The Imitation Game
The Imitation Game is a 2014 American historical drama film directed by Morten Tyldum and written by Graham Moore, based on the biography Alan Turing: The Enigma by Andrew Hodges. It stars Benedict Cumberbatch as British cryptanalyst Alan Turing, who decrypted German intelligence messages for the British government during the Second World War. Keira Knightley, Matthew Goode, Rory Kinnear, Charles Dance, and Mark Strong also star.
|The Imitation Game|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Morten Tyldum|
|Written by||Graham Moore|
|Based on||Alan Turing: The Enigma|
by Andrew Hodges
|Music by||Alexandre Desplat|
|Edited by||William Goldenberg|
|Box office||$233.6 million|
The screenplay topped the annual Black List for best unproduced Hollywood scripts in 2011. The Weinstein Company acquired the film for $7 million in February 2014, the highest amount ever paid for U.S. distribution rights at the European Film Market. It was released theatrically in the United States on 28 November 2014.
The Imitation Game grossed over $233 million worldwide on a $14 million production budget, making it the highest-grossing independent film of 2014. It received eight nominations at the 87th Academy Awards, winning for Best Adapted Screenplay, five nominations in the 72nd Golden Globe Awards, and three nominations at the 21st Screen Actors Guild Awards. It also received nine BAFTA nominations and won the People's Choice Award at the 39th Toronto International Film Festival.
The film was criticised by some for its inaccurate portrayal of historical events and for downplaying Turing's homosexuality. However, the LGBT civil rights advocacy organisation the Human Rights Campaign honoured it for bringing Turing's legacy to a wider audience.
In 1951, two policemen, Nock and Staehl, investigate the mathematician Alan Turing after an apparent break-in at his home. During his interrogation by Nock, Turing tells of his time working at Bletchley Park during the Second World War.
In 1928, the young Turing is unhappy and bullied at boarding school. He develops a friendship with Christopher Morcom, who sparks his interest in cryptography. Turing develops romantic feelings for him, but Christopher soon dies from tuberculosis.
When Britain declares war on Germany in 1939, Turing travels to Bletchley Park. Under the direction of Commander Alastair Denniston, he joins the cryptography team of Hugh Alexander, John Cairncross, Peter Hilton, Keith Furman and Charles Richards. The team are trying to analyze the Enigma machine, which the Nazis use to send coded messages.
Turing is difficult to work with, and considers his colleagues inferior; he works alone to design a machine to decipher Enigma messages. After Denniston refuses to fund construction of the machine, Turing writes to Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who puts Turing in charge of the team and funds the machine. Turing fires Furman and Richards and places a difficult crossword in newspapers to find replacements. Joan Clarke, a Cambridge graduate, passes Turing’s test but her parents will not allow her to work with the male cryptographers. Turing arranges for her to live and work with the female clerks who intercept the messages, and shares his plans with her. With Clarke's help, Turing warms to the other colleagues, who begin to respect him.
Turing’s machine, which he names Christopher, is constructed, but cannot determine the Enigma encryption settings quickly enough; the Germans reset them each day. Denniston orders it to be destroyed and Turing fired, but the other cryptographers threaten to leave if Turing goes. After Clarke plans to leave on the wishes of her parents, Turing proposes marriage, which she accepts. During their reception, Turing confirms his homosexuality to Cairncross, who warns him to keep it secret. After overhearing a conversation with a female clerk about messages she receives, Turing has an epiphany, realising he can program the machine to decode words he already knows exist in certain messages. After he recalibrates the machine, it quickly decodes a message and the cryptographers celebrate. Turing realises they cannot act on every decoded message or the Germans will realise Enigma has been broken.
Turing discovers that Cairncross is a Soviet spy. When Turing confronts him, Cairncross argues that the Soviets are allies working for the same goals, and threatens to retaliate by disclosing Turing’s sexuality. When the MI6 agent Stewart Menzies appears to threaten Clarke, Turing reveals that Cairncross is a spy. Menzies reveals he knew this already and planted Cairncross to leak messages to the Soviets for British benefit. Fearing for her safety, Turing tells Clarke to leave Bletchley Park, revealing that he is gay. Clarke states she always suspected but insists they would have been happy together anyway. Turing then tells her he never cared for her, and only used her for her cryptography skills. Heartbroken, she leaves. After the war, Menzies tells the cryptographers to destroy their work and that they can never see one another again or share what they have done.
In the 1950s, Turing is convicted of gross indecency and, in lieu of a jail sentence, undergoes chemical castration so he can continue his work. Clarke visits him in his home and witnesses his physical and mental deterioration. She comforts him by saying that his work saved millions of lives. The final scene shows an on screen message saying, "After a year of government-mandated hormonal therapy, Turing committed suicide on June 7th, 1954. He was 41 years old. Between 1885 and 1967, approximately 49,000 homosexual men were convicted of gross indecency under British law. In 2013 Queen Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous Royal Pardon, honouring his unprecedented achievements."
- Benedict Cumberbatch as Alan Turing
- Keira Knightley as Joan Clarke
- Matthew Goode as Hugh Alexander
- Rory Kinnear as Detective Nock
- Allen Leech as John Cairncross
- Matthew Beard as Peter Hilton
- Charles Dance as Cdr. Alastair Denniston
- Mark Strong as Maj. Gen. Stewart Menzies
- James Northcote as Jack Good
- Steven Waddington as Supt. Smith
- Tom Goodman-Hill as Sgt. Staehl
- Alex Lawther as young Alan Turing
- Jack Bannon as Christopher Morcom
- Ilan Goodman as Keith Furman
- Jack Tarlton as Charles Richards
- Tuppence Middleton as Helen Stewart
- David Charkham as Joan's Father, William Kemp Lowther Clarke
- Victoria Wicks as Joan's Mother, Dorothy Clarke
- Dominic Charman as Sherborne Student 1
- James G. Nunn as Sherborne Student 2
- Charlie Manton as Sherborne Student 3
Before Cumberbatch joined the project, Warner Bros. bought the screenplay for a reported seven-figure sum because of Leonardo DiCaprio's interest in playing Turing. In the end, DiCaprio did not come on board and the rights of the script reverted to the screenwriter. Black Bear Pictures subsequently committed to finance the film for $14 million. Various directors were attached during development including Ron Howard and David Yates. In December 2012, it was announced that Headhunters director Morten Tyldum would helm the project, making the film his English-language directorial debut.
Principal photography began on 15 September 2013 in Britain. Filming locations included Turing's former school, Sherborne, Bletchley Park, where Turing and his colleagues worked during the war, and Central Saint Martins campus on Southampton Row in London. Other locations included towns in England such as Nettlebed (Joyce Grove in Oxfordshire) and Chesham (Buckinghamshire). Scenes were also filmed at Bicester Airfield and outside the Law Society building in Chancery Lane, and at West London Film Studios. Principal photography finished on 11 November 2013.
The bombe seen in the film is based on a replica of Turing's original machine, which is housed in the museum at Bletchley Park. However, production designer Maria Djurkovic admitted that her team made the machine more cinematic by making it larger and having more of its internal mechanisms visible.
The Weinstein Company acquired the film for $7 million in February 2014, the highest amount ever paid for US distribution rights at the European Film Market. The film is also a recipient of Tribeca Film Festival's Sloan Filmmaker Fund, which grants filmmakers funding and guidance with regard to innovative films that are concerned with science, mathematics, and technology.
|The Imitation Game|
|Film score by|
|Released||24 November 2014|
|Label||Sony Music Entertainment|
In June 2014, it was announced that Alexandre Desplat would provide the original score of the film. It was recorded by the London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road Studios in London. Desplat uses continuous piano arpeggios to represent both Turing's thinking mind and the workings of a mechanical machine. He said of the complexity of the continuity and structure of the score:
[W]hen the camera at the end of the film has those beautiful shots of the young boy, the young Alan, and he's meeting with the professor who's telling him his friend Christopher is dead, and the camera is pushing in on him, I play Christopher's theme that we heard very early on in the film. There's a simple continuity there. It's the accumulation of these moments that I can slowly but surely play that make it even stronger.
|1.||"The Imitation Game"||2:37|
|5.||"Carrots and Peas"||2:19|
|10.||"Alone with Numbers"||2:58|
|11.||"The Machine Christopher"||1:57|
|15.||"A Different Equation"||2:54|
|16.||"Becoming a Spy"||4:08|
|18.||"Farewell to Christopher"||2:41|
|19.||"End of War"||2:07|
|20.||"Because of You"||1:36|
|21.||"Alan Turing's Legacy"||1:56|
Following the Royal Pardon granted by the British government to Turing on 24 December 2013, the filmmakers released the first official promotional photograph of Cumberbatch in character beside Turing's bombe. In the week of the anniversary of Turing's death in June 2014, Entertainment Weekly released two new stills which marked the first look at the characters played by Keira Knightley, Matthew Goode, Matthew Beard, and Allen Leech. On what would have been Turing's 102nd birthday on 23 June, Empire released two photographs featuring Mark Strong and Charles Dance in character. Promotional stills were taken by photographer Jack English, who also photographed Cumberbatch for Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy.
Princeton University Press and Vintage Books both released film tie-in editions of Andrew Hodges' biography Alan Turing: The Enigma in September 2014. The first UK and US trailers were released on 22 July 2014. The international teaser poster was released on 18 September 2014 with the tagline "The true enigma was the man who cracked the code".
In November 2014, the Weinstein Company co-hosted a private screening of the film with Digital Sky Technologies billionaire Yuri Milner and Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Attendees of the screening at Los Altos Hills, California included Silicon Valley's top executives, such as Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg, Linkedin's Reid Hoffman, Google co-founder Sergey Brin, Airbnb's Nathan Blecharczyk, and Theranos founder Elizabeth Holmes. Director Tyldum, screenwriter Moore, and actress Knightley were also in attendance. In addition, Cumberbatch and Zuckerberg presented the Mathematics Prizes at the Breakthrough Awards on 10 November 2014 in honour of Turing.
The bombe re-created by the filmmakers has been on display in a special The Imitation Game exhibition at Bletchley Park since 10 November 2014. The year-long exhibit features clothes worn by the actors and props used in the film.
The official film website allowed visitors to unlock exclusive content by solving cryptic crossword puzzles supposedly conceived by Turing. The website puzzle was a shorter version of the Daily Telegraph puzzle of 13 January 1942 that was actually used in Bletchley Park recruitment during the war (and the puzzle was not set by Turing, who was no good at them). Google, which sponsored the New York Premiere of the film, launched a competition called "The Code-Cracking Challenge" on 23 November 2014. It is a skill contest where entrants must crack a code provided by Google. The prize/s will be awarded to entrant/s who crack the code and submit their entry the fastest.
In November 2014, ahead of the film's US release, The New York Times reprinted the 1942 puzzle from The Daily Telegraph used in recruiting codebreakers at Bletchley Park during the Second World War. Entrants who solved the puzzle could mail in their results for a chance to win a trip for two to London and a tour of Bletchley Park.
TWC launched a print and online campaign on 2 January 2015 featuring testimonials from leaders in the fields of technology, military, academia, and LGBTQ groups (all influenced by Turing's life and accomplishments) to promote the film and Turing's legacy. Yahoo! CEO Marissa Mayer, Netflix CEO Reed Hastings, Google Executive Chairman Eric Schmidt, Twitter CEO Dick Costolo, PayPal co-founder Max Levchin, YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki, and Wikipedia's Jimmy Wales all gave tribute quotes. There were also testimonials from LGBT leaders including HRC president Chad Griffin and GLAAD CEO Sarah Kate Ellis and from military leaders including the 22nd United States Defense Secretary Robert Gates.
The film had its world premiere at the 41st Telluride Film Festival in August 2014, and played at the 39th Toronto International Film Festival in September. It had its European premiere as the opening film of the 58th BFI London Film Festival in October 2014. It had a limited theatrical release on 28 November 2014 in the United States, two weeks after its premiere in the United Kingdom on 14 November. The US distributor TWC stated that the film would initially debut in four cinemas in Los Angeles and New York, expanding to six new markets on 12 December before being released nationwide on Christmas Day.
The Imitation Game was released on 31 March 2015 in the United States in two formats: a one-disc standard DVD and a Blu-ray with a digital copy of the film.
The Imitation Game grossed $91.1 million in North America and $142.4 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $233.5 million, against a budget of $14 million. It was the top-grossing independent film release of 2014.
The film opened at number two at the UK box office behind the big-budget film Interstellar, earning $4.3 million from 459 screens. Its opening box office figure was the third highest opening weekend haul for a British film in 2014. Its opening was 107% higher than that of Argo, 81% higher than Philomena and 26% higher than The Iron Lady following its debut.
Debuting in four cinemas in Los Angeles and New York on 28 November, the film grossed $479,352 in its opening weekend with a $119,352 per-screen-average, the second highest per-screen-average of 2014 and the 7th highest of all time for a live-action film. Adjusted for inflation, it outperformed the Weinstein Company's own Oscar-winning films The King's Speech ($88,863 in 2010) and The Artist ($51,220 in 2011), which were also released on Thanksgiving weekend. The film expanded into additional markets on 12 December and was released nationwide on Christmas Day.
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a "Certified Fresh" approval rating of 89% based on 274 reviews, with an average rating of 7.72/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "With an outstanding starring performance from Benedict Cumberbatch illuminating its fact-based story, The Imitation Game serves as an eminently test well-made entry in the 'prestige biopic' genre." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 73 out of 100, based on 49 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews". The film received a rare average grade of "A+" from market-research firm CinemaScore, and a 90% "definite recommend" rating from its core audience, according to comScore. It was also included in both the National Board of Review and American Film Institute's "Top 10 Films of 2014".
The New York Observer's Rex Reed declared that "one of the most important stories of the last century is one of the greatest movies of 2014". Kaleem Aftab of The Independent gave the film a five-star review, hailing it the "Best British Film of the Year". Lou Lumenick of the New York Post described it as a "thoroughly engrossing Oscar-caliber movie", while critic James Rocchi added that the film is "strong, stirring, triumphant and tragic". Empire described it as a "superb thriller" and Glamour declared it "an instant classic". Peter Debruge of Variety added that the film is "beautifully written, elegantly mounted and poignantly performed". Critic Scott Foundas stated that the "movie is undeniably strong in its sense of a bright light burned out too soon, and the often undignified fate of those who dare to chafe at society's established norms". Critic Leonard Maltin asserted that the film has "an ideal ensemble cast with every role filled to perfection". Praise went to Knightley's supporting performance as Clarke, Goldenberg's editing, Desplat's score, Faura's cinematography and Djurkovic's production design. The film was enthusiastically received at the Telluride Film Festival and won the "People's Choice Award for Best Film" at TIFF, the highest prize of the festival.
Cumberbatch's performance was met with widespread acclaim from critics. TIME ranked Cumberbatch's portrayal number one in its Top 10 film performances of 2014, with the magazine's chief film critic Richard Corliss calling Cumberbatch's characterisation "the actor's oddest, fullest, most Cumberbatchian character yet ... he doesn't play Turing so much as inhabit him, bravely and sympathetically but without mediation". Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times declared Turing "the role of Cumberbatch's career", while A.O. Scott of The New York Times stated that it is "one of the year's finest pieces of screen acting". Peter Travers of Rolling Stone asserted that the actor "gives an explosive, emotionally complex" portrayal. Critic Clayton Davis stated that it's a "performance for the ages ... proving he's one of the best actors working today". Foundas of Variety wrote that Cumberbatch's acting is "masterful ... a marvel to watch", Manohla Dargis of The New York Times described it as "delicately nuanced, prickly and tragic" and Owen Gleiberman of the BBC proclaimed it an "emotionally tailored perfection". It's "a storming performance from Cumberbatch: you'll be deciphering his work long after the credits roll" declared Dave Calhoun of Time Out. In addition, Claudia Puig of USA Today concluded in her review, "It's Cumberbatch's nuanced, haunted performance that leaves the most powerful impression". The Hollywood Reporter's Todd McCarthy reported that the undeniable highlight of the film was Cumberbatch, "whose charisma, tellingly modulated and naturalistic array of eccentricities, talent at indicating a mind never at rest and knack for simultaneously portraying physical oddness and attractiveness combine to create an entirely credible portrait of genius at work". Critic Roger Friedman wrote at the end of his review, "Cumberbatch may be the closest thing we have to a real descendant of Sir Laurence Olivier".
While praising the performances of Cumberbatch and Knightley, Catherine Shoard of The Guardian stated that the film is "too formulaic, too efficient at simply whisking you through and making sure you've clocked the diversity message". Tim Robey of The Telegraph described it as "a film about a human calculator which feels ... a little too calculated". Some critics also raised concerns about film's alleged reluctance to highlight Turing's homosexuality. British historian Alex von Tunzelmann, writing for The Guardian in November 2014, pointed out many historical inaccuracies in the film, saying in conclusion: "Historically, The Imitation Game is as much of a garbled mess as a heap of unbroken code". Journalist Christian Caryl also found numerous historical inaccuracies, describing the film as constituting "a bizarre departure from the historical record" that changed Turing's rich life to be "multiplex-friendly". L.V. Anderson of Slate magazine compared the film's account of Turing's life and work to the biography it was based on, writing, "I discovered that The Imitation Game takes major liberties with its source material, injecting conflict where none existed, inventing entirely fictional characters, rearranging the chronology of events, and misrepresenting the very nature of Turing's work at Bletchley Park". Andrew Grant of Science News wrote, "... like so many other Hollywood biopics, it takes some major artistic license – which is disappointing, because Turing's actual story is so compelling." Computing historian Thomas Haigh, writing in the journal Communications of the ACM, said that "the film is a bad guide to reality but a useful summary of everything that the popular imagination gets wrong about Bletchley Park", that it "combines the traditional focus of popular science writing on the lone genius who changes the world with the modern movie superhero narrative of a freak who must overcome his own flaws before he can save the world", and that, together with the likes of A Beautiful Mind and The Theory of Everything, is part of a trend of "glossy scientific biopic[s]" that emphasize those famous scientists who were surrounded by tragedy rather than those who found contented lives, which in turn affects the way "[s]ome kinds of people, and work, have become famous and others have not."
The Turing familyEdit
Despite earlier reservations, Turing's niece Inagh Payne told Allan Beswick of BBC Radio Manchester that the film "really did honour my uncle" after she watched the film at the London Film Festival in October 2014. In the same interview, Turing's nephew Dermot Turing stated that Cumberbatch is "perfect casting. I couldn't think of anyone better." James Turing, a great-nephew of the code-breaker, said Cumberbatch "knows things that I never knew before. The amount of knowledge he has about Alan is amazing."
In January 2015, Cumberbatch, comedian-actor Stephen Fry, producer Harvey Weinstein, and Turing's great-niece Rachel Barnes launched a campaign to pardon the 49,000 gay men convicted under the same law that led to Turing's chemical castration. An open letter published in The Guardian urged the British government and the Royal family, particularly Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, to aid the campaign.
The Human Rights Campaign's Chad Griffin also offered his endorsement, saying: "Over 49,000 other gay men and women were persecuted in England under the same law. Turing was pardoned by Queen Elizabeth II in 2013. The others were not. Honor this movie. Honor this man. And honor the movement to bring justice to the other 49,000." Aiding the cause were campaigner Peter Tatchell, Attitude magazine, and other high-profile figures in the gay community.
In February 2015, Matt Damon, Michael Douglas, Jessica Alba, Bryan Cranston, and Anna Wintour among others joined the petition at Pardon49k.org demanding pardons for victims of anti-gay laws. Historians, including Justin Bengry of Birkbeck University of London and Matt Houlbrook of the University of Birmingham, argued that such a pardon would be "bad history" despite its political appeal, because of the broad variety of cases in which the historical laws were applied (including cases of rape) and the distortion of history resulting from an attempt to clean up the wrongdoings of the past post facto. Bengry also cites the existing ability of those convicted under repealed anti-homosexuality laws to have their convictions declared spent.
This petition eventually resulted in the Policing and Crime Act 2017, informally known as the Alan Turing law, which serves as an amnesty law to pardon men who were cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts, and which was implemented on 31 January 2017. As the law and the disregard process applies only to England and Wales, groups in Northern Ireland and Scotland have campaigned for equivalent laws in their jurisdictions.
During production, there was criticism regarding the film's purported downplaying of Turing's homosexuality, particularly condemning the portrayal of his relationship with close friend and one-time fiancée Joan Clarke. Hodges, author of the book upon which the film was based, described the script as having "built up the relationship with Joan much more than it actually was". Turing's niece Payne thought that Knightley was inappropriately cast, as she described the real Clarke as "rather plain", and said: "I think they might be trying to romanticise it. It makes me a bit mad. You want the film to show it as it was, not a lot of nonsense."
Speaking to Empire, director Tyldum expressed his decision to take on the project: "It is such a complex story. It was the gay rights element, but also how his (Turing's) ideas were kept secret and how incredibly important his work was during the war, that he was never given credit for it". In an interview for GQ UK, Matthew Goode, who plays fellow cryptographer Hugh Alexander in the film, stated that the script focuses on "Turing's life and how as a nation we celebrated him as being a hero by chemically castrating him because he was gay". The producers of the film stated: "There is not – and never has been – a version of our script where Alan Turing is anything other than homosexual, nor have we included fictitious sex scenes."
In a January 2015 interview with The Huffington Post, its screenwriter Graham Moore said in response to complaints about the film's historical accuracy:
When you use the language of "fact checking" to talk about a film, I think you're sort of fundamentally misunderstanding how art works. You don't fact check Monet's Water Lilies. That's not what water lilies look like, that's what the sensation of experiencing water lilies feel like. That's the goal of the piece.
In the same interview, Tyldum stated:
A lot of historical films sometimes feel like people reading a Wikipedia page to you onscreen, like just reciting "and then he did that, and then he did that, and then he did this other thing" – it's like a "Greatest Hits" compilation. We wanted the movie to be emotional and passionate. Our goal was to give you "What does Alan Turing feel like?" What does his story feel like? What'd it feel like to be Alan Turing? Can we create the experience of sort of "Alan Turing-ness" for an audience based on his life?
For the most part, Hodges has not commented on the historical accuracy of the film, alluding to contractual obligations involving the film rights to his biography.
The following events depicted in the film did not happen in real life.
- The naming of the Enigma-breaking machine "Christopher" after Turing's childhood friend, with Turing the only cryptographer working on it while others either did not help or outright opposed it.
- In reality, this electromechanical machine was called "Victory" and it was a collaborative, not individual, effort. It was a British Bombe machine, which was partly inspired by a design by the Polish cryptanalyst Marian Rejewski. Rejewski designed a machine in 1938, called bomba kryptologiczna, which had broken an earlier version of Germany's Enigma machines by the Polish Cipher Bureau before the Second World War.
- A new machine with a different strategy was designed by Turing in 1940 with a major contribution from mathematician Gordon Welchman, who goes unmentioned in the film, his contribution instead attributed to Hugh Alexander.
- The building of only one machine, with Turing playing a large role in its construction.
- The overall plot arc in which the British cryptographers were stymied for the first few years of the war and then a sudden breakthrough enabled them to finally break Enigma.
- In reality, the Polish cryptanalysts Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski from the Polish Cipher Bureau had been breaking German Enigma messages since 1932. Their effort allowed the Poles to build replicas of German machines in Warsaw for the Polish secret service. Just before the war, the Polish secret service revealed their work to their French and British allies in a secret meeting on 26 and 27 July 1939, in Pyry near Warsaw. Thousands of men and women were working on the project by the time the war ended in 1945. The computing advances did not obviate the need for human labour, as the many teams of largely female operators certainly knew. Throughout the war, there were breakthroughs and setbacks when the design or use of the German Enigma machines was changed and the Bletchley Park code breakers had to adapt.Moreover, the breakthrough depicted in the film gives the impression that the Bombe was developed first, and only became effective later, after it was realised that deciphering could be made easier by looking for known or speculated items contained in an intercepted message, a practice known in cryptanalysis as employing a crib. In reality, the opposite was true: the use of cribs was the central attack model upon which the Bombe's principal design was based, rather than being an afterthought to the design.
- The suggestion that Enigma was the only German cipher broken at Bletchley Park.
- The breaking of the Lorenz cipher, codenamed "Tunny", arguably made just as important a contribution to Ultra intelligence as the breaking of Enigma, and breaking Tunny was in many ways more difficult. Neither the Tunny effort nor its main contributors, mathematician W. T. "Bill" Tutte and electrical engineer Tommy Flowers, are mentioned in the film. The Colossus computer they built goes unmentioned by name in the film, although there is an implicit suggestion that Turing was responsible for it, which he was not.
- The scene where the Hut 8 team decides not to use broken codes to stop a German raid on a convoy that the brother of one of the code breakers (Peter Hilton) is serving on, to hide the fact they have broken the code.
- In reality, Hilton had no such brother, and decisions about when and whether to use data from Ultra intelligence were made at much higher administrative levels.
- The sequence in which Turing writes a letter to Churchill to gain control over the project and obtain funding for the decryption machine.
- Turing was actually not alone in making a different request with a number of colleagues, including Hugh Alexander, writing a letter to Churchill (who had earlier visited there) in an effort to have more administrative resources sent to Bletchley Park, which Churchill immediately did.
- The recruitment of Joan Clarke as a result of an examination after solving a crossword puzzle in a newspaper.
Turing's personality and personal lifeEdit
- The presentation of Turing's social difficulties as so severe as to suggest Asperger syndrome or some form of autism.
- While a few writers and researchers have tried to assign such a retrospective diagnosis to Turing, and it is true that he had his share of eccentricities, the Asperger's-like traits portrayed in the film – social awkwardness, difficulty working co-operatively with others, and tendency to take things too literally – bear little relationship to the actual adult Turing. Despite enjoying working alone, Turing was sociable and had friends, was also viewed as having a sense of humour, and had good working relationships with colleagues.
- The scenes depicting Turing's childhood friend, including the manner in which Turing learned of Morcom's illness and death.
- The sequence, which brackets the whole movie, in which Turing is arrested in 1951 when a detective suspects him of being a Soviet spy, which leads to the discovery that Turing is gay.
- Turing's arrest was in 1952. The detective in the film and the interview as portrayed are fictional. Turing was investigated for his homosexuality after a robbery at his house and was never investigated for espionage.
- The suggestion that chemical castration made Turing unable to think clearly or do any work.
- Despite physical weakness and changes in Turing's body including gynaecomastia, at that time he was doing innovative work on mathematical biology, inspired by the very changes his body was undergoing due to chemical castration. While the physical changes distressed Turing, his friends did not notice any meaningful changes to his disposition or comportment in the period between the beginning of his castration and his death.
- The scene in which Clarke visits Turing in his home while he is serving probation.
- There is no record of Clarke ever visiting Turing's residence during his probation, although Turing did stay in touch with her after the war and informed her of his forthcoming trial for indecency.
- The statement that Turing committed suicide after a year of hormone treatment.
- In reality, the nature of Turing's death is a matter of considerable debate. The chemical castration period ended 14 months before his death. The official inquest into his death ruled that he had committed suicide by consuming a cyanide-laced apple. Turing biographer Andrew Hodges believes the death was indeed a suicide, re-enacting the poisoned apple from Snow White, Turing's favourite fairy tale, with some deliberate ambiguity included to permit Turing's mother to interpret it as an accident. However, Jack Copeland, an editor of volumes of Turing's work and Director of the Turing Archive for the History of Computing, has suggested that Turing's death may have been accidental, caused by the cyanide fumes produced by an experiment in his spare room, and that the investigation was poorly conducted.
Personalities and actions of other charactersEdit
- The depiction of Commander Denniston as a rigid officer, bound by military thinking and eager to shut down the decryption machine when it fails to deliver results.
- Denniston's grandchildren stated that the film takes an "unwarranted sideswipe" at their grandfather's memory, showing him to be a "baddy" and a "hectoring character" who hinders the work of Turing. They said their grandfather had a completely different temperament from the one portrayed in the film and was entirely supportive of the work done by cryptographers under his command. There is no record of the film's depicted interactions between Turing and Denniston. Indeed, before the war, Denniston recruited lecturers at Oxford and Cambridge, and Turing, Welchman, and others began working part-time for him then.:9 Turing was always respected and considered one of the best code-breakers at Bletchley Park and in short order took on the role of a leader there.
- All the interactions between Turing and Stewart Menzies, head of the British Secret Intelligence Service.
- There are no records showing that they interacted at all during Turing's time at Bletchley Park.
- An espionage subplot involving Turing and Soviet spy John Cairncross.
- Turing and Cairncross worked in different areas of Bletchley Park and there is no evidence they ever met. Alex Von Tunzelmann was angered by this subplot (which suggests that Turing was for a while blackmailed into not revealing Cairncross as a spy lest his homosexuality be revealed), writing that "creative licence is one thing, but slandering a great man's reputation – while buying into the nasty 1950s prejudice that gay men automatically constituted a security risk – is quite another."
- Hugh Alexander is said to have won the British Chess Championship twice near the beginning of the film. Although this is true, he won it once in 1938 and the second time only in 1956, after the war.
The Imitation Game was nominated for, and received, numerous awards, with Cumberbatch's portrayal of Turing particularly praised. The film and its cast and crew were also honoured by Human Rights Campaign, the largest LGBT civil rights advocacy group and political lobbying organisation in the United States. "We are proud to honor the stars and filmmakers of The Imitation Game for bringing the captivating yet tragic story of Alan Turing to the big screen", HRC president Chad Griffin said in a statement.
- "THE IMITATION GAME (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "The Imitation Game (2014)". BFI.
- "Detail view of Movies Page". afi.com.
- "The Weinstein Co. Special: How They Turned 'Imitation Game' Director Into an Oscar Contender". The Hollywood Reporter. 8 January 2015.
- "The Imitation Game (2014)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
- Kit, Borys (4 June 2013). "Keira Knightley to Star Opposite Benedict Cumberbatch in 'Imitation Game'". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Puchko, Kristy (17 June 2013). "Matthew Goode Joins Benedict Cumberbatch For Alan Turing Biopic". Cinemablend. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Wiseman, Andreas (16 September 2013). "Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley begin shoot on The Imitation Game". Screen Daily. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Kroll, Justin (27 August 2013). "'Downton Abbey' Actor Allen Leech Joins Cumberbatch in 'Imitation Game'". Variety. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Kemp, Stuart (16 September 2013). "Matthew Goode, Mark Strong and Rory Kinnear Join Cast of 'The Imitation Game'". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Chitwood, Adam (September 2013). "Mark Strong Joins THE IMITATION GAME, Ben Kingsley and Patricia Clarkson Lead LEARNING TO DRIVE". Collider. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Thompson, Anne. "Imitation Game Release Date Changed to November 28".
- STUDIOCANALUK [@StudiocanalUK] (13 May 2014). "Delighted to announce Alan Turing #movie THE IMITATION GAME w/ Benedict Cumberbatch will have it's UK release on Nov 14th 2014 @tigmovie" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Fleming, Mike (1 February 2013). "Benedict Cumberbatch In Talks To Play Alan Turing In 'The Imitation Game'". Deadline. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Lussier, Germain (16 September 2013). "'The Imitation Game' Begins Filming With Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley". Slash Film. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Finke, Nikki (11 October 2011). "Warner Bros Buys Spec Script About Math Genius Alan Turing For Leonardo DiCaprio". Deadline. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Fleming, Mike (16 December 2011). "Warner Bros Sets Black List Top Scribe Graham Moore For 'Devil In The White City'; Leonardo DiCaprio To Play Serial Killer". Deadline. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Trumbore, Dave (August 2012). "Leonardo DiCaprio Exits THE IMITATION GAME; Warner Bros. Backs Out of the Alan Turing Project". Collider. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Fleming, Mike (14 November 2011). "David Yates Develops 'Dr. Who,' As Warner Bros Tempts Him With 'Imitation Game'". deadline.com. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Charles, McGrath (30 October 2014). "The Riddle Who Unlocked the Enigma - 'The Imitation Game' Dramatizes the Story of Alan Turing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- Fleming, Mike (4 December 2012). "'Headhunters' Helmer Morten Tyldum To Direct 'The Imitation Game'". Deadline. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "The Imitation Game film locations". The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations.
- "Sherlock's on the trail of a new movie blockbuster". The Oxford Times. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Watercutter, Angela. "Building Christopher". Slate.
- Hodges, Andrew (2014). "The Turing Test, 1950". Alan Turing Internet Scrapbook. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Fleming, Mike (7 February 2014). "Harvey Weinstein Pays Record $7 Million For 'Imitation Game' Movie". Deadline. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "The Imitation Game". Tribeca Film Institute. 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Alexandre Desplat Takes Over Scoring Duties on 'The Imitation Game'". Film Music Reporter. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Roberts, Shiela. "Composer Alexandre Desplat Talks THE IMITATION GAME, Coming to the Project Late, Finding Continuity in His Scores, His Love of Conducting, and More". Collider.com.
- Sneider, Jeff (26 December 2013). "Benedict Cumberbatch as Alan Turing in First Look at 'The Imitation Game' (Photo)". TheWrap. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- The Imitation Game [@ImitationGame] (24 December 2013). "In honor of today's Royal Pardon, please find the first still released from the upcoming film, The Imitation Game" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Sperling, Nicole (5 June 2014). "Benedict Cumberbatch outwits Nazis in 'The Imitation Game' -- FIRST LOOK". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- de Semlyen, Phil (23 June 2014). "New Stills Of Benedict Cumberbatch And Keira Knightley In The Imitation Game". Empire. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Dougherty, Peter (3 June 2014). "June, summer, and Princeton University Press in the movies". blog.press.princeton.edu. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "The Imitation Game will open the 58th BFI London Film Festival". British Film Institute. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "New Teaser Poster For The Imitation Game Arrives Online". empireonline.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Fleming, Mike. "Zuckerberg, Weinstein Play 'The Imitation Game' With Tech Titans: Oscar Watch". Deadline.
- Stone, Brad. "Mark Zuckerberg Interview: Breakthrough Prizes and Turning Scientists Into Heroes Again". Business Week.
- "THE IMITATION GAME: Bletchley Park opens exhibit after Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley film there". MK Web.
- The Imitation Game website, theimitationgamemovie.com; accessed 18 November 2014.
- Connor, Alan (17 November 2014). "Crossword blog: Alan Turing was no crossword fiend". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- Chivers, Tom (10 October 2014). "Could you have been a codebreaker at Bletchley Park?". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 December 2018.
- "The Imitation Game with Google". Google. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.
- Lattanzio, Ryan. "Weinstein Plants Clever 'Imitation Game' FYC Ploy in New York Times". Thompson on Hollywood.
- Fleming Jr., Mike. "Who Is Alan Turing? 'Imitation Game' Oscar Ads Focus On A Hero". Deadline.
- The Weinstein Co. [@WeinsteinFilms] (1 January 2015). "Industry leaders recognize the genius of Alan Turing's contributions to the world. #ImitationGame" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Eric Schmidt [@ericschmidt] (2 January 2015). "Every time you use a phone, or a computer, you use the ideas that Alan Turing invented. A hero" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- dick costolo [@dickc] (1 January 2015). "Psyched about this combination of subject/actor. Spent a good deal of time @umich on Turing machines, computability" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- Bailey, Cameron (2014). "The Imitation Game". TIFF.net. Archived from the original on 18 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Zuckerman, Esther (28 August 2014). "Telluride Film Festival lineup includes 'Wild', 'The Imitation Game'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Vivarelli, Nick (21 July 2014). "'The Imitation Game' to Open BFI London Film Festival". Variety. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Lang, Brent (30 November 2014). "'Imitation Game' Scores Huge Debut Thanks to Oscar Buzz, Benedict Cumberbatch". Variety. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
- "Amazon.com: The Imitation Game (Blu-ray + Ultraviolet): Benedict Cumberbatch, Keira Knightley, Mark Strong, Rory Kinnear, Matthew Goode: Movies & TV". amazon.com.
- Lang, Brent (25 January 2015). ""The Imitation Game" officially became the top-grossing indie release of 2014". Variey.
- Gant, Charles. "The Imitation Game cracks UK box office, Interstellar keeps high orbit". The Guardian.
- Jafaar, Ali. "'Imitation Game' No Pretender At UK Box Office". Deadline.
- "'The Imitation Game' For Real: Year's 2nd-Best Debut Per Theater". Deadline.
- Lang, Brent (30 November 2014). "'Imitation Game' Scores Huge Debut Thanks to Oscar Buzz, Benedict Cumberbatch". Variety.
- "Specialty Box Office: 'Imitation Game' Nabs Top Theater Average of Fall Awards Season". The Hollywood Reporter.
- "The Imitation Game (2014)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
- "The Imitation Game Reviews". metacritic.com. Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Vincent, Alice (9 December 2014). "Imitation Game, Interstellar make AFI best films of the year". The Telegraph. London.
- "A Most Violent Year named best film by National Board of Review". BBC. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
- "Box Office: Thanksgiving Holiday Moviegoing Plummets". Yahoo.
- Reed, Rex. "True and Tragic, 'The Imitation Game' Is an Intimate Look at the Life of Alan Turing". The New York Observer.
- "New 'THE Imitation Game' Trailer Keeps It Quick and Cumberbatchian". iamrogue.com.
- Aftab, Kaleem (8 September 2014). "The Imitation Game, film review: Benedict Cumberbatch gives Oscar worthy performance". The Independent. London. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Lumenick, Lou (10 September 2014). "Benedict Cumberbatch foils Nazis in Oscar-caliber 'Imitation Game'". New York Post. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "The Imitation Game - NEW Official UK Trailer". YouTube. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Review: 'The Imitation Game'". Film.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2015. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Fall Festivals: Critics Pick Favorites From Venice, Telluride and Toronto - Variety". Variety. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Foundas, Scott (30 August 2014). "'The Imitation Game' Review: Benedict Cumberbatch Triumphs in a Classy but Conventional Bio-pic". Variety. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Telluride 2014: Cumberbatch is Remarkable in 'The Imitation Game'". FirstShowing.net. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Top 10 Best Movie Performances". TIME magazine. 4 December 2014.
- Corliss, Richard. "Review: The Imitation Game: Dancing With Dr. Strange". Time.com.
- Scott, A.O. (27 November 2014). "Broken Codes, Both Strategic and Social". The New York Times.
- Turan, Kenneth (26 November 2014). "'Imitation Game' a crackerjack tale about Enigma buster Alan Turing". Los Angeles Times.
- "The Imitation Game cracks code to win People's Choice Award at Toronto 2014". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Clayton Davis. "Film Review: The Imitation Game (????)". AwardsCircuit.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Review: The Imitation Game and The Theory of Everything". BBC Culture. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Toronto Film Festival coverage, nytimes.com, 13 September 2014; accessed 18 November 2014.
- "The Imitation Game". Time Out London. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Puig, Claudia (26 November 2014). "Review: Cumberbatch cracks Oscar's code in 'Imitation'". USA Today.
- McCarthy, Todd (30 August 2014). "'The Imitation Game': Telluride Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Telluride: Benedict Cumberbatch Leads Weinstein's 'Imitation Game' Into Oscar Fray". The Hollywood Reporter. 30 August 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Toronto sings Cumberbatch's praises as WWII code-breaker". USA Today. 10 September 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "The Imitation Game review: Knightley and Cumberbatch impress, but historical spoilers lower the tension". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Tim Robey (9 September 2014). "The Imitation Game, review: 'clever, calculated'". Telegraph.co.uk. London. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "The Imitation Game is strangely shy about Alan Turing's sexuality". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Alex von Tunzelmann (20 November 2014). "The Imitation Game: inventing a new slander to insult Alan Turing". The Guardian.
- Christian Caryl (19 December 2014). "A Poor Imitation of Alan Turing". The New York Review of Books.
- Anderson, L.V. (3 December 2014). "How Accurate Is The Imitation Game? We've Separated Fact From Fiction". Slate.
- Grant, Andrew (30 December 2014). "'The Imitation Game' entertains at the expense of accuracy". Science News.
- Haigh, Thomas (January 2017). "Colossal Genius: Tutte, Flowers, and a Bad Imitation of Turing". Communications of the ACM. 60 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1145/3018994.
- Beswick, Allan. "Turing's family on The Imitation Game". Retrieved 18 November 2014.
- "Benedict Cumberbatch in call to pardon convicted gay men". BBC. 31 January 2015.
- Feinberg, Scott (23 January 2015). "Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Fry Call for Pardons for Gays Persecuted Alongside 'Imitation Game' Subject". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Foster, Alistair. "Stephen Fry's campaign to pardon all gay men ruined by 'malicious' law". Evening Standard.
- Vogue Magazine [@voguemagazine] (7 February 2015). "Alan Turing & 49k other men were prosecuted for being gay. Join me in signing the @HRC petition to pardon them: -AW" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Stars back petition aiding anti-gay law victims". USA Today. 6 February 2015.
- Bengry, Justin. "Why I Oppose a General Pardon for Historical Convictions for Homosexual Offences". NOTCHES. Retrieved 15 November 2015.
- "Policing and Crime Act". gov.uk. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "'Alan Turing law': Call for gay and bisexual men in NI to receive pardons". BBC News. 20 October 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- James Chalmers (24 October 2016). "Schrödinger's pardon: the difficulties of the Turing Bill". Democratic Audit. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
- Lucas, Harriet (31 July 2013). "Comment: Hollywood should stay true to the real story of Alan Turing". Pink News. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Day, Aaron (24 June 2013). "Alan Turing's biographer criticises upcoming biopic for downplaying gay identity". Pink News. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Lazarus, Susanna (19 November 2013). "Imitation Game filmmakers accused of romanticising the relationship between Benedict Cumberbatch and Keira Knightley's characters by Alan Turing's niece, Inagh Payne". Radio Times. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Carvell, Nick (25 June 2013). "Matthew Goode announced as new face of Hogan Shoes". GQ Magazine. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Roberts, Scott (19 August 2013). "Producers of Alan Turing film reject criticism of project". Pink News. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Katz, Emily Tess (8 January 2015). "'Imitation Game' Writer Slams 'Fact-Checking' Films As Misunderstanding Of Art". Huffington Post.
- Achenbach, Joel (20 February 2015). "What 'The Imitation Game' didn't tell you about Turing's greatest triumph". The Washington Post.
- Kozaczuk, Władysław (1984). Kasparek, Christopher (ed.). Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, and How It Was Read by the Allies in World War Two. Frederick, MD: University Publications of America. ISBN 0-89093-547-5.
- Ralph Erskine: The Poles Reveal their Secrets – Alastair Dennistons's Account of the July 1939 Meeting at Pyry. Cryptologia. Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia PA 30.2006,4, p. 294.
- O'Connell, H.; Fitzgerald, M. (2003). "Did Alan Turing have Asperger's syndrome?". Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine. 20 (1): 28–31.
- Young, Toby (10 January 2015). "The misguided bid to turn Alan Turing into an Asperger's martyr". The Spectator. UK.
- Alan Turing: The Enigma, Burnett Books Ltd, 1983. ISBN 0-09-911641-3, pp. 272–3.
- Pease, Roland (26 June 2012). "Alan Turing: Inquest's suicide verdict 'not supportable'". BBC News.
- Furness, Hannah (26 November 2014). "Bletchley Park commander not the 'baddy' he is in The Imitation Game, family say". The Telegraph. London.
- Welchman, Gordon (1997). The Hut 6 Story. Oxford: M & M Baldwin. ISBN 978-0-947712-34-1.
- Gray, Tim (11 December 2014). "Golden Globes: 'Birdman,' 'Fargo' Top Nominations". Variety.
- "'Birdman,' 'Modern Family' Lead SAG Awards Nominations with Four". Variety.
- "Benedict Cumberbatch cracks the code to make Bletchley Park a hit". Daily Express. 9 November 2014.
- "Top 10 Best Movie Performances (#1 Benedict Cumberbatch as Alan Turing in The Imitation Game)". Time. 4 December 2014.
- Feinberg, Scott (22 December 2014). "'The Imitation Game' to Be Honored by Human Rights Campaign". The Hollywood Reporter.