The Game of Life
The Game of Life, also known simply as Life, is a board game originally created in 1860 by Milton Bradley, as The Checkered Game of Life. The Game of Life was America's first popular parlor game. The game simulates a person's travels through his or her life, from college to retirement, with jobs, marriage, and possible children along the way. Two to four or six players can participate in one game. Variations of the game accommodate up to ten players.
Japanese-language version of the modern edition of The Game of Life
|Publisher(s)||Milton Bradley Company and Winning Moves|
|Players||2 to 4 or 6|
|Setup time||10 minutes (approx.)|
|Playing time||1 hour (approx.)|
|Random chance||High (spinning a wheel, card-drawing, luck)|
|Skill(s) required||Counting, reading|
The modern version was originally published 100 years later, in 1960. It was created and co-designed by toy and game designer Reuben Klamer and was "heartily endorsed" by Art Linkletter. It is now part of the permanent collection of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History and an inductee into the National Toy Hall of Fame.
The game was originally created in 1860 by Milton Bradley as The Checkered Game of Life, and was the first game created by Bradley, a successful lithographer. (His most important product to that point had been a portrait of Abraham Lincoln with a clean-shaven face, which did not do well once Lincoln grew his famous beard.) The game sold 45,000 copies by the end of its first year. Like many 19th-century games, such as The Mansion of Happiness by S. B. Ives in 1843, it had a strong moral message.
The game board resembled a modified checkerboard. The object was to land on "good" spaces and collect 100 points. A player could gain 50 points by reaching "Happy Old Age" in the upper-right corner, opposite "Infancy" where one began. Instead of dice – which were associated with gambling – players used a six-sided top called a teetotum.
In 1960 the modern version, The Game of Life, was introduced. A collaboration between Reuben Klamer and Bill Markham, it consists of a track which passes along, over, and through small mountains, buildings, and other features. A player travels along the track in a small plastic automobile, according to the spins of a small wheel on the board with spaces numbered 1 through 10. Each car has six holes into which pegs are added as the player "gets married" and "acquires children". Some "early modern" editions have eight cars.
There is also a bank which includes money in $5,000, $10,000, $20,000, $50,000, and $100,000 bills; automobile, life, fire, and/or homeowners' insurance policies (depending on the version); $20,000 promissory notes and stock certificates. Other tangibles vary between versions of the game. $500 bills were dropped in the 1980s as were $1,000 bills in 1992.
The Game of Life, copyrighted by the Milton Bradley Company in 1963, had some differences from later versions. For example, once a player reached the "Day of Reckoning", they had to choose between moving on to "Millionaire Acres" (if they thought they would have the most money), or trying to become a "Millionaire Tycoon" (if they had little or no money) with the risk of being sent to the "Poor Farm".
This version had Art Linkletter as the spokesman, included his likeness on the $100,000 bills (with his name displayed on the bills as "Arthur Linkletter Esq.") and a rousing endorsement from Linkletter on the cover of the box. It was advertised as a "Milton Bradley 100th Anniversary Game" and as "A Full 3-D Action Game."
Winning Moves currently markets a classic 1960s edition.
About halfway through the production of this version, many dollar values doubled. This description focuses on the later version with the larger dollar amounts. The late 1980s version also replaced the convertibles from earlier versions with minivans. Early 1960s-era convertibles were still used in the 1978 edition. The "Poor Farm" is not present in this edition; however, players who were risking their cash (or car if they were penniless) on being a "Millionaire Tycoon" still ran the risk of losing all their cash and sitting out the rest of the game at Bankrupt if the number they bet on the strip does not show up when the wheel stops spinning.
The gold "Revenge" squares added a byline, "Sue for damages", in the 1978 edition.
The Game of Life was updated in 1991 to reward players for good behavior, such as recycling trash and helping the homeless.
An updated version of the game was released in 2005 with a few gameplay changes. The new Game of Life reduced the element of chance, although it is still primarily based on chance and still rewards players for taking risks.
The 2013 version removed the lawsuit square which was replaced by a lawsuit card. A new "keep this card for 100k" feature was added as well.
The 2018 version includes pegs and squares for acquiring pets.
- Hello Kitty Edition (1999, Japan Only)
- The Game of Life in Monstropolis (Monsters, Inc.) (2001)
- The Game of Life Card Game (2002)
- Fame Edition (or Game of Life Junior/travel version) (2002)
- Star Wars: A Jedi's Path (2002)
- Pirates of the Caribbean (2004)
- The Simpsons Edition (2004)
- Bikini Bottom SpongeBob SquarePants Edition (2005)
- Pokémon Edition (2006, Japan only)
- Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006)
- Twists and Turns Edition (2007)
- The Game of Life Express (2007)
- Monsters, Inc. version
- Indiana Jones Edition (2008, Target exclusive)
- Family Guy Collectors Edition (2008)
- The Wizard of Oz Edition (2009)
- The Game of Life - Haunted Mansion Theme Park Edition (2009)
- Rite Aid Pharmacy, The Game of Life Collect and Win game (2010)
- The Game of Life High School Edition (aka "Pink Edition")
- LIFE: Rock Star Edition
- The Game of LIFE: It's a Dog's Life Edition (2011)
- The Game of LIFE: Despicable Me (2014)
- LIFE: My Little Pony Edition 
- Inside Out (2015)
- LIFE: Yo-Kai Watch Edition (2016)
- The Game of Life: Quarter Life Crisis (2019)
- RPG Jinsei Game Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) video game (1993)
- Super Jinsei Game series
- The Game of Life for PC and PlayStation (1998)
- The Game of Life/Yahtzee/Payday Game Boy Advance game
- The Game of Life Wii game (2008)
- The Game of Life WiiWare game (2009) (Japan Only)
- The Game of Life Classic Edition iPhone game (2009)
- Hasbro Family Game Night 3 for Xbox 360, Wii, and PlayStation 3 video game platforms, and was also later released as part of the Hasbro Family Game Night Fun Pack, which consisted as a compilation of both Hasbro Family Game Night 2 and Hasbro Family Game Night 3.
- The Game of Life: 2016 Edition for iOS and Android by Marmalade Game Studio (2016) 
- Life as a BlackMan (board game)
- "The Game of Life History - Invention of The Game of Life".
- "The Game of Life". Hasboro. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
- Some printings of the Game of Life are marked as two to six players; others are marked as two to four players
- "Hall of Fame Inductees". Toy Industry Association. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- Lepore, Jill. The Meaning of Life "The New Yorker," May 21, 2007.
- "Game of Life - 1978 manual" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-09-07. Retrieved 2012-06-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- LIFE - My Little Pony Edition announced to be for release late 2014
- The Game of Life: 2016 Edition