The Ring (franchise)

Ring (Japanese: リング, romanizedRingu), also known as The Ring, is a Japanese media franchise, that was later adapted for English speakers, based on the novel series of the same name written by Koji Suzuki. The franchise includes eight Japanese films, two television series, six manga adaptations, three English-language film remakes, a Korean film remake, and two video games; The Ring: Terror's Realm and Ring: Infinity.

Ring
Ring (film franchise logo).png
Created byKoji Suzuki
Original workRing (1991)
Print publications
Novel(s)
Comics
  • Ring (1996)
  • Ring – Volume 1 (1999)
  • Ring – Volume 2 (1999)
  • Ring 2 (1999)
  • Spiral (1999)
  • Birthday (1999)
  • Ring 0: Birthday (2000)
Films and television
Film(s)
Short film(s)Rings (2005)
Television series
Games
Video game(s)
Audio
Radio program(s)
  • Ring (1996)
  • Birthday (2000)
  • Ring (2015)
Soundtrack(s)
  • Ring (1998)
  • Rasen (1998)
  • Ring 2 (1999)
  • Ring: The Final Chapter (1999)
  • The Ring Virus (1999)
  • Spiral (1999)
  • Ring 0: Birthday (2000)
  • The Ring (2002)
  • The Ring Two (2005)
  • Rings (2017)

The films revolve around a cursed videotape that kills anyone who watches it seven days later. The videotape was created by a psychic, Sadako Yamamura, who was murdered by her adoptive father and thrown into a well. After her supposed death, she returned as a ghostly serial killer, killing anyone who fails to copy and then send the videotape to someone else under a seven-day deadline (constricted to a two-day deadline in Sadako vs. Kayako).

Japanese mediaEdit

NovelsEdit

The franchise began with Koji Suzuki's 1991 novel Ring. It was the first of a trilogy, with two sequels: Spiral (1995) and Loop (1998).[1] Several later novels based on Ring were released: Birthday (1999) [which contains a prequel to Ring, an epilogue to Loop, and details what happened to a key character in Spiral], S (2012), and Tide (2013).

FilmsEdit

In 1998, Hideo Nakata made a new Japanese adaptation of the book in his film Ring, initiating the franchise. The original sequel to this was Rasen, an adaptation of Spiral (Suzuki's sequel to his first Ring book). However, due to poor reception, a new sequel, Ring 2, was released in 1999 which continued the storyline of Ring, but was not based on Suzuki's books. This was followed by a 2000 prequel, Ring 0: Birthday, which was based on the short story "Lemon Heart" from Suzuki's 1999 book, Birthday. These films delved into a uniquely different mythos surrounding Sadako Yamamura and the cursed videotape. These changes led the franchise to attain a cult status, both domestically and internationally, popularizing the Japanese horror genre as a whole and the stringy black-haired yūrei trope.

In 2012, Sadako 3D was released, adapted from Suzuki's book S, and in 2013 Sadako 3D 2 was released, continuing the timeline of Spiral.

Sadako was released on May 24, 2019, with Hideo Nakata returning as director. This marks the first entry in his timeline since Ring 2, 20 years prior.

Hideo Nakata Timeline Rasen Timeline
Ring 0: Birthday (2000)
Ring (1998)
Ring 2 (1999) Rasen (a.k.a. Spiral, 1998)
Sadako (2019) Sadako 3D (2012)
Sadako 3D 2 (2013)

TelevisionEdit

The first adaption of Ring was the Japanese television film Ring (titled Ring: Kanzenban for home video release), released in 1995. This remained the closest to the book but didn't have the success and recognition of the later films.

Ring: The Final Chapter is a 12 episode self-contained miniseries that aired in 1999, and is loosely based on the original Ring novel. It is not connected to the films or the previous television adaptation.

In the same year, a sequel television miniseries titled Rasen was made, consisting of 13 episodes.

Crossover filmEdit

In 2016, Sadako vs. Kayako, directed by Kōji Shiraishi, was released, a crossover of the Ju-on series of horror films, though not canon to either timeline, as the deadline for the video tape is 2 days instead of 7. It features Sadakaya, a ghost that resulted from the fusion of Sadako and the Ju-on antagonist Kayako Saeki.

MangaEdit

Several manga series have been published by Kadokawa Shoten based on the films. The second manga adaptation is a two-volume series based on the first novel. The manga was written Hiroshi Takahashi and illustrated by Misao Inagaki. Both volumes were released on January 21, 1999.[2][3] Dark Horse Comics compiled the first two volumes and released an english-language version on November 12, 2003.[4]

The third adaptation, was written by Hiroshi Takahashi and illustrated by Meimu, was released on February 3, 1999.[5] Dark Horse Comics released it on May 19, 2004 as the second volume of the Ring manga series.[6]

The fourth adaptation, titled Spiral (らせん, Rasen), is based on the novel and film of the same name. The manga was written by Koji Suzuki, illustrated by Sakura Mizuki, and released on September 10, 1999.[7] Dark Horse released it on August 18, 2004 as volume 3 of the Ring manga series.[8]

The fifth adaptation, titled Birthday (バースデイ, Bāsudei), is based on the novel and film of the same name. The manga was written by Hiroshi Takahashi, illustrated by Meimu and released on December 22, 1999.[9] Dark Horse Comics released it on November 3, 2004 as volume 4 of the Ring manga series.[10]

The sixth, named "Ring 0", was also written by Hiroshi Takahashi and illustrated by Meimu, and released on January 28, 2000.[11] Dark Horse Comics released it on March 30, 2005 as "Volume 0" of the Ring manga series.[12]

Korean remakeEdit

The Ring Virus was the first remake to be made, in 1999, where the killer is renamed as Park Eun-suh, who is a hermaphrodite, unlike the biologically female Sadako in the films. Though the film copied multiple scenes from Ring, it is, like Ring: Kanzenban, very faithful to the original novel series.

American filmsEdit

In 2002, an English-language remake was made, titled The Ring, where the killer is renamed as Samara Morgan, who is a preteen instead of an adolescent woman. The Ring was one of the highest-grossing horror remakes, its box office gross surpassing that of Ring. Two sequels were made, including a short film.

The Ring (2002)Edit

Journalist Rachel Keller investigates a videotape that may have killed four teenagers (including her niece). There is an urban legend about this tape: the viewer will die seven days after watching it. If the legend is correct, Rachel would have to run against time to save her son's and her own.

Rings (2005 short film)Edit

Jake Pierce, a young teenager, watches a cursed video tape after joining a teen cult named "Rings".

The Ring Two (2005)Edit

High school student Jake Pierce tries to make his girlfriend Emily watch the cursed videotape. After discovering that Emily covered her eyes and didn't watch the tape, he is killed by Samara Morgan from the first film. Rachel Keller learns of Jake's death and realizes she has to save her son Aidan from Samara.

Rings (2017 feature film)Edit

Julia becomes worried about her boyfriend when he explores a dark subculture surrounding a mysterious videotape said to kill the watcher seven days after he has viewing the tape. She sacrifices herself to save her boyfriend and hence makes a horrifying discovery: there is a "movie within the movie" that no one has ever seen before.

FutureEdit

In September 2019, The Grudge director Nicolas Pesce expressed interest in a crossover film between The Grudge and the English-language The Ring film series.[13]

Japanese cast and crewEdit

CastEdit

Key
  • A Y indicates the actor portrayed the role of a younger version of the character.
  • A V indicates the actor or actress lent only his or her voice for his or her film character.
  • A P indicates the actor or actress portrayed their film character as possessed by another.
  • An A indicates an appearance through archival footage.
  • A C indicates a cameo appearance.
  • A dark gray cell indicates the character was not in the film.

Hideo Nakata Timeline (1998–2019)Edit

Character Ring 0: Birthday Ring Ring 2 Sadako
2000 1998 1999 2019
Sadako Yamamura
mysterious girl
Yukie Nakama Rie Inō Rie Inō
Mebuki TsuchidaY
Himeka Himejima
Shizuko Yamamura Masako
Takashi Yamamura Mahito Ohba Yoichi Numata  
Dr. Heihachiro Ikuma Daisuke Ban  
Masami Kurahashi   Hitomi Satō
Reiko Asakawa   Nanako Matsushima  
Ryuji Takayama   Hiroyuki Sanada  
Yoichi Asakawa   Rikiya Otaka  
Mai Takano   Miki Nakatani  
Hiroshi Toyama Seiichi Tanabe  
Etsuko Tachihara Kumiko Asō  
Yusaku Shigemori Takeshi Wakamatsu  
Wataru Kuno Ryushi Mizukami  
Aiko Hazuki Kaoru Okunuki  
Togashi Yasuji Kimura  
Mrs. Sudo Kazue Tsunogae  
Kaoru Arima Atsuko Takahata  
Akiko Miyaji Yoshiko Tanaka  
Tomoko Ōishi   Yūko Takeuchi  
Yoshino   Yutaka Matsushige  
Kōichi Asakawa   Katsumi Muramatsu  
Kanae Sawaguchi   Kyoko Fukada  
Okazaki   Yūrei Yanagi  
Ishi Kawajiri   Fumiyo Kohinata  
Detective Keiji Omuta   Kenjirō Ishimaru  
Mayu Akikawa   Elaiza Ikeda
Yusuke Ishida   Takashi Tsukamoto
Kazuma Akikawa   Hiroya Shimizu
Minoru Fujii   Ren Kiriyama
Hatsuko Sobue   Rie Tomosaka

Rasen Timeline (1998–2013)Edit

Character Ring 0: Birthday Ring Spiral Sadako 3D Sadako 3D 2
2000 1998 2012 2013
Sadako Yamamura Yukie Nakama Rie Inō Hinako Saeki
Miki NakataniP
Ai Hashimoto Satomi IshiharaP
Shizuko Yamamura Masako  
Dr. Heihachiro Ikuma Daisuke Ban  
Takashi Yamamura Mahito Ohba Yoichi Numata  
Ryuji Takayama   Hiroyuki Sanada  
Mai Takano   Miki Nakatani  
Reiko Asakawa   Nanako Matsushima Mentioned  
Yoichi Asakawa   Rikiya Otaka  
Takanori Ando   Ryûichi SugaharaY Koji Seto
Detective Kirokui Nakamura   Tsutomu Takahashi  
Akane Ayukawa   Satomi Ishihara
Yuna TairaY
Satomi Ishihara
Seiji Kashiwada   Yusuke Yamamoto
Detective Yugo Koiso   Ryosei Tayama
Hiroshi Toyama Seiichi Tanabe  
Etsuko Tachihara Kumiko Asō  
Yusaku Shigemori Takeshi Wakamatsu  
Wataru Kuno Ryushi Mizukami  
Aiko Hazuki Kaoru Okunuki  
Togashi Yasuji Kimura  
Mrs. Sudo Kazue Tsunogae  
Kaoru Arima Atsuko Takahata  
Akiko Miyaji Yoshiko Tanaka  
Masami Kurahashi   Hitomi Satō  
Tomoko Ōishi   Yūko Takeuchi  
Yoshino   Yutaka Matsushige  
Kōichi Asakawa   Katsumi Muramatsu  
Mitsuo Ando   Koichi Sato  
Miyashita   Shingo Tsurumi  
Maekawa Keibuho   Shigemitsu Ogi  
Yoshino   Yutaka Matsushige  
Kobayashi   Naoaki Manabe  
Funakoshi   Naoto Adachi  
Rieko Ando   Eri Kakurai  
Junsa Bucho   Masanobu Yada  
Kansatsui Joshu   Ryûma Uchida  
Shashin Gakari   Kozo Sato  
Department Store Manager   Kôji SuzukiC  
Risa Kitayama   Hikari Takara  
Enoki   Shota Sometani  
Noriko Morisaki   Yoko Kita  
Fuko Ando   Miori Takimoto
Fumika Kamimura   Itsumi Osawa
Nagi Ando   Kokoro Hirasawa
Mitsugi Kakiuchi   Takeshi Onishi

CrewEdit

American cast and crewEdit

CastEdit

Key
  • A Y indicates the actor portrayed the role of a younger version of the character.
  • A V indicates the actor or actress lent only his or her voice for his or her film character.
  • A P indicates the actor or actress portrayed their film character as possessed by another.
  • An A indicates an appearance through archival footage.
  • A C indicates a cameo appearance.
  • A dark gray cell indicates the character was not in the film.
Characters Main films Short film
The Ring The Ring Two Rings Rings
2002 2005 2017 2005
Samara Morgan Daveigh Chase Daveigh ChaseA Kelly Stables
David DorfmanP Bonnie Morgan
Kelly Stables Kelly Stables Zoe PessinV
Matilda LutzP
Caitlin MavromatesY Caitlin MavromatesA
Anna Morgan Shannon Cochran Shannon CochranA
Rachel Keller Naomi Watts   Mentioned
Aidan Keller David Dorfman  
Noah Clay Martin Henderson  
Richard Morgan Brian Cox  
Ruth Embry Lindsay Frost  
Katherine "Katie" Embry Amber Tamblyn  
Rebecca "Becca" Kotler Rachael Bella  
Evelyn Borden (née Osorio)   Sissy Spacek
Mary Elizabeth WinsteadY
Kayli Carter
Mary Elizabeth WinsteadA
 
Jake Pierce   Ryan Merriman   Ryan Merriman
Emily   Emily VanCamp   Emily VanCamp
Eddie   Justin AllenVC   Justin Allen
Max Rourke   Simon Baker  
Dr. Emma Temple   Elizabeth Perkins  
Galen Burke   Mentioned Vincent D'Onofrio  
Julia   Matilda Lutz  
Holt Anthony   Alex Roe  
Gabriel Brown   Johnny Galecki  
Skye Johnston   Aimee Teegarden  
Carter   Zach Roerig  
Faith   Laura Slade Wiggins  
Kelly   Lizzie Brocheré  
Vanessa   Alexandra Breckenridge
Timothy "Tim" Rivers   Josh Wise

CrewEdit

Crew/Detail Main films Short film
The Ring The Ring Two Rings Rings
2002 2005 2017 2005
Director Gore Verbinski Hideo Nakata F. Javier Gutiérrez Jonathan Liebesman
Producer(s) Walter F. Parkes
Laurie MacDonald
Jeanette Volturno
Arnon Manor
Writer(s) Screenplay by
Ehren Kruger
Based on
Ring
by Koji Suzuki
Ehren Kruger Screenplay by
David Loucka
Jacob Aaron Estes
Akiva Goldsman
Story by
David Loucka
Jacob Aaron Estes
Based on
Spiral
by Koji Suzuki
Screenplay by
Ehren Kruger
Story by
Jonathan Liebesman
Composer Hans Zimmer Henning Lohner
Martin Tillman
Matthew Margeson Hans Zimmer
Director of photography Bojan Bazelli Gabriel Beristain Sharone Meir Lukas Ettlin
Editor(s) Craig Wood Michael N. Knue Jeremiah O'Driscoll
Steve Mirkovich
Sheila Moreland
Production companies BenderSpink
Parkes/MacDonald Productions
Parkes/MacDonald + Imagenatation
Vertigo Entertainment
BenderSpink
Parkes/MacDonald Productions
Distributor DreamWorks Pictures Paramount Pictures DreamWorks Pictures
Release date October 18, 2002 March 18, 2005 February 3, 2017 March 8, 2005
Running time 115 minutes 110 minutes 102 minutes 17 minutes

ReceptionEdit

The original 1991 novel Ring sold 500,000 copies by January 1998, and 1.5 million copies by July 2000.[1]

Box office performanceEdit

Japanese films
Film Release date Box office gross Budget
Japan South Korea Other territories
Ring January 31, 1998 ¥1,700,000,000[14] ₩341,970,000[15][16] $6,261,738[a] $1.5 million[1]
Rasen (Spiral) January 31, 1998 ¥1,700,000,000[14] ₩25,482,000[23][24] N/A ?
Ring 2 January 23, 1999 ¥3,570,000,000[14] ₩771,180,000[23][24] $117,493[25][19][20]
Ring 0: Birthday January 22, 2000 ¥1,600,000,000[26] ₩40,642,000[23][27] N/A
Sadako 3D May 12, 2012 ¥1,350,000,000[28] ₩1,128,635,032[23] $3,486,438[b]
Sadako 3D 2 August 30, 2013 ¥688,494,993[31] ₩92,668,200[23] $1,375,682[32]
Sadako vs. Kayako June 18, 2016 ¥1,000,000,000[33] ₩202,716,000[23] $704,922[34]
Sadako May 24, 2019 ¥164,000,000[35] N/A N/A
Regional total ¥11,772,494,993 ($142,079,440) ₩2,603,293,232 ($2,367,292) $11,946,273 $1.5 million+
Worldwide total $156,495,481
American films
Film Release date Box office gross Budget Reference
North America Other territories Worldwide
The Ring October 18, 2002 $129,128,133 $120,220,800 $249,348,933 $48 million [36]
The Ring Two March 18, 2005 $76,231,249 $87,764,700 $163,995,949 $50 million [37]
Rings February 3, 2017 $27,793,018 $55,287,872 $83,080,890 $25 million [38]
Total $233,152,400 $263,273,372 $496,425,772 $123 million [39]
South Korean film
Film Release date Box office gross (South Korea) Budget
The Ring Virus June 12, 1999 ₩1,994,124,000[23][16] ($1,689,326)[20] ?
Total
Japanese films American films South Korean film Box office total
$156,495,481 $496,425,772 $1,689,326 $654,610,579

Critical and audience responseEdit

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic CinemaScore
Ring 97% (38 reviews)[40] N/A N/A
Ring 2 0% (13 reviews)[41] N/A N/A
The Ring 71% (206 reviews)[42] 57 (36 reviews)[43] B−[44]
The Ring Two 20% (189 reviews)[45] 44 (37 reviews)[46] C+[47]
Sadako vs. Kayako 48% (21 reviews)[48] N/A N/A
Rings 8% (111 reviews)[49] 25 (23 reviews)[50] C−[51]
Sadako 22% (23 reviews)[52] N/A N/A

In his review of Sadako (2019), the film critic and psychoanalyst Pieter-Jan Van Haecke remarked that while Sadako does not work as a horror movie, the atmospheric tension that marks the films turn the film into an enjoyable experience.

Unofficial filmsEdit

In 2015, Hikiko-san vs Sadako (or simply Hikiko vs Sadako), directed by Nagaoka Hisaaki was released. While the DVD cover features a character resembling Sadako emerging from a well, the character in the film is named Sadako Takamura.[53]

In 2016 and 2017, Bunshinsaba vs Sadako and Bunshinsaba vs Sadako 2, both directed by River Huang, a crossover with the Bunshinsaba film series, were released. A third film, Bunshinsaba vs Sadako 3, is currently scheduled to be released in late 2020.

The Return of Sadako[c], released in 2018, was the first stand-alone Chinese Ring film to be made following the crossover film Bunshinaba vs. Sadako in 2016; produced by Scarecrow Pictures, the film's killers renamed as sisters Sadako and Kawako, who flee to China alongside their father after the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, before turning against one another for the love of a Japanese boy; years later a projector is discovered in their house with their souls imprinted upon it. Though the film was marketed as an unofficial sequel to Sadako 3D 2, it is in-fact a remake.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Ring (1998) overseas box office:
    • Chile and United Kingdom – $59,001[17]
    • France – €506,160[18][19] ($452,737)[20]
    • Hong Kong – HK$31.2 million (US$4.03 million)[21]
    • Taiwan – NT$50.83 million[22] (US$1.72 million)
  2. ^ Sadako 3D (2012) overseas box office:
    • Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan – US$2,263,295[29]
    • Russia, Thailand – $1,223,143[30]
  3. ^ 贞子归来

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "The "Ring" Master: Interview With Hideo Nakata". Offscreen. July 21, 2000. Archived from the original on February 10, 2001. Retrieved February 10, 2001.
  2. ^ "リング 上巻" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  3. ^ "リング 下巻" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  4. ^ "Ring Volume 1 TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  5. ^ "リング 2" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  6. ^ "Ring Volume 2 TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  7. ^ "らせん" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  8. ^ "Ring Volume 3: Spiral TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  9. ^ "バースデイ" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  10. ^ "Ring Volume 4; Birthday TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  11. ^ "リング0" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Shoten. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  12. ^ "Ring Volume 0 TPB". Dark Horse Comics. Retrieved June 4, 2014.
  13. ^ https://bloody-disgusting.com/news/3584775/nicolas-pesce-confirms-new-grudge-canonical-2004-version-exclusive/
  14. ^ a b c "邦画興行収入ランキング". SF MOVIE DataBank. General Works. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  15. ^ "영화정보". KOFIC. Korean Film Council. Retrieved February 1, 2019. The Ring
  16. ^ a b Park, Seung Hyun (2000). "Average Ticket Prices in Korea, 1974–1997". A Cultural Interpretation of Korean Cinema, 1988–1997. Indiana University. p. 119. 1997 [...] Foreign [...] 6,000
  17. ^ "Ringu". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 9, 2020.
  18. ^ "Ring (1998)". JP's Box Office. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  19. ^ a b "Dissemination of European cinema in the European Union and the international market" (PDF). Jacques Delors Institute. UniFrance. November 2014. p. 28. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  20. ^ a b c "Official exchange rate (LCU per US$, period average)". World Bank. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  21. ^ Ma, Kevin. "Doraemon sets box office record in Hong Kong". Film Business Asia. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  22. ^ "破鬼后貞子17年紀錄 《你的名字》稱霸台北日片票房 – 自由娛樂". Liberty Times. November 4, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g "영화정보". KOFIC. Korean Film Council. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  24. ^ a b "Korean Film Newsletter #7". KoreanFilm.org. August 7, 2000. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  25. ^ "Ring 2 (1999)". JP's Box-Office. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  26. ^ "2000年(平成12年)興収10億円以上番組" (PDF). Eiren (in Japanese). Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  27. ^ "Screen Industry Snapshot Korea". Austrade. Government of Australia. September 26, 2017. p. 49. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
  28. ^ "2012". Eiren. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  29. ^ "Sadako 3D (2012) - International". The Numbers. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  30. ^ "Sadako 3D (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  31. ^ "Japanese Box Office, September 28–29". Anime News Network. October 6, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2013.
  32. ^ "Sadako 2 3D". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  33. ^ "2016". Eiren. Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  34. ^ "Sadako vs. Kayako". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  35. ^ Komatsu, Mikikazu (May 28, 2019). "Japan Box Office: Aircraft Carrier Ibuki Debuts at 2nd with Modest 246 Million Yen". Crunchyroll. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  36. ^ "The Ring". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  37. ^ "The Ring Two". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  38. ^ "Rings". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  39. ^ "The Ring series". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  40. ^ "Ringu (Ring) (1998)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  41. ^ "Ringu 2 (Ring 2) (2005)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  42. ^ "The Ring". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved July 29, 2014.
  43. ^ "The Ring". Metacritic. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
  44. ^ "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  45. ^ "The Ring Two". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  46. ^ "The Ring Two Reviews, Ratings, Credits". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  47. ^ "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  48. ^ "Sadako Vs Kayako (2016)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  49. ^ "Rings (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  50. ^ "Rings reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved February 10, 2017.
  51. ^ "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  52. ^ "Sadako (2019)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
  53. ^ ひきこさん VS 貞子 [Hikiko-san VS Sadako] (DVD) (in Japanese). Interfilm. そして今回登場するのは、“御加美千鶴子”“長瀬郁子”そして“高村貞子”。