The Overlook (Alexander McQueen collection)

The Overlook (Autumn/Winter 1999) was the fourteenth collection by British fashion designer Alexander McQueen for his eponymous fashion house. It was inspired by the Stanley Kubrick horror film The Shining (1980) and named for the Overlook Hotel where much of the film takes place. The collection focused on winter clothing in light and neutral colors, including chunky knitwear, fur and shearling coats, and parkas inspired by Inuit clothing. Jeweller and frequent McQueen collaborator Shaun Leane provided the collection's best-known design: a corset made from coils of aluminium.

A woman wearing a form-fitting corset made of coiled metal, which covers her from the neck to the hips, and from the shoulder to the upper arm. She wears a black skirt and heavy black eye makeup.
The coiled corset from Look 47 of The Overlook, pictured backstage at the 2004 McQueen retrospective show Black

The runway show was staged on February 23, 1999, at Gatliff Road Warehouse in London. Various celebrities were in attendance, including Vogue editor Anna Wintour, making her first appearance at a McQueen show. The square stage was enclosed by a large Lucite box. The inside, lit by thousands of candles, was dressed to look like a birch forest in winter, complete with artificial snow and an icy floor. Sixty-six looks were presented, interrupted by a brief entr'acte during which several models skated around the enclosure. The show earned a standing ovation, regarded as a rare achievement in the fashion world.

Critical response to the clothing and the runway show for The Overlook was positive, and it is regarded as one of McQueen's most memorable shows. Critical analysis has focused on the show's interpretation of The Shining and themes of isolation through the medium of clothing. The coiled corset was the sole item from The Overlook to appear in the original 2011 staging of the retrospective exhibit Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty.

Background edit

British designer Alexander McQueen was known in the fashion industry for his imaginative, sometimes controversial designs.[1] His fashion shows were theatrical to the point of verging on performance art.[2][3][4] McQueen's personal fixations had a strong influence on his designs and shows, especially his love of film, which he drew on from the beginning of his career with his first commercial collection, Taxi Driver (Autumn/Winter 1993), named for the 1976 Martin Scorsese film.[5] Other explicitly film-inspired collections include The Birds (Spring/Summer 1995), The Hunger (Spring/Summer 1996), Deliverance (Spring/Summer 2004), and The Man Who Knew Too Much (Autumn/Winter 2005).[6] From 1996 to October 2001, McQueen was also – in addition to his responsibilities for his own label – head designer at French fashion house Givenchy.[7][8]

McQueen often worked with other creatives to produce things outside his area of expertise for runway shows, such as hats or jewellery. He had a light touch with collaborators, providing short creative briefs that permitted latitude for interpretation, and often did not see the work he had commissioned until right before the show.[9] McQueen had a longstanding and particularly close collaboration with jeweller Shaun Leane, who had worked with him as early as Highland Rape (Autumn/Winter 1995). The two met during their student years; Leane was trained as a classical goldsmith who worked in traditional formats, but McQueen encouraged him to branch out into other materials and shapes.[9][10]

Concept and creative process edit

 
Puffer jacket from Look 10, presented at Lee Alexander McQueen: Mind, Mythos, Muse at Musée des beaux-arts du Québec

The Overlook (Autumn/Winter 1999) was the fourteenth collection by McQueen for his eponymous fashion house.[11] It was inspired by the Stanley Kubrick horror film The Shining (1980) and named for the Overlook Hotel where much of the film takes place.[12][13] The film is known for its dark and violent subject matter, but McQueen surprised the audience by instead taking inspiration from its wintery, isolated setting, while making numerous references to the cinematography.[14][15][16] He referenced the film's ghostly sisters in Look 40, which featured a pair of identically-styled models walking hand in hand.[14][15] Hexagonal shapes reflected the Overlook Hotel's carpet pattern.[15] The show concluded with an artificial snowstorm reminiscent of the blizzard that ends the film.[14]

The palette was primarily light and neutral colors: black, white, grey, and soft pink.[12][14][17] The collection focused on winter clothing and pseudo-skiwear: garments made from thick jersey, chunky knitted items, coats made from shearling and rabbit fur, and parkas inspired by Inuit clothing.[18][17][19] As always with McQueen, there was a heavy emphasis on tailored garments, especially frock coats, and his signature low-rise "bumster" trousers made an appearance.[12][20][21] One frock coat had a fanned tail, referencing McQueen's love of birds and asymmetrical designs.[14][22] Other notable design elements included patchwork garments, Swarovski crystal decorations, and garments made from metal.[12][23][24] McQueen stated that the collection was intended to echo the film's "sense of isolation and obscurity".[18] Separately, he said that he "wanted to confront misconceptions of size and matter" with the collection.[13]

Runway show edit

Production details edit

The runway show was staged on February 23, 1999, at Gatliff Road Warehouse in London.[13] It was dedicated to Stanley Kubrick, then recently deceased.[15] The show's invitation was a sheet of white A4 paper with the proverb "all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy" typed repeatedly, echoing the way Shining protagonist Jack Torrance obsessively types the phrase while losing his mind.[15][16] There were technical issues backstage, including a small fire and a malfunctioning artificial snow machine, although these were resolved in time for the show to proceed.[13][18] A number of celebrities attended, including Kate Winslet, Helen Mirren, Cate Blanchett, Grace Jones, and members of trip hop group Massive Attack.[18][16] Industry figures in attendance included Nicole Fischelis, fashion director of the department store Saks Fifth Avenue, andVogue editor Anna Wintour, making her first appearance at a McQueen show.[21][20] McQueen's mother Joyce was also in the audience.[18]

McQueen typically worked with a consistent creative team for his shows. Katy England was responsible for overall styling, while Gainsbury & Whiting handled production.[11] Joseph Bennett, who had designed all of McQueen's runways since No. 13 (Spring/Summer 1999), took care of set design.[25] Nicolas Jurnjack styled hair, while Val Garland, a frequent McQueen collaborator, handled makeup.[11] Jeweller Shaun Leane produced jewellery and metalwork, and product designer Kees van der Graaf returned to create a bodice made from rock crystal.[26][27]

The soundtrack mostly relied on orchestral music from The Shining, including the 1934 version of "Midnight, The Stars and You" with Al Bowlly and Ray Noble and his Orchestra. The sound of wolves howling and wind blowing was added to the mix.[28] Because the vinyl release of the film's soundtrack was rare, sound designer John Gosling had to pull the music from VHS tapes.[29] MCQueen took his bow to the Frank Sinatra song "Come Fly with Me".[18]

Catwalk presentation edit

The square stage was enclosed by a large Lucite box; it was the first of two collections which McQueen staged this way.[30] The inside, lit by thousands of candles, was dressed to look like a birch forest in winter, with 25 tons of artificial snow and an icy floor.[12][13][21] In a 2018 interview with Vogue, model Frankie Rayder recalled McQueen surprising her with the ice during a pre-show conversation:

"I was walking with Lee before the show," remembers Rayder, "and he's like, 'So you're going to open the show and you are walking on this.' I said, 'On ice? Are you joking? Are there spikes on the bottom of these shoes?!' His response: 'No. You’re from Wisconsin.'"[13]

Models were styled with braided hair and silver paint over their eyes, eyelashes, eyebrows, and lower foreheads, resembling masks or stripes of ice.[14][31][32] Fashion theorist Janice Miller felt that the connotations of transformation and concealment associated with masks made the makeup "strange, beautiful, and wistful".[32] Curator Kate Bethune considered the faintly Native American look of the models' braided hair and exaggerated face makeup to be a reference to the cursed Native American burial ground the film's Overlook Hotel was built on.[14]

Sixty-six looks were presented. The show opened with roughly a dozen outfits in black, followed by a phase of garments in soft brown, taupe, and pink.[12][17] A section of looks in grey followed, with several showpiece items.[12] Look 38 was a metallic sculpted bodice trimmed with fur.[12] Look 40 featured a pair of identically-styled models with red hair walking hand in hand.[14] The others were Shaun Leane's work: a metal corset made from coils of aluminium (Look 47) and a knee-length aluminium skirt with laser-cut arabesques (Look 50).[30][33][34]

After Look 53, the lights went down, and there was a three-minute entr'acte in which a group of seven models skated around the stage.[14][15][35] When the skating ended, the music cut out. The lights came back up, flickering, accompanied by an artificial snowstorm and the sound of howling wolves.[15][35] The show resumed with Look 54, a bodice made of rock crystal worn with McQueen's signature low-rise "bumster" trousers in white, followed by an additional eleven looks all in white.[21][15][35] McQueen took his bow The show earned a standing ovation, regarded as a rare achievement in the fashion world.[18]

Notable pieces edit

The rock crystal bustier and the coiled corset – which McQueen called the "Cossack ensemble" – are the most significant pieces from the show.[36] Both were made using body casts of model Laura Morgan which had been produced for No. 13 (Spring/Summer 1999) by van der Graaf.[37] McQueen was known for giving extremely simple creative briefs and allowing his collaborators the freedom to interpret them creatively. Van der Graaf recalled his brief for the bodice from Look 54 as being little more than McQueen asking him "how 'bout a crystal bodice?".[27] He thought of rough quartz rock crystals, only later learning that McQueen had had Swarovski crystals in mind. He told interviewer Lousie Rytter that McQueen's "brevity gave me room to manoeuvre".[27]

Leane built the aluminum corset over the course of six weeks, working 16-hour days.[26] McQueen had requested that he interpret the neck rings traditionally worn by the Southern Ndebele people into an item that covered the entire torso. Leane had previously made a coiled neck ring for McQueen's Autumn/Winter 1997 collection It's a Jungle Out There.[26] The coiled corset was the largest thing Leane, a goldsmith who normally worked at a much smaller scale, had made up to that point. Each of the more than 90 aluminium coils that went into the corset were individually forged and fitted to the body cast for a precise shape.[33][27][26]

The corset was made in two halves which screwed together at the sides. Taking it on and off could take up to 15 minutes.[27] The fit was so exact that Morgan, who wore the finished version on the runway, said her "chest pushed against the metal when she breathed in".[27] The restrictive corset limited the wearer's ability to move her head and arms.[27] Morgan recalled the experience as empowering: "it's almost like it forces you to pay attention, forces you to be present, and be there, and be what you are. It's very commanding."[38] Leane recalled that in the excitement after the show, he and McQueen headed to the pub to celebrate and forgot to remove Morgan from the corset until someone came to find them.[10]

Curator Clare Phillips described the coiled corset as an example of primitivism in McQueen's work, given its origins in African neck jewellery. She felt it "exudes invulnerability and an untouchable remoteness" while blurring the line between jewellery and clothing.[39] Fashion theorist Harold Koda argued that the restrictiveness of the corset was reminiscent of "the stiff hieratic imagery in Russian Orthodox icons".[36]

Reception edit

Lisa Armstrong, writing for The Times of London, described the twins from Look 40 as one of the "few freakish McQueen moments" from a show whose mood was otherwise light.[40] She found the clothing "had a light, assured touch and elegance" that surpassed what McQueen was doing at Givenchy.[40]

In the International Herald Tribune, Suzy Menkes wrote that the show had everything: "a spectacular presentation, an original interpretation and inventive clothes".[20] She found that McQueen had capably elevated his signature styles to match them to the winter theme, crediting this to the skills he had acquired at Givenchy.[20]

An unbylined piece in the Scottish Daily Record complained of the use of real fur, arguing that McQueen was only using it to chase publicity, and doubting that it had much appeal for the average British consumer.[19]

Chloe Fox, in her book Vogue on McQueen, wrote that The Overlook was evidence that McQueen was "a designer who was increasingly becoming an artist".[41] In her biography, Alexander McQueen: The Life and the Legacy, Judith Watt regarded it as a commercially oriented collection, as McQueen was about to open a brand-new flagship store.[21] She wrote that "some pronounced it his best show" but disagreed; although she found The Overlook aesthetically and narratively successful, she considered Voss (Spring/Summer 2001) – also staged in a clear plastic box – to be "the real magic".[21] Andrew Wilson called The Overlook one of McQueen's "most memorable" shows, along with Voss and No. 13 (Spring/Summer 1999).[42]

Analysis edit

I didn’t know that [collections like Overlook] would change the course of fashion shows, but to be a part of this . . . I don’t want to speak for anyone else, but I felt like I was part of something special even before the special thing happened—even just being asked to do it. [You knew] you would kind of have to put your ego aside, and [that] you weren't going to look gorgeous, but everyone was willing to do that. It was art, you know.

Model Frankie Rayder, speaking of The Overlook in a 2018 interview with Vogue[13]

Curator Claire Wilcox found that the separation created by the Lucite enclosure called to mind the "otherworldly reality of a dream".[30] Fashion journalist Alex Fury argued that McQueen often staged spectacles that separated the audience from the models in a way that evoked screen-based media such as cinema, offering The Overlook and Voss (Spring/Summer 2001) as examples.[43] Literature professor Catherine Spooner cited The Overlook as an example of how McQueen drew Gothic influence from films.[44]

Fashion historian Alistair O'Neill discussed how The Overlook reflects The Shining in multiple ways. In addition to its explicit references to The Shining, The Overlook also reflected the film through music and performance elements which evoked the way the film distorted time by presenting scenes that "destabiliz[ed] any sense of how long Jack [Torrance] really has been staying at the hotel".[15] In The Overlook, McQueen's use of the film's soundtrack served to "decelerate and extend" the experience of time within the runway show.[15] Similarly, the skating segment interrupts the usual sequence of a fashion show. It uses the same song, "Midnight, the Stars, and You", that played during a time-distortion sequence in the film, connecting the two thematically.[15] Finally, O'Neill identifies Look 43 – a plaid wool dress – as referential to McQueen's prior collection Highland Rape (Autumn/Winter 1995) and his experience as an apprentice tailor. This, he suggests, blends history with the present in a similar way to the film, slightly distorted like a composite photo.[45] He felt the collection "marked a high point" for fashion and for interpreting film through other media.[45]

Researcher Lisa Skogh noted that McQueen often incorporated concepts and objects which might have appeared in a cabinet of curiosities – collections of natural and historical objects that were the precursor to modern museums.[46] She identified the quartz crystal bodice in Look 54 as an example of what would be called "artificialia" in such a context: a man-made object which incorporated "a natural hardstone rarity".[46] She likened the bodice to an artificial mountain commissioned in the early 17th century by diplomat Philipp Hainhofer as a gift to King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.[47]

Fashion historian Ingrid Loschek regarded The Overlook as an example of how McQueen portrayed "traumata such as isolation and loneliness" through the medium of clothing.[48] Fashion theorists Adam Geczy and Vicki Karaminas compared The Overlook to What a Merry-Go-Round (Autumn/Winter 2001) as narratives of the "loss of childhood innocence".[49] Aesthetically, they found The Overlook reminiscent of the White Witch, a villain from the Chronicles of Narnia series of children's books.[49] Cultural theologian Robert Covolo described McQueen's use of twin models in The Overlook as evidence of McQueen's career-long ambivalence toward conventional standards of beauty.[50]

Legacy edit

The collection is regarded as one of McQueen's most memorable. In 2015, Dazed magazine selected the silver eye makeup from The Overlook as one of McQueen's best catwalk makeup looks.[31] i-D magazine named it an iconic winter collection in 2017.[23] Shaun Leane published a retrospective of his career in 2020; discussing it with British Vogue, he selected an image of the model being screwed into the coiled corset as his favorite in the book. He reflected on the contrast captured in the image: "she is almost angelic but being prepared for battle".[51] A 2022 British Vogue article named it one of McQueen's "most fantastical catwalk moments".[52]

When McQueen and Leane participated in the Fashion in Motion series at the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in 2001, they presented the coiled corset as one of their featured items.[26] The coiled corset was the sole item from The Overlook to appear in original 2011 staging of the retrospective exhibit Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, courtesy of Shaun Leane; it also appeared at the revised 2015 stating at the V&A.[33] Leane called it his favorite item from the exhibition.[53] A puffer jacket from Look 10 appeared in the 2022 exhibit Lee Alexander McQueen: Mind, Mythos, Muse, where curators compared it to a quilted, puffy eiderdown jacket made by British designer Charles James in 1937.[54]

The coiled corset was sold at Sotheby's auction house in 2017 for $807,000.[13][55] An invitation to the show sold at RR Auction in 2021 for a reported $500.[56]

Bibliography edit

References edit

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  2. ^ Gleason 2012, p. 10.
  3. ^ Fairer & Wilcox 2016, p. 13.
  4. ^ Loschek 2009, p. 81.
  5. ^ O'Neill 2015, p. 262.
  6. ^ O'Neill 2015, pp. 262, 269, 273.
  7. ^ Wilcox 2015, p. 327.
  8. ^ Wilson 2015, p. 255.
  9. ^ a b "McQueen's collaborators: Shaun Leane". Victoria and Albert Museum. Archived from the original on 3 February 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  10. ^ a b Tindle, Hannah (24 June 2020). "How Shaun Leane and Alexander McQueen radicalised jewellery". AnOther. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  11. ^ a b c Fairer & Wilcox 2016, p. 341.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Alexander McQueen Fall 1999 Ready-to-Wear Collection". Vogue. 3 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 19 January 2024.
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  16. ^ a b c Gleason 2012, p. 65.
  17. ^ a b c Gleason 2012, p. 66.
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  19. ^ a b "Why they're proud to wear real fur". Daily Record. Glasgow, Scotland. 25 February 1999. Retrieved 22 February 2024.
  20. ^ a b c d Menkes, Suzy (25 February 1999). "An icy showcase for McQueen's shining moment". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Watt 2012, p. 155.
  22. ^ Watt 2012, p. 156.
  23. ^ a b Isabelle, Hellyer (13 June 2017). "Westwood, McQueen, Margiela: iconic collections to inspire your winter". i-D. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
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  25. ^ "Interview: Joseph Bennett on Lee McQueen". SHOWstudio. 16 March 2015. Retrieved 14 February 2024.
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  28. ^ Cite error: The named reference :12 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ O'Neill 2015, pp. 265, 269.
  30. ^ a b c Fairer & Wilcox 2016, p. 84.
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  33. ^ a b c Bolton 2011, p. 234.
  34. ^ Thomas 2015, p. 287.
  35. ^ a b c Gleason 2012, p. 68.
  36. ^ a b Koda 2001, p. 76.
  37. ^ Evans 2015, pp. 191–192.
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  39. ^ Phillips 2015, p. 203–204.
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  44. ^ Spooner 2015, p. 143.
  45. ^ a b O'Neill 2015, pp. 264–265.
  46. ^ a b Skogh 2015, p. 179.
  47. ^ Skogh 2015, pp. 179–180.
  48. ^ Loschek 2009, p. 56.
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  50. ^ Covolo 2014, p. 35–36.
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  53. ^ Graham, Mhairi (12 March 2015). "Modern savages". W. Retrieved 10 February 2024.
  54. ^ Esguerra & Hansen 2022, p. 119.
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  56. ^ "Alexander McQueen: The Overlook Invitation". RR Auction. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 23 January 2024.

External links edit