/r|
|3||"Episode 3"||23:31||22 October 1966||7.6||16mm t/r|
|4||"Episode 4"†||24:02||29 October 1966||7.5||Only stills and/or fragments exist|
In 2009, Patrick Mulkern of Radio Times found the original Cybermen design like "usherettes from some kinky, futuristic moviehouse", but praised the character of Cutler and Hartnell's Doctor. Den of Geek named the cliffhanger of Episode 4 as one of the programme's ten "classic" cliffhangers. Alasdair Wilkins of io9 described it as "a very solid, at times excellent story" and noted "The Cybermen have possibly been more intimidating in other stories, but they have never been creepier than they are here". He named it the fourth best regeneration and regeneration story. DVD Talk's John Sinnott gave the story four and a half out of five stars. He praised Hartnell's performance and the Cybermen. Ian Berriman of SFX was more mixed, giving the serial three out of five stars. He praised the Cybermen and the "palpable tension", but felt that the regeneration was tacked on and not enough background was given to make Mondas believable.
The Cybermen were conceived for The Tenth Planet by scientist and writer Kit Pedler and screenwriter Gerry Davis as a depiction of the ultimate outcome of biomechatronic and prosthesic technology in medical science. The writer John Kenneth Muir has noted that Pedler and Davis had previously written about dystopian scientific themes, and would later collaborate on Doomwatch, a speculative fiction BBC TV drama series. Muir suggests that the concept of the Cybermen may have been the inspiration behind a later popular science-fiction cyborg race, The Borg, which first featured in Star Trek: The Next Generation ("Q Who") in 1989.
The writer Kevin S. Decker has evaluated the role of the Cybermen introduced in The Tenth Planet in terms of the traditions of continental philosophy, and considers that they have been deliberately crafted to by Davis and Pedler to symbolise the Others in opposition to the human race. Decker states that this sense of Otherness is achieved by Pedler's focus on the theme of "dehumanising medicine" by presenting a race of humans who have replaced most of their flesh and organs with cybernetic parts. Decker also observes that The Tenth Planet plot is based on the "base under siege" scenario, a popular science-fiction device that has been reused in many subsequent Doctor Who stories, and that this serves as a metaphor for evil.
Graham Sleight notes that The Tenth Planet was produced at a time when modern medicine was pioneering transplant surgery, lending a sense of topicality to Davis and Pedler's concept for malevolent cyborgs. He also finds contemporary significance with the 1960s rocket programmes, and notes that the multinational makeup of the Antarctic base crew is particularly noteworthy, having no precedence in earlier Doctor Who stories. However, he is disappointed by the overall execution of The Tenth Planet serial, finding the Cybermen "dull, stereotyped villains" and the portrayal of the Antarctic base staff dependent on "national stereotypes".
Introducing the concept of regeneration in The Tenth Planet is noted as a landmark in the show's history, and it has been credited with establishing the longevity of the television series by ensuring the survival of the character of The Doctor.[Note 1] Accounts differ as to the reason for Hartnell's departure from the programme; the actor's poor health is often cited, while other claims state that he was dissatisfied with the increasingly "adult" nature of the programme's scripts. Regardless of Hartnell's reasons to quit, Muir notes that, while Hartnell's departure initially created a serious problem for the production team on a popular show, they took the opportunity to create "an elegant, inspired solution to a casting problem" that has endured in the programme's folklore.
|Cover artist||Chris Achilleos|
|Series||Doctor Who book:|
|19 February 1976|
A novelisation of this serial, written by Gerry Davis, was published by Target Books in February 1976. It was the first Hartnell-era serial novelisation to be commissioned by Target, and the first new adaptation of a Hartnell adventure to be published in nearly ten years.
The novelisation largely follows the original script and so places the action in the year 2000 as well as restoring the Doctor to the third episode. Also, in the first scene in which the Doctor, Ben and Polly appear (in the TARDIS), the Doctor is beginning to show signs of his failing health; sometimes mistakenly addressing Ben and Polly as "Ian" and "Barbara", thereby revealing signs that all is not as it should be. Also, the regeneration of the Doctor occurs in the TARDIS differently. The Doctor uses what appears to be a rejuvenation chamber that assists him in his regeneration.
The story was released on VHS in the UK in 2000 from BBC Video, with the fourth episode reconstructed by the Doctor Who Restoration Team using still photos, existing clips and the surviving audio soundtrack. This release was a double-tape set entitled "Doctor Who: The Cybermen Box Set: The Tenth Planet and Attack of the Cybermen". In the U.S. and Canada both stories were released individually in 2001. The existing clips from the missing final episode – 8 mm film recordings made by fans and a 16mm film clip of the regeneration (from a 1973 edition of Blue Peter) – were included in the DVD release Lost in Time in 2004. The only surviving clip of the regeneration was also released as a special feature on the DVD releases for The Three Doctors and Castrovalva.
The story was released on DVD on 14 October 2013, with the missing fourth episode animated along with additional extra features including the original reconstruction of episode four from the 2000 VHS Release included as an extra and a special "Frozen Out" documentary on the making of the story.
The soundtracks for The Tenth Planet and The Invasion, put together from fan-made recordings, along with a bonus disc, The Origins of the Cybermen, an audio essay by Cyberman actor David Banks, were released on CD in a collector's tin called Doctor Who: Cybermen.
|Dr Who – Music from the Tenth Planet|
|Doctor Who soundtrack chronology|
A CD of stock music used in this serial was released in 2000. It was mastered from 1960s vinyl records rather than original archive tapes, resulting in reduced dynamic range with crackle and rumble present throughout. The release contains numerous cues that were never actually used in the story and is missing one track that was.
|Track #||Composer||Track name|
|1||Roger Roger||"Blast Off!"[a]|
|2||Walter Stott||"Music for Technology"[b]|
|3||Douglas Gamley||"Power Drill"|
|4||Martin Slavin||"Space Adventure Part 1"[c]|
|5||"Space Adventure Part 2"|
|6||"Space Adventure Part 3"|
|7||Dennis Farnon[d]||"Drama in Miniature Part 1"[e]|
|8||"Drama in Miniature Part 2"[f]|
|9||Douglas Gamley||"Machine Room"|
|10||Robert Farnon||"Drumdramatics 7"[g]|
- This track is listed on the PasB for part one but does not appear in the completed episode.
- The full title of this track, as given on the original Chappell library discs (C.741 and LPC 740–745), is Music for Technology Part 1.
- This opening section of Space Adventure does not appear in The Tenth Planet or any other Doctor Who story.
- On the original Chappell releases of these tracks (C.736 and LPC 735–739), Dennis Farnon is credited pseudonymously as "John Denis".
- According to the original Chappell releases, this is actually Drama in Miniature Part 2-1 and its correct title is Time For the Reaper.
- According to the original Chappell releases, this is actually Drama in Miniature Part 2-2 and its correct title is Chase the Man Down. This cue does not appear in The Tenth Planet.
- This track consists of seven brief percussion stings, only the first of which is actually used in The Tenth Planet. This cue was described on Chappell's LP release of the track (LPC 781–785) as "Vibes and tymps: crash".
- This track consists of five brief sections, none of which appear in The Tenth Planet. This is down to a typo on the PasB for part three which erroneously lists Drumdramatics 10 instead of Drumdramatics 6. (Drumdramatics 6 was actually to be found on the a-side of the same disc that Drumdramatics 7 had come from – C.785.) The cue actually used in the episode is the fifth and final part of Drumdramatics 6 and plays over the film sequence of General Cutler as he stops Ben sabotaging the Z-Bomb. This track was described on Chappell's LP release of the track as "Xylophone gathering speed, ending with drum crash and vibes chord". The cue is missing from this CD.
- Guerrier, Simon; Kukula, Dr Marek (2015). The Scientific Secrets of Doctor Who. Random House. ISBN 9781448142972. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Classic Doctor Who to be animated for DVD release". Doctor Who. 16 February 2013. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
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- "Original Tenth Planet Script Found". Doctor Who News. 9 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
- Dillon-Trenchard, Peter (25 December 2017). "Doctor Who: geeky spots & references in Twice Upon A Time". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Martin, Daniel (25 December 2017). "Doctor Who Christmas special 2017: Twice Upon a Time". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Lister, David (8 October 1998). "TV's classic shows are missing". The Independent. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- "Doctor Who: The Tenth Planet". Planet 55.
- "Ratings Guide". Doctor Who News. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- Shaun Lyon; et al. (31 March 2007). "The Tenth Planet". Outpost Gallifrey. Archived from the original on 31 March 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2008.
- Mulkern, Patrick (14 April 2009). "Doctor Who: The Tenth Planet". Radio Times. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "10 classic Doctor Who cliffhangers". Den of Geek. 2 June 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Wilkins, Alasdair (1 January 2010). "Ranking The Regnerations Of Doctor Who". io9. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- Sinnott, John (22 November 2013). "Doctor Who: The Tenth Planet". DVD Talk. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Berriman, Ian (17 October 2013). "Doctor Who: The Tenth Planet Review". SFX. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- Muir, John Kenneth (2007). "29. The Tenth Planet". A Critical History of Doctor Who on Television. McFarland. pp. 131–3. ISBN 9781476604541. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- Decker, Kevin S. (2013). Who is Who?: The Philosophy of Doctor Who. I.B.Tauris. pp. 80–82. ISBN 9781780765532. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- Sleight, Graham (2012). The Doctor's Monsters: Meanings of the Monstrous in Doctor Who. I.B.Tauris. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781848851788. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- Leach, Jim (2009). Doctor Who. Wayne State University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0814335616. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Doctor Who: The Tenth Planet (DVD)". Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- "CLASSIC DOCTOR WHO TO BE ANIMATED FOR DVD RELEASE". Doctor Who. BBC. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Australian fans preview animated the tenth planet". Doctor Who News. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "Regenerations". Amazon UK.
- Dr Who – Music from the Tenth Planet (CD Booklet). Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Ochre Records. 2000. OCH050.
- "The Space Adventure Releases". Doctor Who Stock Music.
- "Roger Roger And His Orchestra – Chappell Recorded Music". Discogs.
- "Various – Chappell Recorded Music". Discogs.
- "Various – Chappell Recorded Music". Discogs.
- "Doctor Who : The Tenth Planet : BBC" (PDF). BBc.co.uk. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
- "Percussion Ensemble – Drumdramatics No. 6 / No. 7". Discogs.