The Iceman Cometh
The Iceman Cometh is a play written by American playwright Eugene O'Neill in 1939. First published in 1946, the play premiered on Broadway at the Martin Beck Theatre on October 9, 1946, directed by Eddie Dowling, where it ran for 136 performances before closing on March 15, 1947.
|The Iceman Cometh|
|Written by||Eugene O'Neill|
|Date premiered||9 October 1946|
|Place premiered||Martin Beck Theatre
New York City, New York
|Setting||1914, Harry Hopes Saloon in New York|
- Harry Hope – Widowed proprietor of the saloon and rooming house where the play takes place. He has a tendency to give free drinks, though he constantly says otherwise
- Ed Mosher – Hope's brother-in-law (brother of Hope's late wife Bess), a con-man and former circus man
- Pat McGloin – Former police lieutenant who was convicted on criminal charges and kicked off the force
- Willie Oban – Harvard Law School alumnus
- Joe Mott – Former proprietor of a gambling house
- General Piet Wetjoen – Former leader of a Boer commando
- Captain Cecil Lewis – Former Captain of British infantry
- James Cameron "Jimmy Tomorrow" – Former Boer War correspondent who is constantly daydreaming about getting his old job back again tomorrow (hence his nickname)
- Hugo Kalmar – Former editor of anarchist periodicals who often quotes the Old Testament
- Larry Slade – Former syndicalist-anarchist
- Rocky Pioggi – Night bartender, who is paid little and makes his living mostly by allowing Pearl and Margie to stay at the bar in exchange for a substantial cut of all the money they make from prostitution, he despises being called a pimp
- Don Parritt – Teenager, son of a former anarchist
- Pearl – Street walker working for Rocky
- Margie – Street walker working for Rocky
- Cora – Street walker, Chuck's girlfriend
- Chuck Morello – Day bartender, Cora's boyfriend
- Theodore "Hickey" Hickman – Hardware salesman
- Moran – Police detective
- Lieb – Police detective
The Iceman Cometh is set in New York in 1912 in Harry Hope's downmarket Greenwich Village saloon and rooming house. The patrons, twelve men and three female prostitutes, are dead-end alcoholics who spend every possible moment seeking oblivion in each other's company and trying to con or wheedle free drinks from Harry and the bartenders. They drift without purpose from day to day, coming fully to life only during the semi-annual visits of the salesman Theodore Hickman, known to them as Hickey. When Hickey finishes a tour of his business territory, which is apparently a wide expanse of the East Coast, he typically turns up at the saloon and starts the party. As the play opens, the regulars are expecting Hickey to arrive in time for Harry's birthday party. The first act introduces the various characters and shows their bickering among themselves, showing just how drunk and delusional they are, all the while awaiting Hickey.
Joe Mott insists that he will soon re-open his casino. The English Cecil "The Captain" Lewis and South African Piet "The General" Wetjoen, who fought each other during the Boer War, are now good friends, and both insist that they'll soon return to their nations of origin. Harry Hope has not left the bar since his wife Bess's death 20 years ago. He promises that he'll walk around the block on his birthday, which is the next day. Pat McGloin says he is hoping to be reinstated into the police force, but is waiting for the right moment. Ed Mosher prides himself on his ability to give incorrect change, but he kept too much of his illegitimate profits to himself and was fired; he says he will get his job back someday. Hugo Kalmar is drunk and passed out for most of the play; when he is conscious, he pesters the other patrons to buy him a drink. Chuck Morello says that he will marry Cora tomorrow. Don Parritt is a former anarchist who shows up later in the play to talk about his mother (Larry's ex-girlfriend) to Larry and specifically her arrest due to her involvement in the anarchist movement.
Finally Hickey arrives, and his behavior throws the other characters into turmoil. He insists, with as much charisma as ever, that he sees life clearly now as never before because he no longer drinks. Hickey wants the characters to cast away their delusions and accept that their heavy drinking and inaction means that their hopes will never be fulfilled. He takes on this task with a near-maniacal fervor. How he goes about his mission, how the other characters respond, and their efforts to find out what has wrought this change in Hickey take over four hours to resolve. During and after Harry's birthday party, most seem to have been somewhat affected by Hickey's ramblings. Larry pretends to be unaffected but, when Don reveals he was the informant responsible for the arrest of his own mother (Larry's former girlfriend), Larry rages at him; Willie decides McGloin's appeal will be his first case, and Rocky admits he is a pimp.
Most of the men Hickey talked with do go out into the world - dressed up, hopeful of turning their lives around — but they fail to make any progress. Eventually, they return and are jolted by a sudden revelation. Hickey, who had earlier told the other characters first that his wife had died and then that she was murdered, admits that he is the one who killed her. The police arrive, apparently called by Hickey himself, to arrest Hickey and Hickey justifies the murder in a dramatic monologue, saying that he did it out of love for her. He relates that Hickey's father was a preacher in the backwoods of Indiana. Evidently he was both charismatic and persuasive, and it was his inheriting these traits which led Hickey to become a salesman. An angry kid trapped in a small town, Hickey had no use for anyone but his sweetheart, Evelyn. Evelyn's family forbade her to associate with Hickey, but she ignored them. After Hickey left to become a salesman, he promised he would marry Evelyn as soon as he was able. He became a successful salesman, then sent for her and the two were very happy until Hickey became increasingly guilty following his wife's constant forgiveness of his infidelities and drinking. He then recounts how he murdered her to free her from the pain of his persistent philandering and drinking because she loved him too much to live apart from him. But, in retelling the murder, he laughs and tells Evelyn, "well, you know what you can do with that pipe dream now, don't you?" In realizing he said this, Hickey breaks down completely. He realizes that he went truly insane and that people need their empty dreams to keep existing. The others agree and decide to testify to his insanity during Hickey's trial despite Hickey's begging them to let him get the death sentence. He no longer wishes to live now that he has no illusions about life.
They return to their empty promises and pipe dreams except for Parritt, who runs to his room and jumps off the fire escape, unable to live with the knowledge of what he has done to his mother after discarding the last of his lies about his action and motivation for it. He first claims that he did it due to patriotism and then for money, but finally admits he did it because he hated his mother, who was so obsessed with her own freedom of action that she became self-centered and alternately ignored or dominated him. Despite witnessing the young man's fatal leap, and acknowledging the futility of his own situation ("by God, there's no hope! I'll never be a success...Life is too much for me!"), Larry fears death as much as life and is consequently left in limbo.
The title (The Iceman Cometh) refers to a running gag between Hickey and the dead-enders about coming home after traveling his sales route to find his wife "rolling in the hay with the iceman" (akin to the contemporary joke about the "milkman"). In reality, he has murdered her. Confessing his crime, he must confront the consequences, including the prospect of execution. Therefore, the "iceman" seems a metaphor for the dissolution of the characters' pipe dreams through death, perhaps the only way they can relinquish them due to their dependence upon them to sustain hope.
Themes and political contentEdit
The central contention of the play is the human need for self-deceptions or “pipe dreams" in order to carry on with life: to abandon them or to see them for the lies that they are is to risk death. It is in this context that the story concludes with Larry Slade calling himself “the only real convert to death Hickey made here” as a response to witnessing Parritt’s suicidal leap from the roof. Having stopped lying to himself and come to terms with his real motivation behind informing on his mother and her west coast anarchist coterie, Parritt can no longer live with himself and dies, while Slade continues lying to himself and thereby lives.
The play contains many allusions to political topics, particularly anarchism and socialism. Hugo, Larry and Don are former members of an anarchist movement. Two other characters are veterans of the Second Boer War. One is British, and one is Afrikaans. They alternately defend and insult each other, and there are many allusions to events in South Africa. Both wish to return to their home countries, but their families do not want them there.
Joe is the only African American character, and makes several speeches about racial differences.
When O'Neill was alive, he delayed its performance on Broadway for seven years, fearing American audiences would reject it. O'Neill was at the height of his fame when he relented in 1946, and the production was a commercial success, though it received mixed reviews.
The young Marlon Brando was offered the part of Don Parritt in the original Broadway production, but famously turned it down. Brando was able to read only a few pages of the script the producers gave him before falling asleep, and he later wrote a lengthy critique describing the work as "ineptly written and poorly constructed".
1947: The original production was staged at the Martin Beck Theatre and opened on October 9, 1946 and closed on March 15, 1947, after 136 performances. It was directed by Eddie Dowling with production and lighting design by Robert Edmond Jones. The cast starred James Barton (Theodore "Hickey" Hickman), Jeanne Cagney (Margie), Leo Chalzel (Hugo Kalmar), Russell Collins (James "Jimmy Tomorrow" Cameron), Paul Crabtree (Don Parritt), Dudley Digges (Harry Hope), Ruth Gilbert (Pearl), Charles Hart (Lieb), Nicholas Joy (Cecil "The Captain" Lewis), Marcella Markham (Cora), Joe Marr (Chuck Morello), John Marriott (Joe Mott), E. G. Marshall (Willie Oban), Al McGranary (Pat McGloin), Tom Pedi (Rocky Pioggi), Carl Benton Reid (Larry Slade), Morton L. Stevens (Ed Mosher), Frank Tweddell (Piet "The General" Wetjoen), and Michael Wyler (Moran). The play received mixed reviews.
1956: An Off-Broadway production staged after O'Neill's death featured Jason Robards as Hickey and was directed by José Quintero. This production was an unqualified success and established the play as a great modern tragedy.
1985: A Broadway revival staged at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre featured Jason Robards as Hickey with a cast that included Barnard Hughes as Harry Hope, Donald Moffat as Larry Slade, and again directed by José Quintero. It ran from September 29, 1985 to December 1, 1985.
2012: A revival at Chicago's Goodman Theatre featured Nathan Lane in the lead role of Hickey, Brian Dennehy this time as Larry Slade, and was directed by Robert Falls. It started its run at the Goodman Theatre in April 2012, slated for a six-week engagement. It was a huge success for the Goodman Theater, whose management stated it was the most successful production in its history. This production omitted the character of Pat McGloin.
2015: The Goodman Theatre production directed by Falls, starring Lane and Dennehy and the rest of the original cast with the creative team from Chicago was produced at the Harvey Theater of the Brooklyn Academy of Music with a six-week engagement starting on February 5, 2015.
2018: On August 20, 2017, it was announced that Denzel Washington will star as Hickey and Tammy Blanchard as Cora, in a Broadway revival to be directed by George C. Wolfe. The production will run for 14 weeks at the Bernard B. Jacobs Theatre, beginning in previews on March 22, 2018, officially on April 26. The cast will feature Frank Wood as Cecil Lewis, Bill Irwin as Ed Mosher, Reg Rogers as James Cameron, Colm Meaney as Harry Hope, and David Morse as Larry Slade.
1960: TV Production for Play of the Week on National Educational Television (NET) directed by Sidney Lumet. This production featured Jason Robards as Hickey, Tom Pedi from the original 1947 stage production as Rocky Pioggi, Sorrell Booke as Hugo Kalmar, and Robert Redford as Don Parritt. It is presented as two separate episodes of the series due to the length of the work with a total run time of 210 minutes. It is notable in view of TV standards of the time that while much dialog was omitted for time, that which was retained was not changed to soften its language. For example, at the end of Hickey's breakdown Robards says the words "that damned bitch" exactly as O'Neill had written.
1973: A film adaptation as part of the American Film Theatre directed by John Frankenheimer. This production featured many well known actors including Lee Marvin as Hickey, Fredric March as Harry Hope, Robert Ryan as Larry Slade, Tom Pedi as Rocky Pioggi, Bradford Dillman as Willie Oban, Sorrell Booke as Hugo Kalmar, Martyn Green as Cecil Lewis, Moses Gunn as Joe Mott, George Voskovec as The General (Piet Wetjoen) and Jeff Bridges as Don Parritt. This film was the final film appearance of Fredric March, Robert Ryan and Martyn Green. The film run time is 239 minutes. Dialog was consistently trimmed for time as might be done for a stage production. The role of Ed Mosher was excised entirely. There are some variations in words or word order in ordinary speech that differ from the published text. The most important speeches are present and usually performed in full from the published text. Some segments of dialog are presented in an order that differs from the published text.
- Jason Robards played the role of Hickey in multiple stage productions and the 1960 TV adaptation.
- Tom Pedi played the role of Rocky the bartender in the original 1947 stage production, the 1960 TV adaptation and the 1973 film adaptation.
- Sorrell Booke played the role of Hugo Kalmar in both the 1960 TV adaptation and the 1973 film adaptation.
- Robert Redford played the role of Don Parritt in the 1960 TV adaptation.
- Jeff Bridges played the role of Don Parritt in the 1973 film adaptation
Awards and nominationsEdit
- 1956 Vernon Rice Award for Best Production (Drama Desk Awards)
- 1974 Drama Desk Award, Outstanding Costume Design (Carrie Robbins)
- 1999 Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Play
- 1986 Tony Award Direction Of A Play
- 1986 Tony Award Design (Play Or Musical)
- 1986 Tony Award (Play Or Musical)
- 1986 Tony Award Design (Play Or Musical)
- 1986 Drama Desk Outstanding Featured Actor In A Play (Donald Moffat)
- 1986 Drama Desk Revival
- 1986 Drama Desk Outstanding Costume Design
- 1999 Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play
- 1999 Tony Award Actor In A Play (Spacey)
- 1999 Tony Award Direction Of A Play (Davies)
- 1999 Tony Award Lighting Design (Play Or Musical)
- 1999 Tony Award Scenic Design (Play Or Musical) (Bob Crowley)
- 1999 Drama Desk Award, Featured Actor in a Play (Giamatti)
- 1999 Drama Desk Award, Director of a Play (Davies)
- Napierkowski, Marie Rose (editor) (1998). "The Iceman Cometh: Introduction". Drama for Students. vol. 5. Detroit: Gale. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- O'Neill, Eugene (1988). O'Neill (First ed.). New York: Library of America. OCLC 57377246.
- O'Neill, Eugene (1994). The Iceman Cometh. London: Nick Hern Books. ISBN 978-1-85459-143-2.
- Brantley, Ben (April 9, 1999). "'The Iceman Cometh': Bottoms Up to Illusions". The New York Times.
- Hopkins, V. C. (1949) "The Iceman Seen through The Lower Depths", College English 11: 81–87
- Muchnic, H. (1948) "Circe's Swine: Plays by Gorky and O'Neill", Comparative Literature 3: 119–128
- Mordden, Ethan (2007). All That Glittered: The Golden Age of Drama on Broadway, 1919-1959. NY: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312338988. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- Kanfer, Stefan (2011). Somebody: The Reckless Life and Remarkable Career of Marlon Brando. London: Faber. p. 59. ISBN 1400042895. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "The Iceman Cometh". internet Broadway Database.
- Hawley, William (1985). "THE ICEMAN COMETH AND THE CRITICS--1946, 1956, 1973". The Eugene O'Neill Newsletter, Winter 1985.
- "The Iceman Cometh". Internet Off-Broadway Database.
- "The Iceman Cometh". Internet Broadway Database.
- "The Iceman Cometh". Internet Broadway Database.
- Rich, Frank (October 3, 1990). "Dennehy, in 'Iceman Cometh,' Sells Salvation of the Damned". NewYork Times. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "The Iceman Cometh". Internet Broadway Database.
- "Nathan Lane Take on 'The Iceman Cometh' in Chicago". Broadway.me. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
- "Pipe Dreams and Scythe Dreams: Begging Drinks in Hell's Anteroom". New York Times. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- Prisco, Jaime (February 5, 2015). "Nathan Lane and Brian Dennehy Star in Six-Week Engagement of 'The Iceman Cometh' at the Brooklyn Academy of Music". Classicalite. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
- Haigney, Sophie (2017-08-21). "Denzel Washington to Star in 'Iceman Cometh' on Broadway". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-08-22.
- Peikert, Mark. "Complete Cast Set for Denzel Washington-Led 'The Iceman Cometh' " Playbill, January 25, 2018
- O'Neill, Eugene (1967). Cerf, Bennett, ed. Plays of Our Time. Random House. ISBN 0394406613.