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The Quality of Nationality Index (QNI) ranks the quality of nationalities based on internal and external factors.[1] Each nationality receives an aggregated score based on their economic strength, human development, ease of travel, political stability and overseas employment opportunities for their citizens. The data is collected from various sources with quantifiable data.[2] The QNI was created by Dimitry Kochenov, an expert in citizenship, nationality and immigration law and constitutional law of the European Union at the University of Groningen and Christian Kälin, chairman of Henley & Partners.

The Quality of Nationality Index
Quality of Nationality Index logo.jpg
The Quality of Nationality Index Logo 2017
AuthorDr. Christian H. Kälin & Prof. Dr. Dimitry Kochenov
LanguageEnglish
Release number
2017
PublisherHenley & Partners
Websitehttps://www.nationalityindex.com/

SignificanceEdit

The phenomenon of being a native of any country has also been described as ‘a birthright lottery’ by Professor of Law, Political Science, and Global Affairs Ayelet Shachar at the University of Toronto.[3] At the same time, the QNI shows that nationalities diverge greatly in their practical value which often does not run parallel with the characteristics of the countries with which nationalities are associated, such as the economic power or the level of human development of the countries. Applying the methodology of the QNI, some economically strong countries have relatively unattractive nationalities. For example, the nationality of India shares the 106th place with the nationality of Senegal (2017 data). By contrast, some small countries have nationalities of larger value, such as those of Lithuania and Romania, which are ranked 22nd and 25th respectively in the QNI 2017.

The QNI is frequently cited in media such as Forbes, Bloomberg, The Enquirer and Business Standard.[4][5][6][7]

 
QNI World Map

MethodologyEdit

The QNI takes a quantitative approach to determine the value of a nationality based on seven parameters, comprising both internal value (40%) and external value (60%). Three parameters reflect the internal value of a nationality: human development (15%), economic strength (15%), and peace and stability (10%). Four parameters reflect the external value of a nationality: diversity of travel freedom (15%), weight of travel freedom (15%), diversity of settlement freedom (15%), and weight of settlement freedom (15%).[8]

Virtually all nationalities of the world as well as EU citizenship are included in the ranking. Not included are fantasy passports and nationalities of non-recognized states such as Abkhazia, South-Ossetia, and Somaliland.[9] All nationalities receive a score from 0% to 100%.[10]

 
Weighted distribution of factors to calculate the QNI score

Internal parameters and sourcesEdit

The data is aggregated from various objective sources. The internal factors present the quality of life and opportunities for personal growth within the country of origin of the holder of nationality.[11]

Human DevelopmentEdit

Human Development is measured using the United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index (Human Development Index). The HDI was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and Indian economist Amartya Sen which was further used to measure the country's development by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). The index is based on the human development approach, developed by Ul Haq, often framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, sheltered, healthy; Doings: work, education, voting, participating in community life. Consequently, this index centres on three different human development areas: life expectancy at birth, expected years of education, and standard of living.

The QNI normalizes the HDI scores of the countries with which a particular nationality is associated to a 0-15% scale. The nationality of the highest-scoring country on the HDI gets the full 15% score, with the other nationalities being ranked proportionately.[12][13]

Economic StrengthEdit

Economic Strength of a nationality is based on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) of the country with which the nationality is associated. It is calculated from the data that is provided by the International Monetary Fund. If there is no reliable Purchasing Power Parity data available, non-PPP data from the World Bank [14] are used.[15] GDP at PPP scores are normalized to a 0-15% scale, the largest economy receiving the full 15% score.

Peace and StabilityEdit

Peace and Stability are calculated using data by the annual Global Peace Index (GPI). The index is published by the Institute for Economics and Peace.[16] Peace and Stability accounts for 10% of the total QNI General Ranking scale. Also here the nationality which is associated with the most peaceful country receives the full 10%. The other nationalities are ranked proportionately on the basis of the ranking scale used by the GPI.[17]

External parameters and sourcesEdit

External factors identify the quality of opportunities and diversity the holder of a nationality can pursue outside the country of origin.[18]

Diversity of Travel FreedomEdit

Diversity of Travel Freedom is based on how many destinations the holder of a particular nationality can visit without a visa or with a visa-on-arrival [19] for short-term tourist or business purposes. The data is sourced from the International Air Transport Association IATA. The diversity of Travel Freedom accounts for 15% of the total QNI General Ranking scale.

Weight of Travel FreedomEdit

Weight of Travel Freedom evaluates the quality of the travel freedom the holder of a nationality has without a visa or with a visa-on-arrival for short term visits. Unlike Diversity of Travel Freedom, which looks only at the number of destinations, Weight of Travel Freedom looks at the value of having visa-free or visa-on-arrival travel access to a particular country. This value is based on the Human Development (50%) and Economic Strength (50%) of each country destination.[20] This is based on the presumption that for most people, having visa-free access to the United States of America is of higher value than having visa-free access to Sudan, for example. Weight of Travel Freedom accounts for 15% of the total QNI General Ranking scale.[21]

Diversity of Settlement FreedomEdit

Diversity of Settlement Freedom is based on the number of foreign countries in which the holder of a nationality can freely settle for at least 360 days with automatic access to work there.[22] Diversity of Settlement Freedom accounts for 15% of the total QNI General Ranking scale. The most advanced example of a regional organization which allows nationals of its Member States to freely settle in each of the other Member States is the European Union. However, similar regional organizations which include free settlement among Member States are MERCOSUR, the Gulf Cooperation Council, and Economic Community of Western African States. Outside such regional organizations, Georgia is the only country that allows almost all foreigners to freely settle and work in its country.[23] If there is a ‘Hard Brexit’, British citizens may lose their settlement and working rights to more than 30 of the world's leading countries, seriously affecting the quality of the British nationality.[24][25]

Weight of Settlement FreedomEdit

Weight of Settlement Freedom evaluates the quality of the settlement freedom of the holder of a nationality. It does so by looking at the Human Development (50%) and Economic Strength (50%) of the countries to which the nationality holder has settlement access. Weight of Settlement Freedom accounts for 15% of the total QNI General Ranking scale.

As of 2017, France's quality of nationality is ranked the best in the world, according to the latest edition of the Quality of Nationality Index (QNI).[26][27] The French nationality earned a score of 81.7% out of a possible 100%, fractionally ahead of Germany.[28] While the difference between France's and Germany's results is relatively small, France's comparative advantage lies in its greater settlement freedom (attributable mainly to the country's former colonial empire[29]).

ResultsEdit

France's quality of nationality is ranked the best in the world, according to the latest edition of the Quality of Nationality Index (2017 data).[30] The French nationality earned a score of 81.7% out of a possible 100%, fractionally ahead of Germany. While the difference between France's and Germany's result is relatively small, France's comparative advantage lies in its greater settlement freedom (attributable mainly to the country's former colonial empire[31]).

Full ranking (2017)Edit

Rank Citizenship Score
1   France 81.7%
2   Germany 81.6%
3   Iceland 81.5%
4   Denmark 80.9%
5   Netherlands 80.8%
6   Norway 80.4%
7   Sweden 80.0%
8   Finland 79.2%
8   Italy 79.2%
9    Switzerland 79%
9   Ireland 79%
10   Austria 78.9%
11   Spain 78.7%
12   Portugal 78.5%
13   United Kingdom 78.2%
14   Belgium 78.1%
14   Liechtenstein 78.1%
15   Czech Republic 78.0%
16   Luxembourg 77.2%
17   Slovenia 76.7%
18   Hungary 76.3%
19   Slovakia 75.6%
20   Poland 75.4%
21   Estonia 75.2%
21   Greece 75.2%
22   Lithuania 75.0%
23   Latvia 74.9%
23   Malta 74.9%
24   Cyprus 73.3%
25   Romania 73.1%
26   Bulgaria 72.6%
27   United States 69.4%
28   Croatia 67.7%
29   Japan 57%
30   Gibraltar 55.7%.
31   New Zealand 54.5%
32   Australia 54.3%
33   Canada 54.0%
34   Chile 53.7%
35   Singapore 53.2%
36   Argentina 52.3%
36   South Korea 52.3%
37   Brazil 52.1%
38   Jersey 51.9%
39   Guernsey 51.8%
40   Isle of Man 51.7%
41   Monaco 50.8%
41   San Marino 50.8%
42   Andorra 50.3%
43   Malaysia 49.0%
44   Uruguay 48.6%
45   Brunei Darussalam 47.6%
46   United Arab Emirates 45.8%
47   Hong Kong 45.5%
48   Israel 45.1%
49   Seychelles 44.9%
50   Paraguay 44.5%
51   Barbados 43.9%
52   Mauritius 43.7%
52   Mexico 43.7%
53   Taiwan 43.6%
54   Bahamas 43.2%
54   Costa Rica 43.2%
55   Peru 43.1%
56   Antigua and Barbuda 41.9%
57   Panama 41.7%
58   Saint Kitts and Nevis 41.5%
59   China 41.4%
60   Macao 41.1%
61   Trinidad and Tobago 40.7%
62   Colombia 40.6%
62   Venezuela 40.6’%
63   Palau 40.5%
63   Russian Federation 40.5%
64   Marshall Islands 40.3%
65   Saint Vincent 39.9%
66   Serbia 39.7%
67   St. Lucia 39.4%
67   Grenada 39.4%
68   Montenegro 38.6%
69   Dominica 38.5%
70   Micronesia 38.4%
71   El Salvador 37.8%
72   Honduras 37.3%
73   Ecuador 37.2%
73   Moldova 37.2%
74   Macedonia 37.1%
75   Samoa 37.0%
76   Bosnia 36.8%
77   Albania 36.7%
78   Guatemala 36.6%
79   Tonga 36.5%
80   Ukraine 36.1%
80   Tuvalu 36.1%
81   Nicaragua 35.9%
82   Kuwait 35.7%
83   Turkey 35.4%
84   Georgia 35.2%
85   Vanuatu 35.0%
86   Kiribati 34.3%
87   Qatar 34.1%
88   Bolivia 34.0%
89   Solomon Islands 33.9%
89   Saudi Arabia 33.9%
90   Bahrain 33.6%
90   Oman 33.6%
91   Kazakhstan 33.4%
92   South Africa 32.8%
92   Belarus 32.8%
93   Cape Verde 32.5%
94   Belize 32.3%
95   Ghana 32.1%
96   Botswana 31.0%
97   Fiji 30.9%
98   Guyana 30.8%
99   Maldives 30.6%
100   Suriname 30.5%
101   Thailand 30.2%
101   Nauru 30.2%
102   Timor-Leste 30.1%
103   Armenia 29.9%
103   Jamaica 29.9%
103   Gambia 29.9%
104   Israel 29.7%
104   Sierra Leone 29.7%
105   Benin 29.5%
106   India 29.3%
106   Senegal 29.3%
107   Indonesia 29.1%
107   Latvia 29.1%
108   Togo 29.0%
109   Kyrgyzstan 28.4%
110   Tunisia 28.3%
110   Azerbaijan 28.3%
111   Namibia 28.2%
112   Côte d’Ivoire 28.0%
113   Cuba 27.9%
114   Burkina Faso 27.6%
115   Nigeria 27.4%
115   Dominican Republic 27.4%
116   Guinea 27.3%
117   Uzbekistan 27.2%
118   Mongolia 27.0%
119   Mali 26.9%
120   Liberia 26.5%
120   Papua New Guinea 26.5%
121   Guinea-Bissau 26.4%
122   Bhutan 26.3%
123   Morocco 26.1%
124   Zambia 26.0%
125   Philippines 25.9%
126   Tajikistan 25.6%
126   Niger 25.6%
127   Swaziland 25.5%
128 British overseas territories citizenship 25.3%
128   Tanzania 25.3%
129 British Nationals (Overseas) 25.2%
129   Algeria 25.2%
130   Jordan 24.9%
130   Gabon 24.9%
131   Malawi 24.8%
132   Lesotho 24.6%
132   Vietnam 24.6%
132   Kenya 24.6%
133   Turkmenistan 24.5%
134   Sri Lanka 24.4%
135   Egypt 24.2%
136   Sao Tome 23.9%
137   Kosovo 23.8%
137   Iran 23.8%
138   Lebanon 23.7%
139   Laos 23.2%
140   Uganda 23.1%
141   Madagascar 22.8%
141   Equatorial Guinea 22.8%
142   Zimbabwe 22.7%
142 British Subjects 22.7%
143 British Overseas citizenship 22.6%
143   Comoros 22.6%
144   Mauritania 22.5%
145   Cambodia 22.4%
146 British protected persons 22.3%
147   Haiti 21.8%
148   North Korea 21.7%
149   Bangladesh 21.4%
149   Angola 21.4%
150   Palestinian Territory 21.3%
150   Mozambique 21.3%
151   Libya 21.1%
152   Myanmar 21.0%
152     Nepal 21.0%
153   Rwanda 20.9%
154   Congo 20.5%
155   Djibouti 20.1%
155   Cameroon 20.1%
156   Chad 18.9%
157   Sudan 18.2%
158   Ethiopia 18.0%
159   Pakistan 17.9%
160   Burundi 17.5%
160   Congo 17.5%
161   Eritrea 17.1%
161   Yemen 17.1%
162   Syrian Arab Republic 16.8%
163   Central African Republic 16.6%
164   South Sudan 16.1%
165   Iraq 15.1%
166   Afghanistan 14.5%
167   Somalia 13.4%

Top 10 nations (2017)Edit

Country 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013
  France 1
81.7%
2
82.4%
7
80.9%
8
80.8%
3
81.3%
  Germany 2
81.6%
1
82.7%
1
83.1%
1
83.1%
1
83.1%
  Iceland 3
81.5%
3
81.3%
5
81.6%
6
81.1%
4
80.9%
  Denmark 4
80.9%
2
82.4%
2
83.0%
2
82.8%
2
81.7%
  Netherlands 5
80.8%
8
79.7%
9
80.3%
10
80.4%
7
80.3%
  Norway 6
80.4%
5
81.0%
4
81.7%
5
81.2%
4
80.9%
  Sweden 7
80.0%
9
81.2%
5
81.6%
4
81.7%
5
80.8%
  Finland 8
79.2%
6
80.7%
3
82.0%
3
82.2%
3
81.3%
  Italy 8
79.2%
7
79.9%
13
79.8%
13
80.0%
8
80.2%
  Ireland 9
79.0%
11
79.4%
6
81.0%
5
81.2%
6
80.4%
   Switzerland 9
79.0%
9
79.6%
8
80.7%
7
81.0%
5
80.8%
  Austria 10
78.9%
7
79.9%
6
81.0%
9
80.7%
8
80.2%
References [32]

ReferencesEdit

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