The Night of the Hunter (film)

The Night of the Hunter is a 1955 American film noir thriller directed by Charles Laughton and starring Robert Mitchum, Shelley Winters and Lillian Gish. The screenplay by James Agee was based on the 1953 novel of the same name by Davis Grubb. The plot involves a serial killer (Mitchum) who poses as a preacher and pursues two children in an attempt to get his hands on $10,000 of stolen cash hidden by their late father.

The Night of the Hunter
Theatrical release poster
Directed byCharles Laughton
Screenplay byJames Agee
Based onThe Night of the Hunter
1953 novel
by Davis Grubb
Produced byPaul Gregory
StarringRobert Mitchum
Shelley Winters
Lillian Gish
James Gleason
Evelyn Varden
Peter Graves
Don Beddoe
Gloria Castillo
Billy Chapin
Sally Jane Bruce
CinematographyStanley Cortez
Edited byRobert Golden
Music byWalter Schumann
Paul Gregory Productions
Distributed byUnited Artists
Release date
  • July 26, 1955 (1955-07-26)
Running time
92 minutes
CountryUnited States

The novel and film draw on the true story of Harry Powers, who was hanged in 1932 for the murder of two widows and three children in Clarksburg, West Virginia. The film's lyrical and expressionistic style, borrowing techniques from silent film, sets it apart from other Hollywood films of the 1940s and 1950s, and it has influenced such later directors as Rainer Werner Fassbinder,[1] Robert Altman,[2] Spike Lee, Martin Scorsese,[3] the Coen brothers and Guillermo del Toro.

Despite receiving negative reviews upon its original release, it has been positively re-evaluated in later decades and is now considered one of the greatest films ever made. It was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry in 1992.[4][5] The influential French film magazine Cahiers du Cinéma selected The Night of the Hunter in 2008 as the second-best film of all time, behind Citizen Kane.[6] The negative reaction to its premiere made it Charles Laughton's only feature film as director.

Plot edit

Preacher Harry Powell is a misogynistic serial killer and self-proclaimed preacher traveling along the Ohio River in West Virginia during the Great Depression. He is arrested for driving a stolen car and serves 30 days at Moundsville Penitentiary. There he shares a cell with Ben Harper, who killed two men in a bank robbery for $10,000.[a] Harper made his children, John and Pearl, promise to never reveal where he hid the money. Despite Powell's attempts to worm it out of him, Harper takes the secret to his grave when he is hanged for the murders.

Upon his release from prison, Powell visits Harper's tiny hometown, where he charms the townsfolk and woos Harper's widow, Willa, a waitress for Walter Spoon and his wife Icey.[8] Overnight Powell manages to win the town's trust and weds Willa, but John remains instinctively distrustful of him. Powell suspects that John knows where the money is hidden and threatens him to reveal its location. John accidentally reveals that he and Pearl know where the money is hidden. After Powell refuses to consummate their marriage, Willa deludes herself that he married her to redeem her soul and begins preaching alongside him in tent revivals. She later loses her faith in him when she overhears Powell threatening Pearl to make her reveal where the money is hidden.

After Powell murders Willa and ties her body to a Model T that he sinks in the river, he claims that she left her family for a life of sin when Walter and Icey question her abrupt disappearance. Uncle Birdie, an elderly friend of the family, discovers Willa's body while fishing, but refrains from telling the police for fear that he will be accused of Willa's murder.

Powell threatens the children and learns the money is hidden inside Pearl's doll. The children escape an enraged Powell and attempt to seek refuge with Birdie, whom they find in a drunken stupor. They use their father's small johnboat to flee down the river and find sanctuary with Rachel Cooper, a tough woman who looks after stray children.

Powell tracks them down, but Rachel sees through his deceptions and runs him off her property with a shotgun. Powell returns after dark. During an all-night standoff, Rachel gives Powell a face full of birdshot. She summons the state police, who arrive and arrest Powell for Willa's murder. John breaks down during Powell's handcuffing, having a flashback of his father's fate. He beats the doll against Powell's struggling body in anguish, spilling the cash.

During Powell's trial John cannot bring himself to testify against him. After Powell's sentencing, Rachel takes John and the other children away as Icey leads a lynch mob toward the police station. Powell is escorted out the back to safety just in time, but the prison hangman vows to see him again soon. John and Pearl spend their first Christmas together with Rachel and her brood of stray children.

Cast edit

Production edit

Director Charles Laughton in 1934

This was the only film solely directed by and credited to the actor Charles Laughton. Laughton, in addition to Irving Allen and Burgess Meredith, directed the film The Man on the Eiffel Tower; Meredith was the only director credited for the film.[10] Laughton had directed plays on Broadway, most produced by his friend Paul Gregory.

Development edit

Harold Matson, a literary agent, sent a copy of the 1953 novel The Night of the Hunter by Davis Grubb to Paul Gregory.[11] He sent the book to Laughton, who loved it and described it as a "nightmarish Mother Goose story".[12] Laughton contacted Grubb, and the two of them instantly got along very well. He traveled to Philadelphia, where Grubb lived, and they spent five days discussing ideas for the film. Grubb had studied art in college, so he offered to draw sketches as a form of inspiration. Laughton loved the drawings, and many of them were used in the film's storyboard.[13]

At first Grubb was being considered to write the screenplay himself, but the studio wanted to hire someone with experience writing for films.[14] James Agee was hired as the screenwriter because he was from the South and had experience writing about the Depression.[15] Agee began writing in April 1954, and finished in June, but his script was 293 pages: much too long for a feature film. Laughton made significant rewrites to the script, and his was the version used for shooting, even though he insisted that Agee be credited as the only writer.[16][9] Agee's original script ended with a shot of children's faces floating among the stars, an idea that was eventually moved to the opening of the film.[17] Throughout 1954, Gregory worked with the Production Code Administration to change the script to meet the guidelines of the Production Code. There was much concern about depicting a preacher on screen as an evil person, and Gregory made an effort to make the character of the Preacher not appear to be a real, ordained minister. Eventually the script was approved, but Protestant groups who had read the script continued to object to the film's production.[9]

While preparing for the filming, Laughton studied silent films by viewing their original nitrate prints, including The Birth of a Nation, Intolerance, and The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. He wanted to "restore the power of silent films to talkies."[18]

The budget of the film was a little under $600,000,[19] of which about $75,000 was for the rights to adapt the novel.[20]

Casting edit

Robert Mitchum playing Preacher Harry Powell and Shelley Winters as Willa Harper

Laughton's initial thought after reading the novel was to cast himself in the role of the preacher, but Gregory convinced him that no studio would finance a film unless they cast someone else.[21][22] For the most part, he did not hold traditional auditions for the actors; he simply met with them to get a sense of their personalities and whether they were right for the role.[23]

Laughton considered casting Gary Cooper as Harry Powell, but Cooper did not accept the role as he thought it might be detrimental to his career.[24] John Carradine expressed interest in the role of the Preacher,[25] as did Laurence Olivier, but his schedule was not free for two years.[26] Robert Mitchum was eager for the part of the preacher. When he auditioned, a moment that particularly impressed Charles Laughton was when Laughton described the character as "a diabolical shit", and Mitchum promptly answered "Present!"[24] Laughton liked Mitchum for the role partly due to his sexual persona, but Grubb was concerned about the character of the preacher being considered sexual. Laughton told him, "If you want to sell God, you have to be sexy."[27]

Agnes Moorehead, Grace Kelly, and Betty Grable were all considered for the role of Willa Harper.[28] In the end Laughton chose Shelley Winters because he felt she had a vulnerable quality and was more of a serious actor than a movie star; she committed to the role only two weeks before filming began.[29] In her 1989 memoir, Winters described this as "probably the most thoughtful and reserved performance I ever gave".[30]

Laughton's first pick for the role of Rachel Cooper was his wife Elsa Lanchester.[31] Jane Darwell and Louise Fazenda also were considered.[32] Lanchester, for reasons unknown to Laughton, turned down the role, suggesting silent movie star Lillian Gish for the role.[31] A doubtful Laughton went to New York for the purpose of watching films in which Gish starred. These included the shorts and feature films she made with pioneer D.W. Griffith. Gish had gotten word of his watching these old movies, and when she asked him why, he replied, "When I first went to the movies, they sat in their seats straight and leaned forward. Now they slump down, with their heads back, and eat candy and popcorn. I want them to sit up straight again."[33]

Filming edit

A lighting arrangement in The Night of the Hunter. Note the placement of the key light off the subject (Lillian Gish) to create a silhouette while illuminating Robert Mitchum in the background. This plays off the conventional association of light with good and darkness with evil.

Principal photography of The Night of the Hunter began on August 15 and ended on October 7, 1954, a total of 36 days of shooting.[34][35] Laughton kept the editor and musical composer on set during filming, which was very uncommon at the time.[36] Mitchum originally suggested that Laughton shoot the film in authentic Appalachian locations, but the director could not afford the budget to do on-location shooting.[citation needed] Besides, he wanted to create the film's unique look on Hollywood sound stages and found what he was looking for at Pathé, Republic Studios, and the Rowland V. Lee ranch in the San Fernando Valley.[37] Certain cutaway shots and compositing shots were shot in West Virginia.[38] Laughton hired Terry Sanders as second unit director in order to scout and shoot the river scenes because he had recently directed an Academy Award-winning short film A Time Out of War, which mostly took place on a river.[39]

Rather than shooting with traditional takes, Laughton had the crew only slate at the beginning of each reel of film and let the camera roll continuously until the reel ran out. This was so that he could direct the actors without waiting to reset the camera and sound equipment, not unlike the way silent films used to be directed.[40] Shelley Winters told Laughton she had this image of Willa as being "a fly fascinated by a spider, and she very willingly walks into this web". He liked this image and told her to channel that into the performance. Indeed, a stylized spider and web are seen as the children make their way along the riverbank at night fleeing Mitchum.[41] Mitchum's performance in the film has been described as Brechtian acting, which Laughton had extensive experience with.[42] According to Lillian Gish, Laughton was very unsure of himself on set as this was his first time directing a film, and when someone would give him a suggestion he would start talking about fears that his whole vision was wrong.[43] Laughton's directing style was supportive and respectful of the actors' input and several of the actors have said it was among their favorite professional experiences.[citation needed]

The director of photography was Stanley Cortez, who also shot Orson Welles' 1942 film The Magnificent Ambersons. Because Laughton had very little experience working with film, Cortez would visit his house to explain various concepts of camera lenses, camera heights, and what effect each of them gave.[44] Laughton told Cortez that the nitrate prints of the silent movies that he had been watching for research impressed them with how sharp they looked, so he asked Cortez to create that same sharpness for The Night of the Hunter.[45] The studio brought most of the crew from a recent film Black Tuesday because they had worked so well together, and Cortez had experimented with a new black-and-white film Kodak Tri-X on that production, with great results. He chose to shoot certain scenes of this film on Tri-X because it had a sharp contrast that would help fulfill Laughton's vision.[46][47] The studio however, tried to convince them to shoot on color film instead because they thought it would sell more tickets. Gregory fought to keep it black-and-white: "I could not see this film being in color."[48] The style of the cinematography was split up between the two units: the first unit of the crew shot the scenes in and around the Harpers' home, which were very dark, whereas the second unit shot the scenes traveling along the river, which were designed to look more like images from the children's perspective. One scene in particular that Cortez has spoken about is in the bedroom after Willa has overheard Powell threatening the children. He lit this scene with a halo of light surrounding Willa's head on the pillow, foreshadowing that her death is imminent.[49] Cortez also brought back the Iris shot in one scene, as an homage to silent films.[50]

Laughton drew on the harsh, angular look of German expressionist films of the 1920s, which is especially noticeable in the art direction by Hilyard Brown.[51][52] He had the idea that children notice only certain details of their surroundings that they are focused on, which is why some set pieces are somewhat abstract and minimal: neon lights that are not attached to a particular store, white picket fences that are not surrounding any house, the barn along the river that looks like a painting, and the "chapel-like" parents' bedroom.[53] The river scenes with the children were all shot on a sound stage.[54] The shot of John looking out of the barn window and seeing Powell's silhouette on the horizon was created using a little person and a miniature horse.[55] The underwater scene showing Willa's dead body was shot in a studio using a mannequin with a custom mask to make it look like Winters.[9]

Score edit

The film's score, composed and arranged by Walter Schumann in close association with Laughton, features a combination of nostalgic and expressionistic orchestral passages. The film has two original songs by Schumann, "Lullaby" (sung by Kitty White, whom Schumann discovered in a nightclub)[56] and "Pretty Fly" (originally sung by Sally Jane Bruce as Pearl, but later dubbed by an actress named Betty Benson).[57] A recurring musical device involves the preacher making his presence known by singing the traditional hymn "Leaning on the Everlasting Arms".[47] RCA Victor was impressed by the score, so in 1955 they released a soundtrack with Schumann's score and Laughton narrating an abridged version of the story, also written by Grubb.[56][47]

Post production edit

The film's editor, Robert Golden, has said that after he screened the complete film to one of the United Artists studio executives for the first time, the executive told Golden, "It's too arty."[58]

Release edit

An image from the original trailer for The Night of the Hunter

The Night of the Hunter premiered on July 26, 1955, in Des Moines, Iowa, a special event to raise money for the YMCA in Gregory's hometown, which included a parade and a broadcast on The Tonight Show.[59][9] It later had its premiere in Los Angeles on August 26, 1955,[60] and in New York on September 29, 1955.[59]

To promote the film, the Los Angeles Herald-Express serialized the film's script throughout April 1955.[61] The film also received an extensive promotional campaign from United Artists,[62] but they weren't sure about the best way to promote it because it didn't fall into any typical film genres, and the promotional material didn't give a good sense of what the film was about.[63] However, one of the film's advertisements won an award for being in the top 50 best advertisements of 1954 from the American Institute of Graphic Arts.[9] According to Paul Gregory, "absolutely no money was spent on promotion...United Artists didn't have the muscle, desire, or intelligence to handle the picture."[64] He originally had the idea to tour the film "road show style", stopping at certain cities that were familiar with Laughton's plays, but he could not convince the studio.[19]

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Cheyenne denied the film's release, and Gregory wanted to put together a lawsuit against them, but the studio would not allow him to.[65]

Reception edit

Contemporaneous edit

The Night of the Hunter was a failure with both audiences and critics at its initial release.[10] Laughton took the failure of his first film personally, and never attempted to make another film.[66]

Bosley Crowther of The New York Times called the film "a weird and intriguing endeavor", adding: "unfortunately the story and the thesis presented by Mr. Grubb had to be carried through by Mr. Laughton to a finish—and it is here that he goes wrong. For the evolution of the melodrama, after the threatened, frightened children flee home, angles off into that allegorical contrast of the forces of Evil and Good."[67] Gene Arneel of Variety summarized: "The relentless terror of Davis Grubb's novel got away from Paul Gregory and Charles Laughton in their translation of Night of the Hunter. This start for Gregory as producer and Laughton as director is rich in promise but the completed product, bewitching at times, loses sustained drive via too many offbeat touches that have a misty effect."[68] Harrison's Reports wrote, "The picture might have some appeal for those who patronize art houses in search of the unusual in movie fare, but the great majority of those who see it will look upon it as a choppily-edited, foggy melodrama peopled with foggy characters."[69] Life summed up the film, "If sometimes it strains too hard at being simple and winds up being pretentious, it still is one of the year's most interesting and provocative films."[70]

The Legion of Decency gave the film a B because it degraded marriage, and the Protestant Motion Picture Council rated it "objectionable", saying that any religious person would be offended by it. The film was also banned in Memphis, Tennessee, by the city's head of censorship, Lloyd Binford.[71][9] Great Britain rated the film "adults only."[9]

Retrospective edit

Over time, The Night of the Hunter has been reassessed and is now an undisputed classic.[72] It began as a cult film, with a small group of fans, and regularly played at museums and in revival houses. Its popularity grew as a new generation of children were exposed to the film when it played on television.[73] In the 1970s, as the field of film criticism began to expand, many articles were written about the film.[74]

Roger Ebert wrote, "what a compelling, frightening and beautiful film it is! And how well it has survived its period. Many films of the mid-1950s, even the good ones, seem somewhat dated now, but by setting his story in an invented movie world outside conventional realism, Laughton gave it a timelessness... It is one of the most frightening of movies, with one of the most unforgettable of villains, and on both of those scores, it holds up... well after four decades."[75] Dave Kehr wrote that "Charles Laughton's first and only film as a director is an enduring masterpiece—dark, deep, beautiful, aglow... The source of its style and power is mysterious—it is a film without precedent and without any real equals."[76]

The Night of the Hunter was rated No. 90 on Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments. In a 2007 listing of the 100 Most Beautiful Films, Cahiers du cinéma ranked The Night of the Hunter No. 2.[77] It is among the top ten in the BFI list of the 50 films you should see by the age of 14. In 2008, it was ranked as the 71st greatest movie of all time by Empire magazine in its issue of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.[78] In 2012, Sight and Sound magazine's decennial "Greatest Films of All Time" poll ranked it as the 63rd greatest film ever made; in 2022, the same poll put it at No. 25.[79][80]

In 1992, the United States Library of Congress deemed The Night of the Hunter to be "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant", and selected the film for preservation in its National Film Registry.[81] On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 93% based on 80 reviews, with a weighted average rating of 9.10/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Featuring Robert Mitchum's formidable performance as a child-hunting preacher, The Night of the Hunter is a disturbing look at good and evil."[82]

American Film Institute recognition

Mark Callaghan, the lead singer for the Australian band The Riptides, parodied Mitchum's character in the music video for the 1982 track, Hearts And Flowers.

Powell's speech about love and hate has become a memorable moment in film history. In the 1989 Spike Lee film Do the Right Thing, the character Radio Raheem wears brass knuckles saying "love" and "hate" on each hand and gives a speech that is an almost verbatim copy of Powell's.[83]

The Coen brothers have referenced The Night of the Hunter in several of their own films, including The Big Lebowski ("the Dude abides", an echo of Rachel's closing line "They abide, and they endure") and True Grit (the visual style of Rooster's night ride with Mattie is similar to that of John and Pearl's river journey, and the score uses the music from Leaning on the Everlasting Arms).[84]

In the episode "Fall" of the television series Better Call Saul, The Night of the Hunter is shown playing in a retirement home as series protagonist Jimmy McGill attempts to deceive a number of his clients. Powell's hand gestures during his "right hand, left hand" speech are juxtaposed with similar gestures made by Jimmy, highlighting his charismatic but duplicitous nature.

In Emerald Fennell's 2020 film Promising Young Woman a clip from The Night of the Hunter is playing in a scene where the protagonist's parents are watching TV on the couch. In a later scene, the song “The Pretty Fly”, from the soundtrack to The Night of the Hunter, plays after the protagonist makes a disturbing discovery.

Home media edit

The Night of the Hunter was released on DVD by MGM Home Entertainment in 2000.[85] On November 16, 2010, the film was released on Blu-ray and DVD by The Criterion Collection in association with the University of California, Los Angeles film archive.[85] Among other supplemental material the Criterion edition includes are various interviews with the cast and crew along with an appearance of the cast on The Ed Sullivan Show performing a deleted scene from the film and the two-and-a-half hour documentary Charles Laughton Directs "The Night of the Hunter".[86] Kino Lorber released a 4K UHD Blu-ray edition of the film on May 30, 2023.[87]

Related works edit

In 1974, film archivists Robert Gitt and Anthony Slide retrieved several boxes of photographs, sketches, memos, and letters relating to the film from Laughton's widow Elsa Lanchester for the American Film Institute. Lanchester also gave the Institute over 80,000 feet of rushes and outtakes from the filming.[88] In 1981, this material was sent to the UCLA Film and Television Archive where, for the next 20 years, they were edited into a two-and-half hour documentary that premiered in 2002, at UCLA's Festival of Preservation.[89]

The film was remade in 1991 as a TV movie starring Richard Chamberlain.[90]

In 2020, it was reported that Universal Pictures is working on a remake of the film set in the present day, and being written by Matt Orton.[91]

In 2023, The Libertines released a single titled Night of the Hunter, which takes its title from the film and contains several lyrical allusions to its characters and plot. Peter Doherty, who co-wrote the song, said this to the NME: “We got the title from Charles Laughton’s directorial debut Night Of The Hunter starring Robert Mitchum as a preacher with ‘LOVE’ and ‘HATE’ tattooed on his knuckles”.[92]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Töteberg, Michael; Lensing (1992). The Anarchy of the Imagination: Interviews, Essays, Notes, Rainer Werner Fassbinder. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 106. ISBN 0801843693.
  2. ^ Goodman, Joan (23 November 1996). "Directing dangerously". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on February 26, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  3. ^ Ventura, Elbert (2010-11-09). "Charles Laughton's The Night of the Hunter, revisited". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 2021-12-27.
  4. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing". Library of Congress. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  5. ^ Marx, Andy; Wharton, Dennis (December 4, 1992). "Diverse pix mix picked". Variety. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  6. ^ "Cahiers du Cinéma 100 Films". Cahiers du cinéma. The Moving Arts. Archived from the original on December 18, 2013.
  7. ^ "$10,000 in 1931 → 2023 | Inflation Calculator".
  8. ^ "'The Night of the Hunter': The Extraordinary Single Directorial Entry in Charles Laughton's Career • Cinephilia & Beyond". December 20, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Night of the Hunter". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Full Cast & Crew". IMDb.
  11. ^ Algar 1995, 2:29.
  12. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 0:46.
  13. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 6:28.
  14. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 8:32.
  15. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 7:37.
  16. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 8:48.
  17. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 11:00.
  18. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 17:45.
  19. ^ a b Clubb & Rosas 2010, 32:40.
  20. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 13:20.
  21. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 4:24.
  22. ^ Algar 1995, 3:15.
  23. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 30:33.
  24. ^ a b Callow 2000, p. 32.
  25. ^ Jones 2002, p. 74.
  26. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 5:29.
  27. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 27:16.
  28. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 28:45.
  29. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 29:44.
  30. ^ Winters, Shelley (1989). Shelley II: The Middle of My Century. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 29. ISBN 0671442104. Retrieved May 13, 2020 – via Internet Archive.
  31. ^ a b Oderman, Stuart (2015). Lillian Gish: A Life on Stage and Screen. McFarland. p. 278. ISBN 978-1476613697. Retrieved February 8, 2020 – via GoogleBooks.
  32. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 31:04.
  33. ^ Kashner, Sam; MacNair, Jennifer (2003). The Bad & the Beautiful: Hollywood in the Fifties. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 192. ISBN 0393324362. Retrieved February 8, 2020 – via GoogleBooks.
  34. ^ Eagan 2010, p. 502.
  35. ^ Ventura & Gavron 1984, 3:03.
  36. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 13:41.
  37. ^ Couchman 2009, p. 123.
  38. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 14:45.
  39. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 15:20.
  40. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 19:23.
  41. ^ Algar 1995, 6:45.
  42. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 26:31.
  43. ^ Algar 1995, 7:50.
  44. ^ Ventura & Gavron 1984, 2:46.
  45. ^ Algar 1995, 9:35.
  46. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 22:04.
  47. ^ a b c Turner, George E. (December 1982). "Creating The Night of the Hunter". American Cinematographer. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  48. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 21:42.
  49. ^ Algar 1995, 10:55.
  50. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 20:20.
  51. ^ The Night of the Hunter: Not Noir
  52. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 22:54.
  53. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 22:54 and 24:38.
  54. ^ Algar 1995, 11:35.
  55. ^ Algar 1995, 12:00.
  56. ^ a b Jones 2002, p. 342.
  57. ^ Jones 2002, p. 252.
  58. ^ Algar 1995, 12:50.
  59. ^ a b Couchman 2009, p. 196.
  60. ^ "The Night of the Hunter". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
  61. ^ Couchman 2009, p. 198.
  62. ^ Couchman 2009, pp. 196–8.
  63. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 34:30.
  64. ^ Algar 1995, 13:15.
  65. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 35:38.
  66. ^ Algar 1995, 13:55.
  67. ^ Crowther, Bosley (September 30, 1955). "Screen: Bogeyman Plus". The New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2018.
  68. ^ Arneel, Gene (July 20, 1955). "Film Reviews: The Night of the Hunter". Variety. p. 6. Retrieved June 10, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  69. ^ "'The Night of the Hunter' with Robert Mitchum, Shelley Winters and Lillian Gish". Harrison's Reports. July 23, 1955. p. 120. Retrieved June 10, 2021 – via Internet Archive.
  70. ^ "A Diabolical Preacher Runs Amok". Life. August 1, 1955. p. 49. Retrieved February 8, 2020 – via Google Books.
  71. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 35:55.
  72. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 37:26.
  73. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 36:13.
  74. ^ Clubb & Rosas 2010, 36:55.
  75. ^ Ebert, Roger (November 24, 1996). "The Night of the Hunter (1955)". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2006.
  76. ^ Kehr, Dave (October 26, 1985). "The Night of the Hunter". Chicago Reader.
  77. ^ "Cahiers du cinéma: 100 most beautiful films in the world". 2008-11-04.
  78. ^ "The 500 Greatest Films Of All Time". Empire. June 12, 2017. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  79. ^ "The 100 Greatest Films of All Time 2012". 2021-06-28.
  80. ^ "The Greatest Films of All Time". 2022-12-01.
  81. ^ Couchman 2009, p. 216.
  82. ^ The Night of the Hunter (1955), retrieved September 20, 2022
  83. ^ Valladares, Carlos (April 23, 2018). "Waking up to the genius of 'The Night of the Hunter,' showing at the Stanford". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 8, 2020.
  84. ^ Whipp, Glenn (January 11, 2011). "The Coen brothers' gritty tale for kids". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 23, 2021.
  85. ^ a b "The Night of the Hunter Home Video Review". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved December 28, 2017.
  86. ^ "The Night of the Hunter (1955) | The Criterion Collection". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  87. ^ "The Night of the Hunter 4K Blu-ray". Archived from the original on June 4, 2023.
  88. ^ Satola, Mark. Preview: A Rare Look Behind The Scenes Of The Night Of The Hunter
  89. ^ ""Treasures from the UCLA Film and Television Archive"". Archived from the original on June 22, 2009.
  90. ^ "Night of the Hunter (1991) TV Movie". IMDb. May 19, 2012.
  91. ^ Kroll, Justin (April 7, 2020). "'Night of the Hunter' Remake in the Works at Universal (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
  92. ^ Skinner, Tom (2023-12-06). "Listen to The Libertines' new single 'Night Of The Hunter'". NME. Retrieved 2024-01-14.

Works cited edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Approximately $200,083.55 in 2023.[7]

External links edit