Batman in film
The fictional superhero Batman, who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics, has appeared in various films since his inception. Created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger, the character first starred in two serial films in the 1940s: Batman and Batman and Robin. The character also appeared in the 1966 film Batman, which was a feature film adaptation of the 1960s Batman TV series starring Adam West and Burt Ward, who also starred in the film. Toward the end of the 1980s, the Warner Bros. studio began producing a series of feature films starring Batman, beginning with the 1989 film Batman, directed by Tim Burton and starring Michael Keaton. Burton and Keaton returned for the 1992 sequel Batman Returns, and in 1995, Joel Schumacher directed Batman Forever with Val Kilmer as Batman. Schumacher also directed the 1997 sequel Batman & Robin, which starred George Clooney. Batman & Robin was poorly received by both critics and fans, leading to the cancellation of Batman Unchained.
|Adaptations of Batman in other media|
|Original source||Comics published by DC Comics|
|First appearance||Detective Comics #27 (1939)|
|Films and television|
Following the cancellation of two further film proposals, the franchise was rebooted in 2005 with Batman Begins, directed by Christopher Nolan and starring Christian Bale. Nolan returned to direct two further installments through the release of The Dark Knight in 2008 and The Dark Knight Rises in 2012, with Bale reprising his role in both films. Both sequels earned over $1 billion worldwide, making Batman the second film franchise to have two of its films earn more than $1 billion worldwide. Referred to as The Dark Knight Trilogy, the critical acclaim and commercial success of Nolan's films have been credited with restoring widespread popularity to the superhero, with the second installment considered one of the best superhero movies of all-time.
After Warner Bros. launched their own shared cinematic universe known as the DC Extended Universe in 2013, Ben Affleck was cast to portray Batman in the new expansive franchise, first appearing in 2016 with the Zack Snyder directed film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. The film would help begin a sequence of further DC Comics adaptations, including Justice League, a crossover film featuring other DC Comics characters, in 2017, and a stand-alone Batman film directed by Matt Reeves. Outside of the DCEU, Dante Pereira-Olson will appear as Bruce Wayne in the 2019 film Joker, directed by Todd Phillips.
The series has grossed over $4.99 billion at the global box office, making it the eleventh highest-grossing film franchise of all time. Batman has also appeared in multiple animated films, both as a starring character and as an ensemble character. While most animated films were released direct-to-video, the 1993 animated feature Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, based on the 1990s Batman: The Animated Series, was released theatrically. Having earned a total of U.S. $2,407,708,129 the Batman series is the fifth-highest-grossing film series in North America.
|Film||U.S. release date||Actor||Director||Story by||Screenwriter(s)||Producer(s)||Distributor(s)|
|Batman||July 16, 1943||Lewis Wilson||Lambert Hillyer||Victor McLeod, Leslie Swabacker and Harry L. Fraser||Rudolph C. Flothow||Columbia Pictures|
|Batman and Robin||June 26, 1949||Robert Lowery||Spencer Gordon Bennet||George H. Plympton, Joseph F. Poland and Royal K. Cole||Sam Katzman|
|Batman: The Movie||July 30, 1966||Adam West||Leslie H. Martinson||Lorenzo Semple, Jr.||William Dozier||20th Century Fox|
|Batman||June 23, 1989||Michael Keaton||Tim Burton||Sam Hamm||Sam Hamm, Warren Skaaren, Charles McKeown and Jonathan Gems||Peter Guber, Jon Peters and Chris Kenny||Warner Bros.|
|Batman Returns||June 19, 1992||Daniel Waters||Daniel Waters and Wesley Strick||Tim Burton, Denise Di Novi and Larry Franco|
|Batman Forever||June 16, 1995||Val Kilmer||Joel Schumacher||Lee Batchler and Janet Scott-Batchler||Akiva Goldsman||Peter MacGregor-Scott and Tim Burton|
|Batman & Robin||June 20, 1997||George Clooney||Akiva Goldsman||Peter MacGregor-Scott|
|Batman Begins||June 25, 2005||Christian Bale||Christopher Nolan||David S. Goyer||Christopher Nolan and David S. Goyer||Charles Roven, Emma Thomas and Larry Franco|
|The Dark Knight||July 18, 2008||Christopher Nolan and David S. Goyer||Jonathan Nolan and Christopher Nolan||Emma Thomas, Charles Roven and Christopher Nolan|
|The Dark Knight Rises||July 20, 2012|
|Batman v Superman:
Dawn of Justice
|March 25, 2016||Ben Affleck||Zack Snyder||Chris Terrio and David S. Goyer||Charles Roven and Deborah Snyder|
|Suicide Squad||August 5, 2016||David Ayer||David Ayer||Charles Roven and Richard Suckle|
|Justice League||November 17, 2017||Zack Snyder||David S. Goyer, Zack Snyder and Chris Terrio||Chris Terrio||Charles Roven, Deborah Snyder, Jon Berg and Geoff Johns|
|Joker||October 4, 2019||Dante Pereira-Olson||Todd Phillips||Todd Phillips and Scott Silver||Todd Phillips, Bradley Cooper and Emma Tillinger Koskoff|
|The Batman||June 25, 2021||TBA||Matt Reeves||Ben Affleck, Geoff Johns and Matt Reeves||Matt Reeves||Ben Affleck, Matt Reeves and Dylan Clark|
Batman was a 15-chapter serial film released in 1943 by Columbia Pictures and was the first appearance of the comic book character on film. The serial starred Lewis Wilson as Batman and Douglas Croft as Robin. Being a World War II era production, the movie serial like many of this period was used as war-time propaganda and had an anti-Japanese bent with J. Carrol Naish playing the Japanese villain, an original character named Dr. Daka. Rounding out the cast were Shirley Patterson as Linda Page (Bruce Wayne's love interest), and William Austin as Alfred. The plot is based on Batman, a US government agent, attempting to defeat the Japanese agent Dr. Daka, at the height of World War II.
The film is notable for being the first filmed appearance of Batman and for providing two core elements of the Batman mythos. The film introduced "The Bat's Cave" and the Grandfather clock entrance. The name was altered to the Batcave for the comic. William Austin, who played Alfred, had a trim physique and sported a thin mustache, while the contemporary comic book version of Alfred was overweight and clean-shaven prior to the serial's release. The comics version of Alfred was altered to match that of Austin's, and has stayed that way.
Batman and Robin (1949)
Batman and Robin was another 15-chapter serial film released in 1949 by Columbia Pictures. Robert Lowery played Batman, while Johnny Duncan played Robin. Supporting players included Jane Adams as Vicki Vale and veteran character actor Lyle Talbot as Commissioner Gordon. The plot dealt with the Dynamic Duo facing off against the Wizard, a hooded villain whose identity remains a mystery throughout the serial until the end.
Batman (also known as Batman: The Movie) is a 1966 film adaptation of the popular Batman television series, and was the first full-length theatrical adaptation of the DC Comics character. The 20th Century Fox release starred Adam West as Batman and Burt Ward as Robin, as well as Lee Meriwether as Catwoman, Cesar Romero as the Joker, Burgess Meredith as the Penguin and Frank Gorshin as the Riddler.
The film was directed by Leslie H. Martinson, who also directed for the series a pair of season one episodes: "The Penguin Goes Straight" and "Not Yet, He Ain't".
1970s and 80s
In the late 1970s, Batman's popularity was waning. CBS was interested in producing a Batman in Outer Space film. Producers Michael Uslan and Benjamin Melniker purchased the film rights of Batman from DC Comics on October 3, 1979. It was Uslan's wish "to make the definitive, dark, serious version of Batman, the way Bob Kane and Bill Finger had envisioned him in 1939. A creature of the night; stalking criminals in the shadows." Richard Maibaum was approached to write a script with Guy Hamilton to direct, but the two turned down the offer. Uslan was unsuccessful with pitching Batman to various movie studios because they wanted the film to be similar to the campy 1960s TV series. Columbia Pictures and United Artists were among those to turn down the film.
A disappointed Uslan then wrote a script titled Return of the Batman to give the film industry a better idea of his vision for the film. Uslan later compared its dark tone to that of The Dark Knight Returns, which his script pre-dated by six years. In November 1979, producer Jon Peters and Casablanca FilmWorks, headed by Peter Guber, joined the project. The four producers felt it was best to pattern the film's development after that of Superman (1978). Uslan, Melniker and Guber pitched Batman to Universal Pictures, but the studio turned it down. The project was publicly announced with a budget of $15 million in July 1980 at the Comic Art Convention in New York. Casablanca FilmWorks was absorbed into PolyGram Pictures in 1980. Guber and Peters left PolyGram Pictures in 1982 and took the Batman film rights with them, although PolyGram would retain at least 7.5% of the profits of said rights due to a contractual agreement. Guber and Peters immediately set up shop at Warner Bros., which finally decided to accept Batman.
Tom Mankiewicz completed a script titled The Batman in June 1983, focusing on Batman and Dick Grayson's origins, with the Joker and Rupert Thorne as villains, and Silver St. Cloud as the romantic interest. Mankiewicz took inspiration from Steve Englehart's and Marshall Rogers's 1970s run in Detective Comics (later reprinted in the trade paperback Batman: Strange Apparitions), (ISBN 1-56389-500-5), with Rogers himself being hired to provide concept art. The Batman was then announced in late 1983 for a mid-1985 release date on a budget of $20 million. Originally, Mankiewicz had wanted an unknown actor for Batman, William Holden for James Gordon, David Niven as Alfred Pennyworth and Peter O'Toole as the Penguin who Mankiewicz wanted to portray as a mobster with low body temperature. Holden died in 1981 and Niven in 1983, so this would never come to pass. A number of filmmakers were attached to Mankiewicz' script, including Ivan Reitman and Joe Dante. Reitman wanted to cast Bill Murray as Batman. For the role of Robin, Eddie Murphy and Michael J. Fox were candidates. Nine rewrites were performed by nine separate writers. Most of them were based on Strange Apparitions. However, it was Mankiewicz's script that was still being used to guide the project.
Tim Burton and Joel Schumacher series (1989–1997)
Tim Burton took over as director of the first Batman film in 1986. Steve Englehart and Julie Hickson wrote film treatments before Sam Hamm wrote the first screenplay. Numerous A-list actors were considered for the role of Batman before Michael Keaton was cast. Keaton was a controversial choice for the role since, by 1988, he had become typecast as a comedic actor and many observers doubted he could portray a serious role. Jack Nicholson accepted the role of the Joker under strict conditions that dictated a high salary, a portion of the box office profits and his shooting schedule. Nicholson's final salary is reported to be as high as $50 million. Principal photography took place at Pinewood Studios from October 1988 to January 1989. The budget escalated from $30 million to $48 million, while the 1988 Writers Guild of America strike forced Hamm to drop out. Rewrites were performed by Warren Skaaren, Charles McKeown and Jonathan Gems. Batman received positive reviews, broke numerous box office records, and won the Academy Award for Best Art Direction. The film grossed over $400 million, and left a legacy over the modern perception of the superhero film genre.
Batman Returns (1992)
Burton originally did not want to direct a sequel because of his mixed emotions over the previous film. Sam Hamm's first script had the Penguin and Catwoman searching for hidden treasure. Daniel Waters delivered a script that satisfied Burton, which convinced him to direct the film. Wesley Strick did an uncredited rewrite, deleting characterizations of Harvey Dent and Robin and rewriting the climax. Various A-list actresses lobbied hard for the role of Catwoman before Michelle Pfeiffer was cast, while Danny DeVito signed on to portray the Penguin. Filming started at Warner Bros. in Burbank, California in June 1991. Batman Returns was released with financial success, but Warner Bros. was disappointed with the film's box office run because it earned less than its predecessor. However, Batman Returns was released to generally positive reviews, although a "parental backlash" criticized the film for containing violence and sexual innuendos that were thought to be unsuitable for children. McDonald's shut down its Happy Meal tie-in for Batman Returns.
Batman Forever (1995)
Although Batman Returns was a financial success, Warner Bros. felt the film should have made more money. The studio decided to change the direction of the Batman film series to be more mainstream. Joel Schumacher replaced Tim Burton as director, while Burton decided to stay on as producer. However, Michael Keaton did not like the new direction the film series was heading in, and was replaced by Val Kilmer as Batman. Chris O'Donnell was introduced as Robin, Jim Carrey starred as The Riddler, while Tommy Lee Jones starred as Two-Face. Filming started in September 1994, and Schumacher encountered problems communicating with Kilmer and Jones. Batman Forever was released on June 16, 1995 with financial success, earning over $350 million worldwide and three Academy Award nominations, but the film was met with mixed reviews from critics.
Batman & Robin (1997)
After the release of Batman Forever, Warner Bros. started development on Batman & Robin, commissioning it on fast track for an adamant June 1997 release. Val Kilmer did not return, because of scheduling conflicts with The Saint, and was replaced by George Clooney. Arnold Schwarzenegger starred as Mr. Freeze, while Uma Thurman starred as Poison Ivy and Alicia Silverstone starred as Batgirl. Chris O'Donnell reprised his role as Robin. Principal photography began in September 1996 and finished in January 1997, two weeks ahead of the shooting schedule. Batman & Robin was released on June 20, 1997, and received primarily negative reviews. Observers criticized the film for its toyetic and campy approach, and for homosexual innuendos added by Schumacher. The film was a financial success, but remains the least commercially successful live-action Batman film. Batman & Robin received numerous nominations at the Razzie Awards and ranks among the worst rated superhero films of all time.
Proposals for a fifth film
During the filming of Batman & Robin, Warner Bros. was impressed with the dailies, prompting them to immediately hire Joel Schumacher to reprise his directing duties for a third film. Writer Akiva Goldsman, who worked on Batman Forever and Batman & Robin, turned down the chance to write the script. In late 1996, Warner Bros. and Schumacher hired Mark Protosevich to write the script for a fifth Batman film. A projected mid-1999 release date was announced. Los Angeles Times described their film as "continuing in the same vein with multiple villains and more silliness". Titled Batman Unchained but often incorrectly referred to as Batman Triumphant, Protosevich's script had the Scarecrow as the main villain and the Joker would return as a hallucination in Batman's mind caused by the Scarecrow's fear toxin. Harley Quinn appeared as a supporting character, written as the Joker's daughter trying to kill Batman to avenge her father's death. Clooney, O'Donnell, and Silverstone were set to reprise the roles of Batman, Robin, and Batgirl. Schumacher had also approached Nicolas Cage for the role of Scarecrow in Batman & Robin as a cameo appearance to set up an appearance in Batman Unchained, before ultimately casting Coolio.
A fifth film would likely have appeared 18 months to two years after the fourth. When Batman & Robin received negative reviews and failed to outgross any of its predecessors, and a $150 million Superman film was canceled three months before shooting began, Warner Bros. became unsure of its plans for the fifth film. The studio decided it was best to consider a live-action Batman Beyond film and an adaptation of Frank Miller's Batman: Year One. Warner Bros. would then greenlight whichever idea suited them the most. Schumacher felt he "owe[d] the Batman culture a real Batman movie. I would go back to the basics and make a dark portrayal of the Dark Knight." He approached Warner Bros. to do Batman: Year One in mid-1998.
Despite Warner Bros. and Schumacher's interest with Year One, Lee Shapiro, a comic book fan, and Stephen Wise pitched the studio with a script titled Batman: DarKnight in mid-1998. DarKnight, which was largely inspired by The Dark Knight Returns, had Bruce Wayne giving up his crime fighting career, and Dick Grayson attending Gotham University. Dr. Jonathan Crane uses his position as professor of psychology at Gotham University and as head psychiatrist at Arkham Asylum to conduct his experiments into fear (this element would later appear in Batman Begins). During a vengeful confrontation with a colleague, Dr. Kirk Langstrom, Crane unknowingly initiates Kirk's transformation into the creature known as Man-Bat. Citizens of Gotham believe Man-Bat's nightly activities to be Batman's "bloodthirsty" return. Bruce becomes Batman "to clear his name," and solve the mystery of Man-Bat. Kirk struggles with his "man-vs.-monster" syndrome, as he longs to both reunite with his wife and get revenge on Crane, while Crane exacts revenge on those responsible for his dismissal from both Arkham and the university while encountering truths about his past. Warner Bros. decided not to move forward with the project, and passed on Batman: DarKnight in favor of Year One and Batman Beyond.
Batman: Year One and Batman Beyond
By September 2000 Warner Bros. was developing a live action screen adaptation of Batman Beyond, written by Paul Dini, Neal Stephenson and Boaz Yakin, with the possibility of Yakin directing, as well as an adaptation of Frank Miller's 1987 comic book story arc Batman: Year One. Despite interest from Schumacher, the studio amazed and pleased fans by hiring Darren Aronofsky to direct and co-write with Miller, whom he previously collaborated with on an unproduced script for Ronin. Yakin developed one draft of the Batman Beyond screenplay with the writers but soon lost interest, and Warner Bros. abandoned Batman Beyond almost instantly in favor of Batman: Year One. Aronofsky and Miller intended to reboot the Batman franchise, "it's somewhat based on the comic book," Aronofsky said. "Toss out everything you can imagine about Batman! Everything! We're starting completely anew." Regular Aronofsky collaborator, Matthew Libatique, was set as cinematographer, and Christian Bale had been approached for the role of Batman. Coincidentally, Bale would be cast in the role for Batman Begins. At the same time, Warner Bros. was moving forward on a Catwoman spin-off.
The Aronofsky-Miller script had a brooding Batman and realistic violence, and would also have been R-rated. Around 2001, Warner commissioned the rewriting of the film's script to The Matrix directors The Wachowskis, but the duo's version didn't convince Warner. Joss Whedon was later hired to rewrite the script, but like with The Wachowskis' script, Warner didn't like his script. In June 2002, the studio decided to move forward on Batman vs. Superman and abandon Year One.
Batman vs. Superman
In 1999 new Warner studio head Alan Horn promised five tent-poles a year. He wanted to revive the Batman and Superman franchises as tentpoles. Wolfgang Petersen was to direct Superman: Flyby, but Andrew Kevin Walker pitched Warner Bros. an idea titled Batman vs Superman with as director. Superman: Flyby was put on hold, and Akiva Goldsman was hired to rewrite Walker's Batman vs. Superman.
Goldsman's draft, dated June 21, 2002, had Bruce Wayne going through a mental breakdown after his five-year retirement from crime fighting. Dick Grayson, Alfred Pennyworth, and Commissioner Gordon are all dead, but Bruce finds some solace in his fiancée, Elizabeth Miller. Meanwhile, Clark Kent is struggling because of a recent divorce from Lois Lane. Clark and Bruce are close friends, and Clark is Bruce's best man. After the Joker kills Elizabeth on their honeymoon, Bruce swears revenge, while Clark tries to hold him back. Bruce blames Clark for her death, and the two go against one another. Ultimately, Lex Luthor is revealed to have masterminded the entire plot to get Batman and Superman to destroy each other. The two decide to team up and stop Luthor. Bale was approached to portray Batman, while Josh Hartnett was offered the role of Superman.
Filming was to start in early 2003, with plans for a five- to six-month shoot. The release date was set for the summer of 2004. However, Warner Bros. canceled development to focus on individual Superman and Batman projects after Abrams submitted another draft for Superman: Flyby. According to Petersen "[Warner Bros.' chief] Alan Horn was so torn, because it's such a fascinating concept to do a Batman versus Superman film". Horn reportedly preferred Abrams' optimistic Superman script to the darker Batman vs. Superman script; studio executives voted 11-1 for the former. Many comic-book fans agreed; David S. Goyer said, "'Batman Vs. Superman' is where you go when you admit to yourself that you’ve exhausted all possibilities ... somewhat of an admission that this franchise is on its last gasp". Since the decision left the studio without a Batman film for 2004 Warner quickly made the Catwoman film, which performed poorly at the box office.
The Batman OnStar commercials were a series of six television commercials featuring Batman, created by ad-agency Campbell-Ewald and aired from 2000 to the beginning of 2002.
The ads were based on the film series and were basically an amalgamation of both directors' visuals. For example, the Batmobile was the one used in Batman and Batman Returns, while the Batsuit was a combination of what was worn by Val Kilmer in Batman Forever and George Clooney in Batman & Robin. The commercials also featured the Danny Elfman Batman theme from Tim Burton's two films.
Actor Bruce Thomas portrayed Batman in these ads, while Michael Gough reprised his role of Alfred Pennyworth in one of the ads. Baywatch actress Brooke Burns played Vicki Vale in an ad as well. Actor Brian Stepanek played the Riddler in one ad and Curtis Armstrong played the Joker in another.
The Dark Knight Trilogy (2005–2012)
Batman Begins (2005)
Following a rejected Batman origin story reboot Joss Whedon pitched in December 2002, Warner Bros. hired Christopher Nolan and David S. Goyer to script Batman Begins. The duo aimed for a darker and more realistic tone, with humanity and realism being the basis of the film. The film was primarily shot in the United Kingdom and Chicago, and relied on traditional stunts and scale models with minimal use of computer-generated imagery. Christian Bale starred as Batman, Liam Neeson as Ra's al Ghul, and Cillian Murphy as The Scarecrow. Katie Holmes appears in the movie as Bruce's love interest, Rachel Dawes, a role created for the film. Alfred, the ex-British Army member was played by Michael Caine and Jim Gordon was portrayed by Gary Oldman. A new Batmobile (called the Tumbler) and a more mobile Batsuit were both created specifically for the film. The film begins with the death of Bruce's parents and then explores his decision to leave Gotham and his training under the League of Assassins with Ra's al Ghul, before he rebels against the League and adopts the guise of Batman, recognising that he cannot condone their use of lethal force. The League attempt to attack Gotham using Jonathan Crane's weaponised fear toxin, but Batman is able to defeat their plan, with Ra's being killed when a train he is in crashes during a fight with Batman.
Batman Begins was both critically and commercially successful. The film opened on June 15, 2005, in the United States and Canada in 3,858 theaters. It grossed $48 million in its opening weekend, eventually grossing over $372 million worldwide. The film received an 85% overall approval rating from Rotten Tomatoes. Critics noted that fear was a common motif throughout the film, and remarked that it had a darker tone compared with previous Batman films. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography and for three BAFTA awards. It was also listed at No. 81 on Empire's "500 Greatest Movies of All Time" and has maintained a standing on IMDb.com's "Top 250".
The Dark Knight (2008)
Christopher Nolan reprised his duties as director, and brought his brother, Jonathan, to co-write the script for the second installment. The Dark Knight featured Christian Bale reprising his role as Batman/Bruce Wayne, Heath Ledger as The Joker, and Aaron Eckhart as Harvey Dent / Two-Face. Principal photography began in April 2007 in Chicago and concluded in November. Other locations included Pinewood Studios, Ministry of Sound in London and Hong Kong. On January 22, 2008, after he had completed filming The Dark Knight, Ledger died from a bad combination of prescription medication. Warner Bros. had created a viral marketing campaign for The Dark Knight, developing promotional websites and trailers highlighting screen shots of Ledger as the Joker, but after Ledger's death, the studio refocused its promotional campaign. The film depicts Gotham attempting to rebuild after Batman's actions have caused so much damage to its organised crime families, aided by the prosecution of charismatic District Attorney Harvey Dent, but the involvement of the anarchic Joker threatens everything, as his actions lead to the death of Rachel Dawes and Harvey being scarred and transformed into Two-Face. Although Batman is able to stop the Joker from forcing two ferries- one loaded with civilians and the other with prisoners- to destroy each other, he is forced to take the blame for the murders committed by Dent to ensure that the city retains its hope for the future.
The film received broad critical acclaim, and set numerous records during its theatrical run. With just over $1 billion in revenue worldwide, it is the 37th-highest-grossing film of all time, unadjusted for inflation. The film received eight Academy Award nominations; it won the award for Best Sound Editing and Ledger was posthumously awarded Best Supporting Actor.
The Dark Knight Rises (2012)
Nolan wanted the story for the third and final installment to keep him emotionally invested. "On a more superficial level, I have to ask the question," he reasoned, "how many good third movies in a franchise can people name?" He returned out of finding a necessary way to continue the story, but feared midway through filming he would find a sequel redundant. The Dark Knight Rises is intended to complete Nolan's Batman trilogy. By December 2008, Nolan completed a rough story outline, before he committed himself to Inception. In February 2010, work on the screenplay was commencing with David S. Goyer and Jonathan Nolan. When Goyer left to work on the Superman reboot, Jonathan was writing the script based on the story by his brother and Goyer. Tom Hardy was cast as Bane and Anne Hathaway plays Selina Kyle. Joseph Gordon-Levitt was cast as John Blake, and Marion Cotillard was cast as Miranda Tate. Filming began in May 2011 and concluded in November. Nolan chose not to film in 3-D but, by focusing on improving image quality and scale using the IMAX format, hoped to push technological boundaries while nevertheless making the style of the film consistent with the previous two. Nolan had several meetings with IMAX Vice-President David Keighley to work on the logistics of projecting films in digital IMAX venues. The Dark Knight Rises featured more scenes shot in IMAX than The Dark Knight. Cinematographer Wally Pfister expressed interest in shooting the film entirely in IMAX. During the film, set eight years after Dark Knight, the arrival of new foe Bane forces Bruce to return to his old role as Batman, only to find himself overpowered and captured by Bane as Gotham is cut off from the rest of the world with a stolen Wayne Enterprises fusion generator prototype set to go off in a few months. With the aid of thief Selina Kyle, Bruce is able to return to Gotham and defeat Bane while redeeming his image as Batman. The film concludes with Bruce having 'retired' as Batman after faking his death to live with Selina Kyle, evidence suggesting that he has passed on the Batcave to new ally Detective John Blake (real first name Robin) while Gotham rebuilds in memory of the Dark Knight's heroism.
Upon release, The Dark Knight Rises received a positive critical response and was successful at the box office, going on to outgross its predecessor and become the 24th-highest-grossing film of all time grossing over $1.08 billion. However, unlike its predecessors, the film was not nominated for any Oscars during its year of eligibility at the 85th Academy Awards, much to the surprise of film industry insiders.
Proposed Justice League film
Justice League: Mortal
In February 2007, during pre-production for The Dark Knight, Warner Bros. hired husband and wife screenwriting duo Michelle and Kieran Mulroney to script a Justice League film featuring a younger Batman in a separate franchise. George Miller was hired to direct the following September, with Armie Hammer cast as Batman a month later and Teresa Palmer as Talia al Ghul. Filming had nearly commenced at Fox Studios Australia in Sydney, but was pushed back over the Writers Guild of America strike, and once more when the Australian Film Commission denied Warner Bros. a 45 percent tax rebate over lack of Australian actors in the film. Production offices were moved to Vancouver Film Studios in Canada for an expected July 2008 start and a planned summer 2009 theatrical release date, but Warner Bros. ultimately canceled Justice League following the success of The Dark Knight. Hammer's option on his contract lapsed and the studio was more willing to proceed with Christopher Nolan to finish his trilogy separately with The Dark Knight Rises.
DC Extended Universe (2016–present)
Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016)
On June 13, 2013, a source from Warner Bros. told The Wrap that they were discussing more Man of Steel films, as well as a Superman/Batman film, Wonder Woman, and Aquaman. Warner Bros. announced that Superman and Batman would unite in a new film, a follow-up to Man of Steel (2013), taking its inspiration from the comic The Dark Knight Returns and set for release in 2015. Goyer stated at the Superman 75th Anniversary Panel at Comic-Con, that Batman and Superman would face off, and titles under consideration were Superman vs Batman or Batman vs Superman.
On August 22, 2013, The Hollywood Reporter announced the casting of Ben Affleck as Bruce Wayne/Batman. On January 17, 2014, it was announced that the film had been delayed from its original July 17, 2015 release date to May 6, 2016, in order to give the filmmakers "time to realize fully their vision, given the complex visual nature of the story". The film's release was moved again to March 25, 2016, "avoiding a high-profile showdown with Captain America: Civil War on May 6, 2016". At some point prior to the events of the film, Wayne Manor was burnt down, with Bruce and Alfred relocating to a smaller glass house above the Batcave. During the film, Bruce is subtly manipulated by Lex Luthor into perceiving Superman as an alien being too removed from humanity to be fully trusted, with Luthor intending to provoke a conflict between the two that will either force Superman to kill or see Batman defeat 'God'. Bruce's dark views are implied to be the result of the Joker killing Robin in some past confrontation, with Batman showing a lack of concern about whether or not he kills his opponents in battle and branding certain criminals with the mark of the Bat. However, when he faces Superman with kryptonite weapons, he realises how far he has fallen when Superman asks him to 'save Martha' (Luthor using Martha Kent as a hostage to provoke Superman into confronting Batman), the reminder of his own mother helping Batman realise what he has become and acknowledge that Superman is fundamentally human despite his powers. After Batman saves Martha Kent from Luthor's minions, he fights alongside Superman and new hero Wonder Woman to contain the Kryptonian deformity Luthor created to kill Superman, a battle that results in Superman's death when he stabs the deformity with the kryptonite spear and is impaled himself. Taking Luthor's metahuman files, Bruce states that he intends to gather the metahumans to prepare for an implied future threat that Luthor made reference to.
Suicide Squad (2016)
In February 2009, Warner Bros. was developing a Suicide Squad film, with Dan Lin producing, and Justin Marks writing the script. In September 2014, David Ayer signed on to direct and write the screenplay for the film. Charles Roven is also set to produce the film. In November 2014 and March 2015, it was announced that Deadshot, Harley Quinn, Killer Croc and the Joker will appear in the film portrayed respectively by Will Smith, Margot Robbie, Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje and Jared Leto. Batman appears in brief flashbacks where he is involved in the capture of Deadshot and Harley Quinn, rescuing Harley from a submerged car after it crashed during a chase and she was abandoned by the Joker, and apprehending Deadshot after an anonymous tip led him to the assassin as Deadshot was Christmas-shopping with his daughter. Batman's history with Killer Croc is also briefly referenced. At the film's conclusion, Amanda Waller—who appears to know that Bruce Wayne is Batman—provides Bruce with files on various metahumans in exchange for his protection from future fallout from the Enchantress's recent attack, Bruce informing Waller to shut down Task Force X as his friends will handle future problems.
Wonder Woman (2017)
Although he does not appear physically, Bruce Wayne is heavily referenced in Wonder Woman. After the events of Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Bruce successfully retrieves the photo from Lex Luthor's archives which he used to threaten Diana, along with a watch that belonged to the father of Captain Steve Trevor. He transports them through an armored car to Diana, with a letter wishing to know her story someday. Diana recalls the events of the film as a flashback, after which she sends an E-mail to Bruce, "Thanks for bringing him back to me".
Justice League (2017)
Shortly after filming had finished for Man of Steel, Warner Bros hired Will Beall to script a new Justice League film in June 2012. With the release of Man of Steel in June 2013, Goyer was hired to write a new Justice League script, with the Beall draft being scrapped. In April 2014, it was announced that Zack Snyder would also be directing Goyer's Justice League script. Warner Bros. was reportedly courting Chris Terrio to rewrite Justice League the following July, after having been impressed with his rewrite of Batman v Superman.
The Batman (2021)
By July 2015, Ben Affleck was in talks to star in, co-write with Geoff Johns, and possibly direct a standalone Batman film. In March 2016, Johns claimed that the appearance of Robin's suit covered in graffiti from Dawn of Justice would be explored later and the identity of the deceased character was intentionally unspecified. Following the release of Dawn of Justice, William Morris Endeavor's co-CEO Patrick Whitesell confirmed that Affleck had written a screenplay for a standalone Batman film that he hoped would be optioned by Warner Bros as well to direct. Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara confirmed in April 2016 that the studio was moving ahead with Affleck's stand-alone Batman film, which the actor would star in and direct. In May 2016, Jeremy Irons confirmed that he was "tied into The Batman", while Affleck stated that his solo Batman film would borrow from the comics, but mainly be an "original story". In August 2016, Jared Leto expressed his hope that his version of the Joker would appear in Affleck's Batman solo film. Later that month, Deathstroke was teased by Affleck through test footage, later confirmed by Johns that the character would be played by Joe Manganiello. In October 2016, Affleck stated the intended title for the film would be The Batman, but later clarified that the film could end up having a different title. Manganiello and Irons stated that filming would start in spring 2017.
In December 2016, Affleck confirmed that the film was on track to begin shooting in spring 2017. Later that month, Warner Bros. executive Greg Silverman stated that the film would be released in 2018. Around the same time, Affleck stated that the film had no script and that he may end up not directing it. Affleck planned to shoot the film in Los Angeles as doubling for Gotham City. He reaffirmed his commitment to direct the film in his appearance on Jimmy Kimmel Live!. In late January 2017, Affleck decided to step down as director, but would remain involved as producer and actor. By this point, writer Chris Terrio, who won an Academy Award for writing Affleck's Argo and also helped script Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, had turned in a rewrite of the script. On February 10, 2017, it was announced that Matt Reeves was in talks to replace Affleck as the director of the film, however on February 17 it was reported that talks had broken down. Two weeks later, Reeves had officially signed on to direct and co-produce the film. Production was delayed until 2018 as Reeves was tied up in post-production on War for the Planet of the Apes until June 2017, and The Batman is being re-written to allow Reeves more creative freedom as a director. Reeves stated in an interview that the film will feature "an almost-noir driven, detective version of Batman" that will emphasize the heart and mind of the character and will take inspiration from Alfred Hitchcock.
On August 2, 2018, Reeves appeared on a Television Critics Association panel and revealed many details about the film. He confirmed that The Batman is an original, noir-driven story and not an origin story. He also revealed that the script is nearing completion and that the film will be connected to the established DC Extended Universe. By January 2019, it was announced that Affleck would not return as Batman and no longer involved in any capacity. The film is scheduled to start shooting in early 2019. On May 16, 2019, it was reported by both Variety and The Hollywood Reporter that Robert Pattinson was in "early talks" and the "frontrunner" to replace Affleck as Batman. The Batman is scheduled to be released in North America on June 25, 2021.
Outside of the DCEU
On October 23, 2018, Dante Pereira-Olson was cast as Bruce Wayne in the upcoming Joker film. The film will be set during the 1980s, where a failed stand-up comedian named Arthur Fleck turns to a life of crime and chaos in Gotham City.
- 1993: Mask of the Phantasm, set in the continuity of Batman: The Animated Series with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 1998: Subzero, set in the continuity of Batman: The Animated Series with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2000: Return of the Joker, set in the continuity of Batman Beyond with Will Friedle voicing Batman
- 2003: Mystery of the Batwoman, set in the continuity of The New Batman Adventures with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2005: The Batman vs. Dracula, set in the continuity of The Batman with Rino Romano voicing Batman
- 2010: Under the Red Hood, an adaptation of Batman: Under the Hood with Bruce Greenwood voicing Batman
- 2011: Year One, an adaptation of Batman: Year One with Benjamin McKenzie voicing Batman
- 2012: The Dark Knight Returns – Part 1, an adaptation of the first half of The Dark Knight Returns with Peter Weller voicing Batman
- 2013: The Dark Knight Returns – Part 2, an adaptation of the second half of The Dark Knight Returns with Peter Weller voicing Batman
- 2013: DC Super Heroes Unite, an adaptation of Lego Batman 2: DC Super Heroes with Troy Baker voicing Batman
- 2014: Son of Batman, a loose adaptation of Batman and Son with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2014: Assault on Arkham, set in the continuity of Batman: Arkham with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2015: Batman vs. Robin an animated film with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2015: Batman Unlimited: Animal Instincts, an animated film with Roger Craig Smith voicing Batman
- 2015: Batman Unlimited: Monster Mayhem, an animated film with Roger Craig Smith voicing Batman
- 2016: Batman Unlimited: Mechs vs. Mutants, an animated film with Roger Craig Smith voicing Batman
- 2016: Batman: Bad Blood, an animated film also featuring Batwoman and Batwing with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2016: Batman: The Killing Joke, an adaptation of Batman: The Killing Joke with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2016: Batman: Return of the Caped Crusaders, based on the Batman television series with Adam West voicing Batman
- 2017: Batman and Harley Quinn, an animated film with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2017: Batman vs. Two-Face, based on the Batman television series with Adam West voicing Batman for final time before his death
- 2018: Batman: Gotham by Gaslight, an animated film based on the one-shot graphic novel of the same name with Bruce Greenwood voicing Batman.
- 2018: Batman Ninja, an animated film with Kōichi Yamadera and Roger Craig Smith voicing Batman in Japanese and English respectively.
With other heroes
- 2008: Justice League: The New Frontier, based on the comic of the same name with Jeremy Sisto voicing Batman
- 2009: Superman/Batman: Public Enemies, based on the comic of the same name with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2010: Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, a loose adaptation of various DC comics with William Baldwin voicing Batman
- 2010: Superman/Batman: Apocalypse, based on Superman/Batman: The Supergirl from Krypton with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2010: DC Super Friends, based on the Fisher-Price toyline with Daran Norris voicing Batman
- 2012: Justice League: Doom, based on JLA: Tower of Babel with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
- 2013: Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, based on Flashpoint with Kevin McKidd voicing Batman
- 2014: JLA Adventures: Trapped in Time, an original story with Diedrich Bader voicing Batman
- 2014: Justice League: War, based on Justice League: Origin with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2014: Lego DC Comics: Batman Be-Leaguered animated television special, with Troy Baker reprising his role as Batman from the Lego video games.
- 2015: Justice League: Throne of Atlantis, based on Throne of Atlantis with Jason O'Mara voicing Batman
- 2015: Justice League: Gods and Monsters
- 2015: Lego DC Comics Super Heroes: Justice League vs. Bizarro League, with Troy Baker reprising his role.
- 2016: Lego DC Comics Super Heroes: Justice League – Cosmic Clash, with Troy Baker reprising his role.
- 2017: DC Super Heroes vs. Eagle Talon, with Takayuki Yamada voicing Batman.
The Lego Movie series
- 2014: A Lego-themed version of Batman appears in The Lego Movie, voiced by Will Arnett.
- 2017: The character receives his own spin-off film, The Lego Batman Movie, voiced again by Arnett. This film takes place in a universe where all of the previous live-action films, as well as some animated series, have happened.
- 2019: Arnett reprised his role as Lego Batman in The Lego Movie 2: The Second Part.
- 2008: Batman: Gotham Knight, a collection of original shorts with Kevin Conroy voicing Batman
Cast and characters
Box office performance
|Film||Release date||Box office revenue||Box office ranking||Budget||Ref(s)|
|Batman (1966)||July 30, 1966||$1,700,000||$1,700,000||$1.5 million|||
|Batman (1989)||June 23, 1989||$251,188,924||$160,160,000||$411,348,924||#71
|Batman Returns||June 19, 1992||$162,831,698||$103,990,656||$266,822,354||#206
|Batman: Mask of the Phantasm||December 25, 1993||$5,617,391||$5,617,391||#4,653|||
|Batman Forever||June 16, 1995||$184,031,112||$152,498,032||$336,529,144||#148
|Batman & Robin||June 20, 1997||$107,325,195||$130,881,927||$238,207,122||#460||#394||$125 million|||
|Catwoman||July 23, 2004||$40,202,379||$41,900,000||$82,102,379||#2,013||$100 million|||
|Batman Begins||June 15, 2005||$206,852,432||$167,366,241||$374,218,673||#120||#182||$150 million|||
|The Dark Knight||July 18, 2008||$534,858,444||$469,700,000||$1,004,558,444||#4
|The Dark Knight Rises||July 20, 2012||$448,139,099||$636,300,000||$1,084,439,099||#7
|Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||March 25, 2016||$328,843,925||$542,232,023||$871,075,948||#45||#46||$250 million|||
|Batman: The Killing Joke||July 25, 2016||$3,775,000||$586,038||$4,361,038||$3.5 million|||
|Batman: Return of the Caped Crusaders||October 10, 2016||$57,343||$57,343|||
|The Lego Batman Movie||February 10, 2017||$175,750,384||$136,200,000||$311,950,384||#252||#405||$80 million||.|
|Batman and Harley Quinn||August 14, 2017||$39,091||$39,091|||
Critical and public response
|Batman (1966)||78% (6.2/10 average rating) (32 reviews)|
|Batman (1989)||71% (6.6/10 average rating) (72 reviews)||69 (21 reviews)||A|
|Batman Returns||78% (6.7/10 average rating) (77 reviews)||68 (23 reviews)||B|
|Batman: Mask of the Phantasm||83% (6.8/10 average rating) (30 reviews)|
|Batman Forever||39% (5.2/10 average rating) (64 reviews)||51 (23 reviews)||A−|
|Batman & Robin||11% (3.7/10 average rating) (88 reviews)||28 (21 reviews)||C+|
|Batman Begins||84% (7.7/10 average rating) (273 reviews)||70 (41 reviews)||A|
|The Dark Knight||94% (8.6/10 average rating) (332 reviews)||84 (39 reviews)||A|
|The Dark Knight Rises||87% (8/10 average rating) (348 reviews)||78 (45 reviews)||A|
|Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||27% (4.9/10 average rating) (386 reviews)||44 (51 reviews)||B|
|Batman: The Killing Joke||43% (5.7/10 average rating) (37 reviews)|
|The Lego Batman Movie||90% (7.5/10 average rating) (280 reviews)||75 (48 reviews)||A−|
|Justice League||40% (5.3/10 average rating) (322 reviews)||45 (52 reviews)||B+|
|Award||Batman: The Motion Picture Anthology||The Dark Knight Trilogy||DC Extended Universe|
|Batman||Batman Returns||Batman Forever||Batman & Robin||Batman Begins||The Dark Knight||The Dark Knight Rises||Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||Justice League|
|Supporting Actor||Won (Heath Ledger)|
British Academy Film Awards
|Award||Burton/Schumacher series||The Dark Knight Trilogy||DC Extended Universe|
|Batman||Batman Returns||Batman Forever||Batman & Robin||Batman Begins||The Dark Knight||The Dark Knight Rises||Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||Justice League|
|Makeup and Hair||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated|
|Supporting Actor||Nominated (Jack Nicholson)||Won (Heath Ledger)|
|Award||Batman: The Motion Picture Anthology||The Dark Knight Trilogy||DC Extended Universe|
|Batman||Batman Returns||Batman Forever||Batman & Robin||Batman Begins||The Dark Knight||The Dark Knight Rises||Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||Justice League|
|Best Fantasy Film||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Won|
|Best Action / Adventure / Thriller Film||Won||Nominated|
|Best Comic-to-Film Motion Picture||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor||Nominated||Nominated||Won||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actress||Nominated||Nominated||Won|
|Best Special Effects||Nominated||Nominated||Won|
- Goulart, Ron, Comic Book Encyclopedia (Harper Entertainment, New York, 2004) ISBN 978-0-06-053816-3
- Couch, Aaron (June 14, 2015). "'Batman' Movie Series: List of Unmade Projects - Hollywood Reporter". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Subers, Ray (September 4, 2012). "Around-the-World Roundup: 'Dark Knight Rises' Joins Billionaire Club". Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- Davis, Brandon (October 23, 2018). "'Joker': Dante Pereira-Olson Cast as Young Bruce Wayne". ComicBook.com. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
- "Box Office Mojo Movie Franchises Index Sorted by Total Gross". Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- Batman, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman and Robin, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman: The Movie, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman Returns, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman Forever, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman & Robin, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman Begins, retrieved April 22, 2019
- The Dark Knight, retrieved April 22, 2019
- The Dark Knight Rises, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Suicide Squad, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Justice League, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Joker, retrieved April 22, 2019
- The Batman, retrieved April 22, 2019
- Couch, Aaron; McClintock, Pamela (January 30, 2019). "'The Batman,' 'The Suicide Squad' Set 2021 Release Dates". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Daniels, Les (1999). Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books. pp. 57–59. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (November 8, 2005). "An Interview With Michael Uslan – Part 1". Batman-on-Film. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (November 11, 2005). "An Interview With Michael Uslan – Part 2". Batman-on-Film. Retrieved May 4, 2008.
- Nancy Griffin; Kim Masters (1997). "Hit Men". Hit & Run: How Jon Peters and Peter Guber Took Sony For A Ride In Hollywood. Simon & Schuster. pp. 114, 158–174. ISBN 0-684-80931-1.
- Jones, Alan (November 1989). "Batman in Production". Cinefantastique. pp. 75–88. Retrieved May 13, 2008.
- Michael Uslan, Benjamin Melniker, Peter Guber, Tom Mankiewicz, Sam Hamm, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—The Road to Gotham City, 2005, Warner Home Video
- Jones, Alan (November 1989). "Batman". Cinefantastique. pp. 55–67. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
- Stax (December 1, 2001). "The Stax Report Special Edition: Script Review of The Batman". IGN. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2008.
- Taylor L. White (July 1989). "Batman". Cinefantastique. pp. 33–40.
- Salisbury, Mark; Tim Burton (2006). "Batman". Burton on Burton. London: Faber and Faber. pp. 70–83. ISBN 0-571-22926-3.
- Hanke, Ken (1999). "Going Batty in Britain". Tim Burton: An Unauthorized Biography of the Filmmaker. Renaissance Books. pp. 75–85. 1-58063-162-2.
- Englehat, Steve. "Batman". SteveEnglehart.com. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
So I got to do the second treatment with just the characters that eventually hit the screen: Bruce Wayne, the Batman, Silver St. Cloud, Boss Thorne, and the Joker.
- Nancy Griffin; Kim Masters (1997). "Hit Men". Hit & Run: How Jon Peters and Peter Guber Took Sony For A Ride In Hollywood. Simon & Schuster. pp. 158–174. ISBN 0-684-80931-1.
- Rebello, Stephen (November 1989). "Sam Hamm – Screenwriter". Cinefantastique. pp. 34–41.
- Johnstone, Iain (August 1989). "Dark Knight in the City of Dreams". Empire. pp. 46–54. Retrieved May 14, 2008.
- Joe Morgenstern (April 9, 1989). "Tim Burton, Batman and The Joker", The New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
- Salisbury, Burton, p.145
- Boucher, Geoff (October 15, 2008). "Tim Burton talks about Johnny Depp, 'Alice in Wonderland' and 'The Dark Knight'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Jeffrey Resner (August 1992). "Three Go Mad in Gotham", Empire, pp. 39–46. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- Judy Sloane (August 1995). "Daniel Waters on Writing", Film Review, pp. 67–69. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- Hughes, David (2003). "Batman". Comic Book Movies. Virgin Books. pp. 33–46. ISBN 0-7535-0767-6.
- Broeske, Pat H.; Thompson, Anne (August 9, 1991). "Big-Game Hunting". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- Salisbury, Burton, p.102-114
- "Batman Returns". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- Olly Richards (September 1992). "Trouble in Gotham", Empire, pp. 21–23. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- "Batman 3". Entertainment Weekly. October 1, 1993. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- Gordinier, Jeff (July 15, 1994). "Next at Batman". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 21, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- Svetkey, Benjamin (July 12, 1996). "Holy Happy Set!". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- "Batman Forever (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman Forever". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- Fleming, Michael (February 21, 1997). "Helmer's 3rd At Bat". Variety. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Joel Schumacher, Peter MacGregor-Scott, Chris O'Donnell, Val Kilmer, Uma Thurman, John Glover, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight Part 6-Batman Unbound, 2005, Warner Home Video
- Pener, Degen (September 13, 1996). "Holy Hearsay". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Anita M. Busch (January 10, 1997). "Schumacher on 'Popcorn'". Variety. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Michael Mallory; Michael Fleming (March 5, 1997). "Holy caped caper, IV". Variety. Archived from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- "Batman & Robin". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Karger, Dave (July 11, 1997). "Big Chill". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- "1998 Razzie Awards". Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008.
- "Comix Worst to Best: Batman & Robin (1997)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008.
- Fear, David. "Men in Tights". MSN Movies. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008.
- Fleming, Michael (February 21, 1997). "Helmer's 3rd At Bat". Variety. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Greenberg, James (May 8, 2005). "Rescuing Batman". Los Angeles Times. p. E-10. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
- Linder, Brian (July 27, 2000). "Rumblings From Gotham". IGN. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
- Fleming, Michael (November 11, 1997). "Schumacher trims sails". Variety. Archived from the original on February 3, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2008.
- Toro, Gabe (October 5, 2011). "Joel Schumacher Says He Wanted Nicolas Cage To Play Scarecrow In The Aborted 'Batman Triumphant'". IndieWire. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
- "Coolio Was Courted to Play Scarecrow in Scrapped 'Batman & Robin' Sequel". The Hollywood Reporter. February 9, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- Hughes, David (March 2004). "The Dark Knight Strikes Out". Tales From Development Hell. London: Titan Books. pp. 192–211. ISBN 1-84023-691-4.
- Jensen, Jeff (December 4, 1998). "Winging It". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Bill "Jett" Ramey (July 28, 2005). "Interview: Lee Shapiro". Batman-on-Film. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008.
- Anderson, Eric (September 13, 2012). "Chris O'Donnell On Why His 'Robin' Spin-Off Never Happened & Passing On Men In Black". Access Hollywood. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Harris, Dana (September 21, 2000). "WB sends Pi guy into the Bat Cave". Variety. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Linder, Brian (October 16, 2000). "The Bat-Men Speak". IGN. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Topel, Fred (April 23, 2012). "Action Packed: Boaz Yakin on Safe and Batman Beyond". CraveOnline. Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- Linder, Brian (December 6, 2000). "Aronofsky Talks Batman: Year One...Again". IGN. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Andrew O. Thompson (November 8, 2000). "Matthew Libatique". Variety. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Smith, Adam (July 2005). "The Original American Psycho". Empire. pp. 74–80, 82, 84, 87.
- Fleming, Michael (April 2, 2001). "WB: Judd purr-fect as Cat". Variety. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- "8 Unmade BATMAN Movies".
- "Joss Whedon Talks About His 'Batman' Movie That Never Was".
- Harris, Dana (June 30, 2002). "WB: fewer pix, more punch". Variety. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2008.
- Brian M. Raftery; Nancy Miller (July 9, 2002). "Dynamic Duel". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on January 6, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- Linder, Brian (August 9, 2001). "More Batman, Superman Insanity at WB". IGN. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- Akiva Goldsman (June 21, 2002). "Batman vs Superman 2nd Draft" (PDF). Daily Scripts. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- Smith, Adam (July 2005). "The Original American Psycho". Empire. pp. 74–80, 82, 84, 87.
- Daniel Fierman; Nancy Miller; Brian M. Raftery (March 14, 2003). "Stallville?". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- Linder, Brian (July 9, 2002). "Batman vs. Superman in '04". IGN. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
- Hughes, David (2003). Tales From Development @#!*%. Titan Books. pp. 205–8. ISBN 1-84023-691-4.
- Jacks, Brian (March 15, 2010). "EXCLUSIVE: Christian Bale Met For Superman Role In Wolfgang Petersen's 'Batman Vs. Superman'". MTV News. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Pappademas, Alex (May 2012). "The Geek Shall Inherit the Earth". GQ. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- Seijas, Casey (August 11, 2008). "Joss Whedon Talks About His 'Batman' Movie That Never Was". MTV Splash Page. Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- Flemming, Michael (January 27, 2003). "Batman captures director Nolan". Variety. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Marc Graser; Cathy Dunkley (February 8, 2004). "The bat and the beautiful". Variety. Retrieved November 2, 2006.
- "Batman Begins goes to the source". The Kansas City Star. June 25, 2004.
- "35 East Wacker Drive". Emporis. 2007. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
- Brain, Marshall. "How the Batmobile Works". HowStuffWorks.
- "Batman Begins Production Notes – The Batsuit & Gadgetry". Warner Bros.
- "Batman Begins (2005) – Awards". IMDb. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- "Empire's 500 Greatest Movies of All Time". Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- "Batman Begins (2005)". Retrieved August 23, 2012.
- Marshall Crook; Peter Sanders (January 24, 2008). "Advertising: Will Marketing Change After Star's Death?". The Wall Street Journal. pp. B1. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2008.
- "Ledger's Death Puts Last Films in a Bind". CNN. January 24, 2008. Archived from the original on July 26, 2008. Retrieved July 10, 2008.
- "The 50 Best Movies of the Decade (2000–2009)". Paste Magazine. November 3, 2009. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- "Film Critics Pick the Best Movies of the Decade". Metacritic. January 3, 2010. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Review of the Decade – Year-By-Year: Empire's Films Of The Decade". Empire Magazine. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Movie Records". the-numbers.com. Retrieved August 24, 2010.
- "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on May 30, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2010.
- Boucher, Geoff (October 27, 2008). "Christopher Nolan on 'Dark Knight' and its box-office billion: 'It's mystifying to me'". Los Angeles Times. WebCitation archive.
- "Merrick" (pseudonym) (December 5, 2008). "Nolan Talks DARK KNIGHT Blu-Ray, a 100,000 Person Screening of the Film (Featuring Live Q & A w/ Nolan), TDK Sequel, and More!!". Ain't It Cool News. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011.
- Jensen, Jeff (November 30, 2010). "Christopher Nolan on his 'last' Batman movie, an 'Inception' videogame, and that spinning top". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on December 2, 2010. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
- Bowles, Scott (December 7, 2008). "For now, Nolan and Batman will rest in 'Dark' glory". USA Today. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011.
- Finke, Nikki & Mike Fleming (February 9, 2010). "It's A Bird! It's A Plane! It's Chris Nolan! He'll Mentor Superman 3.0 And Prep 3rd Batman". Deadline Hollywood. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
- Boucher, Geoff (March 10, 2010). "Christopher Nolan takes flight with Superman: 'We have a fantastic story' [UPDATED]". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 4, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2010.
- Jensen, Jeff (January 19, 2011). "'The Dark Knight Rises' scoop: Anne Hathaway, Tom Hardy join cast". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 19, 2011.
- Sneider, Jeff (March 18, 2011). "Gordon-Levitt's 'Dark Knight' role revealed". Variety. Retrieved March 18, 2011. WebCitation.org.
- Labrecque, Jeff (March 21, 2011). "Joseph Gordon Levitt joins 'Dark Knight Rises'... but not as Falcone". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- de Semlyen, Phil (November 19, 2010). "Exclusive: The Dark Knight Rises In May". Empire. Retrieved December 3, 2010.
- Boucher, Geoff (October 27, 2010). "Nolan: 'Dark Knight Rises' finds the future in IMAX, not 3-D". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 30, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Weintraub, Steve (December 22, 2010). "Exclusive: Exclusive: David Keighley (Head of Re-Mastering IMAX) Talks 'The Dark Knight', 'The Dark Knight Rises', 'Tron: Legacy', New Cameras, More". Collider. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- Gilchrist, Todd (April 20, 2010). "Cinematographer Wally Pfister Talks About Shooting 'Batman 3' in 3-D". Moviefone. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- "Batman teaser poster: Gotham city topples as 'The Dark Knight Rises'". Daily Bhaskar. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
- Feinberg, Scott (January 10, 2013). "Nolan: The Oscar Nomination Snubs That Have Fans and Industry Insiders Baffled (Analysis)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Pamela McClintock; Ben Fritz (February 22, 2007). "'Justice' prevails for Warner Bros". Variety. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
- Borys Kit (October 15, 2007). "The Vine: Young actors seek Justice". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 16, 2008.
- Michael Cieply (March 1, 2008). "A Film's Superheroes Face Threat of Strike". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- Garry Maddox (February 25, 2008). "Unhappy feet may flee Sydney". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved February 25, 2008.
- Buchanan, Kyle (October 20, 2010). "The Social Network's Armie Hammer Talks Special Effects, Misogyny, and the Downside of Being Tall and Handsome". New York. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Jami Philbrick (November 20, 2010). "Exclusive: Teresa Palmer Still Wants to Play Talia Al Ghul in 'The Dark Knight Rises'". Movieweb.com. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
- Garry Maddox (March 19, 2008). "Mega movie refused rebate". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
- Garrett, Diane (February 26, 2008). "Warner Bros. to serve 'Justice' in '09". Variety. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- Michael Fleming; Pamela McClintock (February 27, 2008). "Film greenlights in limbo". Variety. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- Seijas, Casey (March 9, 2009). "Justice League' Movie Still A Possibility, Says Director... Just Not Anytime Soon". MTV Splash Page. Retrieved September 17, 2014.
- Why 'Man of Steel' Holds the Key to Warner Bros.' Future Franchises[permanent dead link]
- Sperling, Nicole (July 20, 2013). "Comic-Con 2013: 'Superman & Batman' movie will follow 'Man of Steel'". Los Angeles Times.
- "Superman & Batman Film Set for Comic-Con Reveal". The Hollywood Reporter. July 20, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Anders, Charlie Jane (July 20, 2013). "They're doing a Superman/Batman movie... but that's not the big news". io9. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
- Collura, Scott (July 23, 2013). "Comic-Con: Man of Steel Sequel Likely Called Batman Vs. Superman". Retrieved July 23, 2013.
- "Ben Affleck is Batman for 'Man of Steel' Sequel". The Hollywood Reporter. August 22, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2014.
- Schillaci, Sophie (August 22, 2013). "Ben Affleck Is Batman for 'Man of Steel' Sequel". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Warner Bros. Pictures Pushes Batman vs. Superman Back to 2016". ComingSoon.net. January 17, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Sneider, Jeff; Cunningham, Todd (August 6, 2014). "Warner Bros. Blinks in Marvel Showdown: 'Batman v Superman' Avoids 'Captain America 3'". TheWrap.com. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- McNary, Dave. "Warner Bros. sets up 'Suicide Squad'". Variety.
- "Warner Bros. Circling David Ayer for DC Comics' 'Suicide Squad' (Exclusive)". Variety. September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- Kit, Borys. "Scribe In for 'Suicide Squad' Pact". The Hollywood Reporter. February 25, 2009.
- "'Suicide Squad' Cast Revealed: Jared Leto to Play the Joker, Will Smith is Deadshot". Variety. December 2, 2014. Retrieved December 3, 2014.
- Goldberg, Matt (November 10, 2014). "Exclusive: Margot Robbie to Play Harley Quinn in SUICIDE SQUAD". Collider. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
- "Suicide Squad Casts Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje As Killer Croc". comicbook.com. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
- Sneider, Jeff (June 5, 2012). "Beall writing 'Justice League' for Warner Bros". Variety. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Finke, Nikki (June 10, 2013). "'Man Of Steel' Sequel Underway With Zack Snyder And David S. Goyer". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Stedman, Alex (April 27, 2014). "Zack Snyder to Direct 'Justice League' Movie". Variety. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- Fleming, Mike (July 25, 2014). "'Batman V Superman' Scribe Chris Terrio For 'Justice League'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved September 8, 2014.
- "New Batman Toy Voice Actor In 'Shazam!' Revealed". ComicBook.com. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- Kroll, Justin. "'Batman': Ben Affleck in Talks to Star in, Co-Write, Possibly Direct Standalone Movie". Variety. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
- Breznican, Anthony (March 3, 2016). "How Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice maps out DC's movie universe". Entertainment Weekly.
- McMillan, Graeme (March 30, 2016). "Ben Affleck Has Written His Own 'Batman' Script". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 30, 2016.
- Betancourt, David (April 12, 2016). "Ben Affleck will star in and direct a solo Batman film, in his apparent master plan to rule DC's Gotham". Washington Post.
- "Jeremy Irons Says Batman V Superman Deserved Its Critical Mauling". WhatCulture.com. May 29, 2016.
- M Smith, Nigel (June 2, 2016). "Ben Affleck's Batman film will be 'original story' independent of comics". The Guardian.
- Denham, Jess (August 1, 2016). "Jared Leto wants his Joker to battle Ben Affleck's Batman in the solo movie". Independent.
- Fritz, Ben. "Joe Manganiello Will Play Deathstroke in Ben Affleck's Batman Movie".
- Coggan, Devan (October 3, 2016). "Ben Affleck reveals solo Batman movie title". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
- "Ben Affleck's Batman Movie May Not Be Called The Batman After All". October 7, 2016.
- Exclusive: Joe Manganiello Doing 'Great' After Health Scare, Prepping for 'Batman' Movie. Entertainment Tonight. October 17, 2016. Event occurs at 00:13.
- "Jeremy Irons Talks 'Justice League,' Oscar Bait Role in 'Man Who Knew Infinity'". Variety. October 27, 2016.
- Lang, Brent (December 14, 2016). "Ben Affleck Says 'The Batman' On Track to Shoot in Spring: 'Everything Is Coming Together'". Variety. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- Fleming Jr, Mike (December 14, 2016). "Warner Bros Shakeup: Greg Silverman Steps Down, Toby Emmerich Takes Top Production Post; Duo Set To Run NL". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Palmer, Martyn (January 1, 2017). "Ben Affleck: 'My wildest dreams have come true, but at a price'". The Guardian.
- Begley, Chris (January 2, 2017). "Ben Affleck will probably shoot 'The Batman' in Los Angeles". Batman on Film.
- Jimmy Kimmel Live (January 10, 2017). "Ben Affleck on New Justice League Movie" – via YouTube.
- Golderberg, Matt (January 30, 2017). "Ben Affleck Will Not Direct 'The Batman'". Collider. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Kroll, Justin (January 30, 2017). "Ben Affleck Will Not Direct 'The Batman' (Exclusive)". Variety. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Fleming Jr., Mike (January 30, 2017). "Ben Affleck Not Directing Batman". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
- Lesnick, Silas (February 10, 2017). "Matt Reeves is The Batman Director!". Comingsoon.net. Retrieved February 11, 2017.
- "'The Batman': Negotiations Break Down Between Studio and Director Matt Reeves". Variety. February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 18, 2017.
- "It's Official! Matt Reeves will Direct The Batman". Comingsoon.net. February 23, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
- "With 'The Batman' Delayed, Warner Bros. Looking for Another DC Movie to Shoot This Year". Collider.com. March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- "'The Batman' Delayed as the Script is Rewritten From Scratch". Comingsoon.net. March 15, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
- McMillan, Graeme (June 27, 2017). "'Batman' Director Matt Reeves Teases a "Noir-Driven" Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Giroux, Jack (June 21, 2017). "Matt Reeves is Taking a Hitchcock Approach to 'The Batman'". /Film. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
- Peris, Sebastian (August 2, 2018). "Matt Reeves Confirms 'The Batman' Will Not Adapt 'Year One'; Expects Draft In 2 Weeks". Heroic Hollywood.com. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- Paur, Joey (August 9, 2018). "Ben Affleck is Listed as a Producer on Matt Reeves' THE BATMAN and it May Start Shooting Next Year". Geek Tyrant. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- Kroll, Justin (May 16, 2019). "Robert Pattinson to Play 'The Batman' for Matt Reeves and Warner Bros. (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- Galuppo, Mia; Kit, Borys (May 16, 2019). "Robert Pattinson Frontrunner to Play Batman in Matt Reeves' DC Movie". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- Couch, Aaron; McClintock, Pamela (January 30, 2019). "'The Batman,' 'The Suicide Squad' Set 2021 Release Dates". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- Couch, Aaron (October 23, 2018). "Joker' Finds Its Young Bruce Wayne and Alfred Pennyworth". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
- Ashurst, Sam; Chapman, Matt (August 30, 2018). "Joaquin Phoenix's Joker film release date, plot, cast, trailer and everything you need to know". Digital Spy. Retrieved September 16, 2018.
- Lovett, Jamie (July 8, 2017). "DC Animation's Next Movie Revealed". Comic Book. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- "サイト名". dc-taka.com (in Japanese). Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- Solomon, Aubrey. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History (The Scarecrow Filmmakers Series). Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-8108-4244-1. p254
- "Big Rental Pictures of 1966", Variety, 4 January 1967 p 8
- "Batman (1989)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman Returns (1992)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman: Mask of The Phantasm (1993)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman and Robin (1997)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman Begins (2005)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "The Dark Knight (2008)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "The Dark Knight Rises (2012)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 9, 2013.
- "Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "Batman: The Killing Joke". The Numbers. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- "Batman Moviesat the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "Batman: The Movie (1966)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Batman". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "Batman (1989): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
- "Batman Returns". Metacritic.
- "Batman: Mask of the Phantasm". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. Retrieved January 21, 2008.
- "Batman Forever (1995): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "Batman & Robin (1997): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "Batman Begins". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- "Batman Begins (2005): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
- "The Dark Knight". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- "The Dark Knight (2008): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- "The Dark Knight Rises". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
- "The Dark Knight Rises (2012): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- "Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016): Reviews". Metacritic. CBS. Retrieved July 18, 2008.
- "Batman: The Killing Joke (2016)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- "The Lego Batman Movie (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- "The Lego Batman Movie reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
- "Justice League (2017)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 8, 2017.
- "Justice League Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved December 8, 2017.