Pulitzer Prize(Redirected from The Pulitzer Prizes)
|2018 Pulitzer Prize|
Pulitzer prize for public service gold medal
|Awarded for||Excellence in newspaper journalism, literary achievements, musical composition|
|Presented by||Columbia University|
The Pulitzer Prize // is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American (Hungarian-born) Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 in 2017). The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal.
Entry and prize considerationEdit
The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, but only those that have specifically entered. (There is a $50 entry fee, paid for each desired entry category.) Entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can also only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties.
Each year, 102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories; one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. Most juries consist of five members, except for those for Public Service, Investigative Reporting, Explanatory Reporting, Feature writing and Commentary categories, which have seven members; however all book juries have at least three members. For each award category, a jury makes three nominations. The board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote. The board can also vote to issue no award. The board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work; however, the jurors in letters, music, and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500.
Difference between entrants and nominated finalistsEdit
Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant. The jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were only submitted, but not nominated as finalists, still claim to be Pulitzer nominees in promotional material.
For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc.com (the recipient of the 1989 Investigative Reporting Prize) pointed out in 2012 that financial journalist Betty Liu was described as "Pulitzer Prize-Nominated" in her Bloomberg Television advertising and the jacket of her book, while National Review writer Jonah Goldberg made similar claims of "Pulitzer nomination" to promote his books. Dedman wrote, "To call that submission a Pulitzer 'nomination' is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters That's My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars don't work that way—the studios don't pick the nominees. It's just a way of slipping 'Academy Awards' into a bio. The Pulitzers also don't work that way, but fewer people know that."
Newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize. It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships. He specified "four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships." After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917; they are now announced each April. The Chicago Tribune under the control of Colonel McCormick felt that the Pulitzer Prize was nothing more than a 'mutual admiration society' and not to be taken seriously; the paper refused to compete for the prize during McCormick's tenure up until 1961.
Arts & LettersEdit
- Four prizes
- Three prizes
- Edward Albee, Drama
- Archibald MacLeish, Poetry (2) and Drama
- Edwin Arlington Robinson, Poetry
- Carl Sandburg, Poetry (2) and History
- Robert Penn Warren, Poetry (2) and Fiction
- Thornton Wilder, Drama (2) and Novel
- Two prizes
- Bernard Bailyn, History
- Samuel Barber, Music
- Walter Jackson Bate, Biography
- Samuel Flagg Bemis, History and Biography
- Stephen Vincent Benét, Poetry
- Robert Caro, Biography
- Elliott Carter, Music
- David Herbert Donald, Biography
- William Faulkner, Fiction
- Douglas Southall Freeman, Biography
- Burton J. Hendrick, Biography
- Paul Horgan, History
- Marquis James, Biography
- George S. Kaufman, Drama (both shared)
- Margaret Leech, History
- David Levering Lewis, Biography
- Robert Lowell, Poetry
- Norman Mailer, Fiction and Nonfiction
- David McCullough, Biography
- Gian Carlo Menotti, Music
- W. S. Merwin, Poetry
- Samuel Eliot Morison, Biography
- Allan Nevins, Biography
- Lynn Nottage, Drama
- Walter Piston, Music
- Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., History and Biography
- T. J. Stiles, Biography and History
- Booth Tarkington, Novel
- Alan Taylor, History
- Barbara W. Tuchman, Nonfiction
- John Updike, Fiction
- Richard Wilbur, Poetry
- Tennessee Williams, Drama
- August Wilson, Drama
- E. O. Wilson, Nonfiction
Arts & Letters and JournalismEdit
- Three prizes
- William Allen White, Editorial Writing, Special Citation (presented to Sallie Lindsay White; posthumous), Autobiography (posthumous)
- Two prizes
- Russell Baker, Commentary and Biography
- Steve Coll, Explanatory Journalism and Nonfiction
- J. Anthony Lukas, Local Investigative Specialized Reporting and Nonfiction
- Joby Warrick, Public Service (named contributor) and Nonfiction
- Michael Williamson, Feature Photography and Nonfiction
- Four prizes
- Carol Guzy, Breaking News Photography, Feature Photography, Spot News Photography (2)
- Three prizes
- David Barstow, Public Service (named contributor) and Investigative Reporting (2)
- Walt Bogdanich, Specialized Reporting, National Reporting, Investigative Reporting
- Jo Becker, National Reporting, (2) International Reporting (Staff)
- Paul Conrad, Editorial Cartooning
- Michel duCille, Spot News Photography, Feature Photography, Public Service (named contributor)
- Edmund Duffy, Editorial Cartooning
- Thomas Friedman, International Reporting (2) and Commentary
- Herblock, Editorial Cartooning
- Rollin Kirby, Editorial Cartooning
- Jeff MacNelly, Editorial Cartooning
- William Snyder, Explanatory Journalism, Feature Photography, Spot News Photography
- Two prizes
- Daniel Berehulak, Feature Photography and Breaking News Photography
- Steve Breen, Editorial Cartooning
- Ding Darling, Editorial Cartooning
- Horst Faas, Photography and Spot News Photography
- Daniel R. Fitzpatrick, Editorial Cartooning
- Stanley Forman, Spot News Photography
- Jon Franklin, Feature Writing and Explanatory Reporting
- Walt Handelsman, Editorial Cartooning
- Nelson Harding, Editorial Cartooning
- Tyler Hicks, Breaking News Photography
- David Horsey, Editorial Cartooning
- Nicholas Kristof, International Reporting and Commentary
- Stephen A. Kurkjian, Local Investigative Specialized Reporting
- Anthony Lewis, National Reporting
- Eric Lipton, Explanatory Journalism and Investigative Reporting
- Mike Luckovich, Editorial Cartooning
- Andrew R.C. Marshall, International Reporting
- Bill Mauldin, Editorial Cartooning
- Gene Miller, Investigative Reporting
- Jim Morin, Editorial Cartooning
- Larry C. Price, Photography
- Michael Ramirez, Editorial Cartooning
- James Reston, Telegraphic Reporting – National and National Reporting
- Andrew Schneider, Specialized Reporting and Public Service (named contributor)
- Anthony Shadid, International Reporting
- Vaughn Shoemaker, Editorial Cartooning
- Paul Szep, Editorial Cartooning
- Craig F. Walker, Photography
- Gene Weingarten, Feature Writing
- Don Wright, Editorial Cartooning
Nominally, the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service is awarded only to news organizations, not individuals. In rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners. Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs; infrequently, staff Prize citations also distinguish the work of prominent contributors.
Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts, letters and fiction. Reports and photographs by United States–based newspapers, magazines and news organizations (including news websites) that "[publish] regularly" are eligible for the journalism prize. Beginning in 2007, "an assortment of online elements will be permitted in all journalism categories except for the competition's two photography categories, which will continue to restrict entries to still images." In December 2008 it was announced that for the first time content published in online-only news sources would be considered.
Although certain winners with magazine affiliations (most notably Moneta Sleet, Jr.) were allowed to enter the competition due to eligible partnerships or concurrent publication of their work in newspapers, the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board and the Pulitzer Prize Board historically resisted the admission of magazines into the competition, resulting in the formation of the National Magazine Awards at the Columbia Journalism School in 1966.
In 2015, magazines were allowed to enter for the first time in two categories (Investigative Reporting and Feature Writing). By 2016, this provision had expanded to three additional categories (International Reporting, Criticism and Editorial Cartooning). That year, Kathryn Schulz (Feature Writing) and Emily Nussbaum (Criticism) of The New Yorker became the first magazine affiliates to receive the Prize under the expanded eligibility criterion.
In October 2016, magazine eligibility was extended to all journalism categories. Hitherto confined to the local reporting of breaking news, the Breaking News Reporting category was expanded to encompass all domestic breaking news events in 2017.
Definitions of Pulitzer Prize categories as presented in the December 2017 Plan of Award:
- Public Service – for a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper, magazine or news site through the use of its journalistic resources, including the use of stories, editorials, cartoons, photographs, graphics, videos, databases, multimedia or interactive presentations or other visual material. Often thought of as the grand prize, and mentioned first in listings of the journalism prizes, the Public Service award is only given to the winning news organization. Alone among the Pulitzer Prizes, it is awarded in the form of a gold medal.
- Breaking News Reporting – for a distinguished example of local, state or national reporting of breaking news that, as quickly as possible, captures events accurately as they occur, and, as time passes, illuminates, provides context and expands upon the initial coverage.
- Investigative Reporting – for a distinguished example of investigative reporting, using any available journalistic tool.
- Explanatory Reporting – for a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation, using any available journalistic tool.
- Local Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on significant issues of local concern, demonstrating originality and community expertise, using any available journalistic tool.
- National Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
- International Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
- Feature Writing – for distinguished feature writing giving prime consideration to quality of writing, originality and concision, using any available journalistic tool.
- Commentary – for distinguished commentary, using any available journalistic tool.
- Criticism – for distinguished criticism, using any available journalistic tool.
- Editorial Writing – for distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction, using any available journalistic tool.
- Editorial Cartooning – for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing and pictorial effect, published as a still drawing, animation or both.
- Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot News Photography – for a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.
- Feature Photography – for a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.
There are six categories in letters and drama:
- Fiction – for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
- Drama – for a distinguished play by an American playwright, preferably original in its source and dealing with American life.
- History – for a distinguished and appropriately documented book on the history of the United States.
- Biography or Autobiography – for a distinguished biography, autobiography or memoir by an American author.
- Poetry – for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American poet.
- General Non-Fiction – for a distinguished and appropriately documented book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.
There is one prize given for music:
- Pulitzer Prize for Music – for distinguished musical composition by an American that has had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year.
In addition to the Prizes, Pulitzer Travelling Fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.
Changes to categoriesEdit
Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because the field of the award has been expanded to encompass other areas, the award been renamed because the common terminology changed, or the award has become obsolete, such as the prizes for telegraphic reporting.
An example of a writing field that has been expanded was the former Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (awarded 1918–1947), which has been changed to the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, which also includes short stories, novellas, novelettes, and poetry, as well as novels.
|8||Newspaper History Award||–|
|2||7||Telegraphic Reporting - International|
|2||3||7||Telegraphic Reporting - National|
|8||9||Spot News Photography|
|0||Breaking News Photography|
|3||3||Local Reporting - Edition time[a]|
|4||4||Local General or Spot News Reporting[a]|
|5||0||General News Reporting|
|1||7||Spot News Reporting|
|8||1||Breaking News Reporting|
|3||3||Local Reporting - No Edition time[a]|
|4||4||Local Investigative Specialized Reporting[a]|
|10s||1920s||1930s||1940s||1950s||1960s||1970s||1980s||1990s||2000s||2010s||Letters, drama, music|
|7||2||Biography or Autobiography|
|Special Awards & Citations|
awarded, category still exists (one small number marks the year since this category exists)
awarded, category renamed (two small numbers marking the first and the last year this category existed under that name)
awarded, category no longer exists (two small numbers marking the first and the last year this category existed)
not awarded, although there were nominees and a category in this year
The 19-member Pulitzer Prize Board convenes semiannually in the Joseph Pulitzer World Room at Columbia University's Pulitzer Hall. It comprises major editors, columnists and media executives in addition to six members drawn from academia and the arts, including the president of Columbia University, the dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and the administrator of the Prizes, who serves as the Board's secretary. The administrator and the dean (who has served on the Board since 1976) participate in the deliberations as ex officio members but cannot vote. Aside from the president and dean (who serve as permanent members for the duration of their respective appointments) and the administrator (who is reelected annually), the Board elects its own members for a three-year term; members may serve a maximum of three terms. Members of the Board and the juries are selected with close attention "given to professional excellence and affiliation, as well as diversity in terms of gender, ethnic background, geographical distribution and size of news organization." The current administrator is former New York Times senior editor Dana Canedy, who contributed to the Times staff entry that received the 2001 National Reporting Prize.
Following the retirement of Joseph Pulitzer Jr. (a grandson of the endower who served as permanent chair of the Board for 31 years) in 1986, the chair has typically rotated to the most senior member (or members, in the case of concurrent elections) on an annual basis.
Since 1975, the Board has made all prize decisions; prior to this point, the Board's recommendations were ratified by a majority vote of the trustees of Columbia University. Although the administrator's office and staff are housed alongside the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia's Pulitzer Hall and several administrators have held faculty appointments at the School of Journalism, the Board and administration have been operationally separate from the School since 1950.:121
- Call for revocation of journalist Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize.
- Call for revocation of journalist William L. Laurence's 1946 Pulitzer Prize.
- 1941 Novel Prize: The Advisory Board elected to overrule the jury and recommended For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway. However, Columbia University president Nicholas Murray Butler implored the committee to reconsider, citing the potential association between the University and the novel's frank sexual content; instead, no award was given.:118 Twelve years later, Hemingway was awarded the 1953 Fiction Prize for The Old Man and the Sea.
- 1962 Biography Prize: Citizen Hearst: A Biography of William Randolph Hearst by W. A. Swanberg was recommended by the jury and Advisory Board but overturned by the trustees of Columbia University (then charged with final ratification of the Prizes) because its subject, Hearst, was not an "eminent example of the biographer's art as specified in the prize definition."
- 1974 Fiction Prize: Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon was recommended by the three-member fiction jury but the Advisory Board overturned that decision and no award was given by the trustees.
- Shortly after receiving a Special Citation for Roots: The Saga of an American Family in the spring of 1977, Alex Haley was charged with plagiarism in separate lawsuits by Harold Courlander and Margaret Walker Alexander. Courlander, an anthropologist and novelist, charged that Roots was copied largely from his novel The African (1967). Walker claimed that Haley had plagiarized from her Civil War-era novel Jubilee (1966). Legal proceedings in each case were concluded late in 1978. Courlander's suit was settled out of court for $650,000 (equivalent to $2.4 million in 2017) and an acknowledgment from Haley that certain passages within Roots were copied from The African. Walker's case was dismissed by the court, which, in comparing the content of Roots with that of Jubilee, found that "no actionable similarities exist between the works."
- Forfeiture of Janet Cooke's 1981 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for story fabrication.
- 1994 History Prize: Gerald Posner's Case Closed; Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, Lawrence Friedman's Crime and Punishment in American History and Joel Williamson's William Faulkner and Southern History were nominated unanimously for the award; however, no award was given. The decision not to give an award to one of the three books created a public controversy. One of the 19 members of the Pulitzer Board, John Dotson, said that all of the three nominated books were "flawed in some way." But another Board member, Edward Seaton, editor of the Manhattan Mercury, disagreed, saying it was "unfortunate" that no award had been given.
- 2010 Drama Prize: Next to Normal received the award despite not having been among the jury-provided nominees.
Criticism and studiesEdit
Some critics of the Pulitzer Prize have accused the organization of favoring those who support liberal causes or oppose conservative causes. Syndicated columnist L. Brent Bozell said that the Pulitzer Prize has a "liberal legacy", particularly in its prize for commentary. He pointed to a 31-year period in which only five conservatives won prizes for commentary. The claim is also supported by a statement from the 2010 Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary, Kathleen Parker: "It's only because I'm a conservative basher that I'm now recognized."
A 2012 academic study by journalism professor Yong Volz and Chinese University journalism professor Francis Lee found "that only 27% of Pulitzer winners since 1991 were females, while newsrooms are about 33% female." The researchers concluded female winners were more likely to have traditional academic experience, such as attendance at Ivy League schools, metropolitan upbringing, or employment with an elite publication such as the New York Times. The findings suggest a higher level of training and connectedness are required for a female applicant to be awarded the prize, compared to male counterparts.
- "FAQ". Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
29. How is 'Pulitzer' pronounced? The correct pronunciation is 'PULL it sir.'
The mistaken pronunciation //, starting off like "pew", is quite common, and included in the major British and American dictionaries.
- Topping, Seymour (2008). "History of The Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved September 13, 2011. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
- "Pulitzer Board raises prize award to $15,000". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- Topping, Seymour (2008). "Administration". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved January 31, 2013. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
- "The Medal". Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- Entry Form For a Pulitzer Prize in Journalism Pulitzer.org
- Abad-Santos, Alexander (June 26, 2012). "Journalists, Please Stop Saying You Were 'Pulitzer Prize-Nominated'". what matters now. the Atlantic wire.
- Morris, James McGrath (2010). Pulitzer: A Life in Politics, Print, and Power. New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-06-079870-3. Retrieved Sep 12, 2011.
- Reardon, Patrick T (June 8, 1997). "A Parade of Pulitzers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
for more than two decades [...] the Tribune refused to compete for the awards.
- Epstein, Joseph (August 1997). "The Colonel and the Lady" (PDF). Commentary. p. 48.
He viewed the Pulitzer Prize as a 'mutual admiration society,' and hence not to be taken seriously.
- Snyder is frequently cited as a four-time winner because of his oversight of The Dallas Morning News's 2006 Breaking News Photography Prize-winning coverage of Hurricane Katrina as the newspaper's photo director; however, he was not listed as a named contributor in the citation and did not contribute any photographs to the entry. "Staff of The Dallas Morning News". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- "The 2000 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The Washington Post, notably for the work of Katherine Boo". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "The 1996 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The News & Observer (Raleigh, NC), for the work of Melanie Sill, Pat Stith and Joby Warrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "The 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Local Reporting: Detroit Free Press Staff, and notably Jim Schaefer and M.L. Elrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "2017 Journalism Submission Guidelines, Requirements and FAQs". The Pulizer Prize Board. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Pulitzer Board Widens Range of Online Journalism in Entries" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. November 27, 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- "Pulitzer Prizes Broadened to Include Online-Only Publications Primarily Devoted to Original News Reporting" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. December 8, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- "Expanded eligibility for three journalism categories" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. October 26, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "2016 Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer Prize Board. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "Pulitzer Prizes open all journalism categories to magazines" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. October 18, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
- "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
- "Elizabeth Alexander elected to Pulitzer Prize Board" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. May 30, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
- "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
- "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2018-04-17.
- Topping, Seymour. "Biography of Joseph Pulitzer". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved May 16, 2017. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
- Boylan, James (June 2003). Pulitzer's School: Columbia University's School of Journalism, 1903-2003. New York: Columbia University Press. OCLC 704692556. Retrieved March 4, 2017 – via Google Books.
- Hohenberg, John. The Pulitzer Diaries: Inside America's Greatest Prize. 1997. p. 109.
- McDowell, Edwin. "Publishing: Pulitzer Controversies". The New York Times, May 11, 1984: C26.
- Fein, Esther B. (March 3, 1993). "Book Notes". The New York Times.
- (1978, September 21). "Judge Rules "Roots" Original", Associated Press
- (1978, September 22). "Suit against Alex Haley is dismissed", United Press International
- Complete Historical Handbook of the Pulitzer Prize System 1917-2000: Decision-Making Processes in all Award Categories Based on Unpublished Sources, by Heinz D. Fischer and Erika J. Fischer, The Pulitzer Prize Archive, Walter de Gruyer, 2003, p. 325
- "Pulitzer Decision Angers Juror Ignoring Nominations, Panel Didn't Know History Prize," San Jose Mercury News, April 23, 1994, p. 2B
- "unknown". Los Angeles Times. April 13, 2010. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010.
- Simonson, Robert.Simonson, Robert (April 16, 2010). "Playbill.com's Theatre Week In Review, April 10-April 16: The Pulitzer Paradox". Playbill. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
- Bozell, Brent (April 22, 2007). "Pulitzers' liberal legacy". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
- Hagey, Keach (October 4, 2010). "Kathleen Parker: 'Smallish-town girl' hits cable". Politico. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
- Yong Z. Volz; Francis LF Lee (August 30, 2012). "Who wins the Pulitzer Prize in international reporting? Cumulative advantage and social stratification in journalism". Journalism. doi:10.1177/1464884912455905. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- Kelly Burdick (October 18, 2012). "New study says women may need connections to win a Pulitzer". Melville House Publishing. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "Female Pulitzer Prize winners require higher qualifications, study finds". Phys.org. October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.