The Barrytown Trilogy

The Barrytown Trilogy, later also referred to as The Barrytown Pentalogy, is an Irish comedy-drama media franchise centred on the Rabbittes, a working-class family from Barrytown, Dublin. It began in 1988 when Beacon Pictures and 20th Century Fox bought the rights to the 1987 novel The Commitments by Roddy Doyle shortly after it was published. The book was successful, as was Alan Parker's 1991 film adaptation. The film received cult status,[1] and is regarded as one of the best Irish films ever made.[2][3] In 1999, the British Film Institute ranked the film at number 38 on its list of the "100 best British films of the century", based on votes from 1,000 leading figures of the film industry.[2]

The Barrytown Pentalogy
Created byRoddy Doyle
Original workThe Commitments (1987)
OwnerBeacon Pictures
20th Century Fox
Deadly Films
BBC Film
Print publications
Short stories
  • Two Pints (2012)
  • Two More Pints (2014)
Films and television
Television seriesScreen Two (1993)
Theatrical presentations
Play(s)The Snapper (2018–present)
Musical(s)The Commitments (2013–present)
Official website

A sequel novel, The Snapper, was published in 1990, followed by a film adaptation in 1993. A third novel, The Van, was published and shortlisted for the 1991 Booker Prize,[4] followed by a film adaptation in 1996. Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha, a spin-off published in 1993 by Secker and Warburg, won the Booker Prize for that year, with an epilogue novel, The Guts, published in 2013. A musical and stage play based on the first two installments of the series have also been produced, ongoing from 2013 and 2018.


Film U.S. release date Director(s) Screenwriter(s) Story by Producer(s)
The Commitments August 6, 1991 (1991-08-06) Alan Parker Dick Clement, Ian La Frenais, & Roddy Doyle Roddy Doyle Roger Randall-Cutler Lynda Myles
The Snapper April 4, 1993 (1993-04-04) Stephen Frears Roddy Doyle Ian Hopkins
The Van May 11, 1996 (1996-05-11) Mark Shivas

The Commitments (1991)Edit

Jimmy Rabbitte (Robert Arkins), a self-proclaimed promoter, decides to organize an R&B group to fill the musical void in his hometown of Dublin, Ireland. The band comes together but ends up consisting entirely of white musicians who have little experience with the genre. Even though their raw talent and lofty aspirations gain the group notoriety, the pitfalls of fame began to tear at their newfound friendships as they prepare for their big show. The film also stars Angeline Ball, Maria Doyle, Bronagh Gallagher, Glen Hansard, Andrew Strong, Colm Meaney, and Andrea Corr.

Many of the actors involved in The Commitments went on to pursue various acting and musical careers.[5] Robert Arkins signed a record deal with MCA Records in 1993,[6] although he did not finish recording the consequent album.[7] He has produced work for a number of commercial clients, television projects, and composed music for two short films.[5] Andrew Strong went on to produce several albums, which he described as having elements of R&B and rock. He has performed alongside The Rolling Stones, Elton John and Ray Charles, and formed his own band, The Bone Yard Boys, in 2003.[8] In 1993, two of the film's cast members, Kenneth McCluskey and Dick Massey, formed their own tribute act band, The Stars from the Commitments. The 9-piece band has since played more than 1,000 shows worldwide, and has played with B.B. King, James Brown and Wilson Pickett.[5][9]

The Commitments underperformed at the North American box office, grossing $14.9 million during its theatrical run. Reviewers praised the music, performances and humour, while criticism was occasionally aimed at the pacing and Parker's direction. The film resulted in two soundtrack albums released by MCA Records; the first reached #8 on the Billboard 200 album chart and achieved triple-platinum status, while the second album achieved gold sales status. At the 1992 British Academy Film Awards, the film won four of six BAFTA Awards for Best Film, Best Direction, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Editing. It also received an Academy Award nomination for Best Film Editing.

The Snapper (1993)Edit

Doyle was given creative freedom by the BBC over the adaptation of The Snapper, for which he wrote the screenplay.[10] Lynda Myles returned to produce the film and hired Stephen Frears as its director.[11] Colm Meaney also returned. The adaptation was originally planned as a television film, as an episode of the British television anthology drama series Screen Two, before Frears suggested that it be transferred to film.[12] Doyle disagreed with the change, stating, "I didn't like it on the big screen—I thought it was grainy."[11] The Snapper (1993) premiered at the 1993 Cannes Film Festival, where it received a standing ovation.[11] It was a critical success, receiving largely positive reviews.[13]

The sequel again features the Rabbitte family, but due to rights problems, the family surname in The Snapper was changed from 'Rabbitte' to 'Curley'. The film centres on Sharon Curley, the eldest daughter of the family, and her experience of unplanned teen pregnancy. The film also stars Brendan Gleeson, Pat Laffan, Ronan Wilmot, and Stanley Townsend.

The Van (1996)Edit

For the film adaptation of The Van, Doyle and Myles formed their own production company, Deadly Films, and the author was given creative control over the selection of its cast and director.[14] Frears returned as director, and Meaney was cast in the lead role. Although The Van (1996) premiered at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival to some favorable reviews, critical reaction was negative upon release; reviewers criticised the film for its thin material and lack of strong characterization.[15]

The film deals with themes of unemployment and self-worth, as Brendan "Bimbo" Reeves (Donal O'Kelly) and Larry (Colm Meaney) cope with losing their jobs and embark on a partnership to sell fried food from the eponymous van. The film also stars Ger Ryan, Rúaidhrí Conroy, Brendan O'Carroll, Stuart Dunne, Marie Mullen, and Jon Kenny.

Mooted sequelEdit

In January 2000, it was announced that Harvey Weinstein had acquired the film rights to The Commitments for Miramax[16] and commissioned playwright Warren Leight to write a direct sequel to the film, with Cathy Konrad attached as a producer. The premise involved several members of The Commitments pairing with new band members before going on tour in the United States.[17] The project subsequently entered development hell.[18]


The Commitments (1988)Edit

Following the 1988 publication of Roddy Doyle's novel The Commitments (1987) in the United Kingdom,[19] producers Lynda Myles and Roger Randall-Cutler acquired the film rights, and asked Doyle to write an adaptation.[20][21][22] Doyle, an inexperienced screenwriter, spent one year drafting the script,[20] accompanied by Myles and Randall-Cutler.[23] Although a script was completed, Myles felt it needed improvement, and passed the book on to Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais,[23] hoping that they would suggest a more experienced writer.[20] Upon reading the novel, Clement and La Frenais agreed to help write the script themselves.[23]

The Snapper (1990)Edit

The Snapper revolves around unmarried twenty-year-old Sharon Rabbitte's pregnancy, and the unexpected effects this has on her conservative, working class Dublin family.[24]

The Van (1991)Edit

The Van focuses on the elder Jimmy Rabbitte and his efforts at going into business with his best friend Bimbo, after both lose their jobs. It was shortlisted for the Booker Prize (1991).[25]

Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha (1993)Edit

Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha is a novel written by Roddy Doyle.[26] It is a spin-off following one year in the life of a Dublin ten-year-old, Patrick "Paddy" Clarke, as he explores Barrytown through his parents' divorce, encountering various characters from the Barrytown series of novels.[27]

The Guts (2013)Edit

Set 30 years later, The Guts follows the younger Jimmy Rabbitte as he is suffering from bowel cancer. The novel was named Novel of the Year at the 2013 Irish Book Awards.[28][29]

Short storiesEdit

Throughout the early 2010s, Doyle frequently posted short comic dialogues on his Facebook page between two older men in a Barrytown pub, often relating to current events in Ireland (such as the 2015 marriage referendum[30]) and further afield. These developed into the novella short story collection Two Pints in 2012 and Two More Pints in 2014.[31]

Cast and crewEdit

Principal castEdit

List indicator(s)
  • A dark gray cell indicates the character was not featured in the film.
  • A P indicates an appearance through a photographic still.
  • An L indicates an appearance through the use of an actor or actress's facial likeness.
  • A V indicates a performance through voice-over work.
  • A C indicates a cameo appearance.
Characters The Commitments The Snapper The Van
1991 1993 1996
Mr. Rabbitte Colm Meaney[a]
Missis Twix Sheila Flitton
Barrytown Nightclub Bouncer Seán O'Donovan
Mrs. Rabbitte Anne Kent Ruth McCabe[b] Caroline Rothwell[b]
Roddy the Reporter Phelim Drew Roddy DoyleC
Jimmy Rabbitte Robert Arkins Rúaidhrí Conroy[c]
Maggie the Pawnbroker Ger Ryan Ger Ryan
Greg the Arsenal Supporter Michael O'Reilly Michael O'Reilly
Sonny Rabbitte Peter Rowen
Craig Rabbitte Eanna MacLiam
Bernie's Mother Rynagh O'Grady
Sharon Rabbitte Andrea Corr Tina Kellegher
Darren Rabbitte Gerard Cassoni Colm O'Byrne
Tracy Rabbitte Ruth Fairclough Deirdre O'Brien[d]
Linda Rabbitte Lindsay Fairclough Dierdre O'Brien[d]
Cancer Policeman Jack Lynch
Paddy the Bald Man Ronan Wilmot
Des Health Inspector Anaesthetist Stanley Townsend
Jackie O'Keefe Fionnuala Murphy
Sam Bertie Stuart Dunne
Dawn Barbara Bergin
Baby Curley Aisling Conlan and Alannagh McMullen
Brendan "Bimbo" Reeves Donal O'Kelly
Steven Clifford Michael Aherne
Imelda Quirke Angeline Ball
Natalie Murphy Maria Doyle
Mickah Wallace Dave Finnegan
Bernie McGloughlin Bronagh Gallagher
Dean Fay Félim Gormley
Outspan Foster Glen Hansard
Billy Mooney Dick Massey
Joey "The Lips" Fagan Johnny Murphy
Derek Scully Kenneth McCluskey
Deco Cuffe Andrew Strong
Duffy Liam Carney
Father Molloy Mark O'Regan
Dave from Eejit Records Sean Hughes
Ray Philip Bredin
Imelda's Sister Aoife Lawless
Kid with Harmonica Lance Daly
Protest Song Singer Conor Malone
Heavy Metal Singer Jezz Bell
Fiddler Auditioner Colm Mac Con Iomaire
Punk Girl Singer Emily Dawson
Coconuts Trio Dave Kane
Kristel Harris
Maria Place
Uileann Pipe Player Brian MacAodha
Les Miserables Singer Tricia Smith
Smiths' Song Singer Canice William
Cajun Trio Patrick Foy
Alan Murray
Jody Campbell
Rabbittes' Neighbor Philomena Kavanagh
Only De Lonely Singer Eamon O'Connor
Joey's Mother Maura O'Malley
Pool Hall Manager Blaise Smith
Duffy's Sidekicks Derek Herbert
Owen O'Gorman
Unemployment Official Pat Leavy
Kid with Horse John Cronin
Community Centre Kid Michael Bolger
Imelda's Father Mick Nolan
Imelda's Mother Eileen Reid
Regency Pub Barman Bob Navan
Photographer Derek Duggan
Rock Salmon Man Paddy O'Connor
Avant-Garde-A-Clue Band / Eejit Engineer Paul Bushnell
Avant-Garde-A-Clue Band Jim Corr
Larry Hogan
Bernard Keelan
Dance Hall Manager Ronan Hardiman
Music Journalist Mikel Murfi
Deco's Fan Josylen Lyons
Man in Limousine Winston Dennis
Eejit Record Producer Alan Parker
James Brown James BrownA
Extra Caroline Corr
Fiddle Player Sharon Corr
Photographer Alan Howley
Wedding Guest Mark Leahy
Auditioning Guitarist Ralph G. Morse
Young Priest Martin O'Malley
Lisa Rabbitte Joanne Gerrard
Kimberley Rabbitte Ciara Duffy
Yvonne Burgess Karen Woodley
George Burgess Pat Laffan
Doris Burgess Virginia Cole
Pat Burgess Denis Menton
Lester Brendan Gleeson
Boy #1 Dylan Tighe
Girl #1 Caroline Boyle
Checkout Woman Jennifer Kelly
Customer, Neighbour #3 Audrey Corr
Desk Nurse Cathy Belton
Doctor Miriam Kelly
Dr. Cook Eleanor Methven
Loner Birdie Sweeney
Midwife Billie Morton
Woman in Hospital Joan Sheehy
Oul'One Cathleen Delaney
Nurse Ailish Connolly
Supermarket Trainee Manager Stephen Kennedy
Woman in Police Station Britta Smith
Barrytown Neighbours Conor Evans
Helen Roche
Marie Conmee
Jimmy Keogh
Pal #1 Tom Murphy
Pal #2 Robbie Doolin
Young Lad / Dad Matthew Devereux
Famine Sandy
Diane Neilí Conroy
Weslie Brendan O'Carroll
Maggie's Mum Laurie Morton
Vera Marie Mullen
Gerry McCarthy Jon Kenny
Glenn Moses Rowen
Jessica Linda McGovern
Wayne Eoin Chaney
Wally Frank O'Sullivan
Mona Jill Doyle
Anne Marie Charlotte Bradley
Mechanic Alan King
Pregnant Woman Bernie Downes
Garda Sergeant Martin Dunne
Nightclub Barman Tommy O'Neill
Bingo Woman Eilish Moore
Pitch & Putt Man Paul Raynor
Crushed Girl Eileen Walsh
Complaining Woman Sandra Bagnall
Boy with Choc Ice David Kelly
Crying Boy Lee Bagnall
Other Kid Jamie Bagnall
Barry David Byrne
World Peace Gavin Keilty
Leo the Barman Claude Clancy
Girl Michelle Gallagher
Nightclub Bouncer Arthur Napper
Kerrie Jessie O'Gorman
Country Club Lunch Guest Phil Parlapiano
  1. ^ Nicknamed Jimmy, Dessie, and Larry.
  2. ^ a b Nicknamed Kay and Mary.
  3. ^ Nicknamed Kevin.
  4. ^ a b As Mary.

The surname of the Rabbitte family was changed to the maiden name of Curley for the film adaptations of The Snapper and The Van, as 20th Century Fox owns the rights to the Rabbitte name from The Commitments, who were not involved in the adaptations of subsequent works in the trilogy.

Additional crewEdit

Role The Commitments The Snapper The Van
1991 1993 1996
Composer G. Marq Roswell Stanley Myers Eric Clapton
Richard Hartley
Editor Gerry Hambling Mick Audsley
Cinematographer Gale Tattersall Oliver Stapleton
Production companies Beacon Pictures
The First Film Company
Dirty Hands Productions
BBC Beacon Pictures
Deadly Films
BBC Films
Distributor 20th Century Fox Miramax 20th Century Fox


Doyle's novel The Commitments and its 1991 film adaptation inspired a 2013 musical stage production, directed by British theatre director Jamie Lloyd.[32][33] Following the film's success, Doyle had previously turned down offers to adapt his novel into a stage production.[34][35] The Commitments began previews on 21 September 2013 in London's West End at the Palace Theatre. Its official opening night was on 8 October 2013.[36] The show had more than 1,000 performances before officially closing in London on 1 November 2015. It has been announced that a United Kingdom and Ireland tour will commence in 2017.[37]

Stage playEdit

In 2018, the Gate Theatre commissioned Doyle to write a stage adaptation of The Snapper.[38] The show was directed by Róisín McBrinn and was revived in 2019.[39]


Box office performanceEdit

Film North American
release date
Budget Box office gross Box office ranking Reference
North America Other territories Worldwide All-time
North America
The Commitments August 6, 1991 $12–15 million $14,919,570 £8,285,701 $26,679,175.40 #37 #40 [40]
The Van November 29, 1996 $712,095 $712,095 #155 #156 [41]
Total $12–15 million $14,919,570 $8,997,796 $2,668,629,635

Critical and public responseEdit

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic
The Commitments 89% (44 reviews)[42] 73 (23 critics)[43]
The Snapper 97% (33 reviews)[44] 83 (18 critics)[45]
The Van 38% (21 reviews)[46]


Award Category Film
The Commitments The Snapper
Academy Award Film Editing Nominated
Golden Globe Award Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy Nominated
BAFTA Award Best Film Won
Best Direction Won
Best Adapted Screenplay Won
Best Editing Won
Best Supporting Actor Nominated
Best Sound Nominated
AFI Award Best Foreign Film Nominated
Brit Award Best Soundtrack Won
Evening Standard British Film Award Peter Sellers Award for Comedy Won
London Film Critics Circle Award British Producer of the Year Won
British Director of the Year Won
British or Irish Screenwriter of the Year Won
Writers Guild of America Award Best Adapted Screenplay Nominated
Tokyo International Film Festival Tokyo Grand Prix Award Nominated
Best Director Award Won
Goya Award Best European Film Won
Golden Globe Award Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Nominated


An image of four of the actors of the original film, in character, was featured on an Irish postage stamp as part of the Ireland 1996: Irish Cinema Centenary series issued by An Post; the image includes lead singer Deco Cuffe (Andrew Strong), along with the three "Commitmentettes" – Imelda Quirke (Angeline Ball), Natalie Murphy (Maria Doyle Kennedy) and Bernie McGloughlin (Bronagh Gallagher).[47]



Title U.S. release date Length Composer(s) Label
The Commitments (Original Motion Picture Soundtrack) August 13, 1991 46:16 Paul Bushnell, Kevin Killen, and Alan Parker MCA
The Commitments, Vol. 2: Music from the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack March 17, 1992 35:53 Paul Bushnell and Kevin Killen

Family membersEdit

  • James "Jimmy" Rabbitte, Sr. – The patriarch and protagonist of the third Barrytown novel, The Van, in which he and a friend, Brendan "Bimbo" Reeves, buy a chipper van as a business opportunity during the 1990 World Cup.
  • Veronica Rabbitte – The atriarch of the family who tries to keep the peace and is often known to have a laugh at her family's antics.
  • Sharon Rabbitte – The eldest daughter and the protagonist of the second novel, The Snapper, in which she comes to terms with her pregnancy and later gives birth to a daughter, Georgina (whom the family call "Gina" for short).
  • Georgina "Gina" Rabbitte – Sharon's daughter, born in The Snapper and featured as a toddler in The Van, often repeating in baby talk the profanity used by family members.
  • James "Jimmy" Rabbitte, Jr. – The eldest son and protagonist of the first novel, The Commitments, in which he and several friends form an Irish soul band. In The Snapper, Jimmy frequently practices being a DJ, much to the predictable annoyance of his father. In the third novel, he has moved out of home and is living with his girlfriend but still makes frequent visits home, while in The Guts, he is married with four children, and suffering from bowel cancer.
  • Leslie Rabbitte – The second-born son of Jimmy Sr. and Veronica. The least prominent of the children, he is almost never at home in the trilogy. Leslie is frequently in trouble and clashes with his father.
  • Darren Rabbitte – The youngest son, still at school. He decides to become a vegetarian in The Van yet helps Jimmy Sr. with his business.
  • Tracy and Linda Rabbitte – The two youngest children, twin girls, who frequently behave mischievously, provoking the ire of the parents.
  • Larrygogan – A dog who becomes the family's pet in The Snapper.


  1. ^ "Are these the best cult Irish films ever?". 30 May 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Best 100 British films". BBC News. 23 September 1999. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  3. ^ "Top Ten Irish Movies of all Time". Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  4. ^ "The Van on Man Booker Prize". The Man Booker Prize. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  5. ^ a b c Kendall, Paul (29 September 2013). "Whatever happened to The Commitments?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  6. ^ "Artist Profile: Robert Arkins". My Music Source. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  7. ^ Martin, Paul (26 November 2001). "Soul searching 10 years on". The Mirror.
  8. ^ Dougherty, Tara (October–November 2009). "Andrew Strong: Life After The Commitments". Irish America. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  9. ^ "The Stars From The Commitments featuring Kenneth McCluskey and Dick Massey". Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  10. ^ White 2001, p. 34
  11. ^ a b c White 2001, p. 35
  12. ^ BBC – Radio Times – Screen Two: The Snapper
  13. ^ "The Snapper (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  14. ^ White 2001, pp. 35–36
  15. ^ White 2001, p. 36
  16. ^ "AFI Catalog". American Film Institute. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  17. ^ Fleming, Michael (3 January 2000). "'Commitments' encore gets Leight touch". Variety. Variety Media, LLC. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  18. ^ Flowers, Phoebe (9 December 2007). "Gone Hollywood (yes, that one and the other one)". SunSentinel. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  19. ^ "Looking back at THE COMMITMENTS: 25 Years Later with author/co-screenwriter Roddy Doyle". Lower East Side Tenement Museum. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  20. ^ a b c Gritten, David (11 August 1991). "MOVIES : Irish Soul : How Alan Parker drew upon the working-class kids of Dublin to power his movie 'The Commitments,' about a fictional Irish band". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
  21. ^ Pettitt 1992, p. 35
  22. ^ Parker, Alan. "The Commitments – The Making of the Film". Alan Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  23. ^ a b c "This Distracted Globe — Film reviews and commentary tonight, before I forget tomorrow". This Distracted Globe. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  24. ^ "The Snapper". Publishers Weekly. Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  25. ^ "The Booker Prize 1991". Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  26. ^ BOOK REVIEW / A boy's own adventure: 'Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha' - Roddy Doyle: Secker, 14.95 pounds, The Independent, 12 June 1993
  27. ^ Guardian book club: Paddy Clarke Ha Ha Ha by Roddy Doyle, The Guardian, 14 Aug 2009
  28. ^ "Roddy Doyle wins Novel of the Year". RTÉ News. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  29. ^ "Inside story: Roddy Doyle's got the Guts for awards glory". Irish Independent. 27 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
  30. ^ Martin Doyle, "Roddy Doyle adds his Two Pints worth to marriage equality Yes vote campaign", The Irish Times, 1 May 2015.
  31. ^ Tait, Theo (3 August 2013). "Still singing the old songs". The Guardian Review. London. p. 5.
  32. ^ Brown, Mark (23 April 2013). "Commitments West End". The Guardian. London.
  33. ^ "The Commitments to be turned into musical by Roddy Doyle after novel and film success". Daily Mirror. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  34. ^ Brown, Mark (23 April 2013). "The Commitments to be turned into West End musical". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  35. ^ "Roddy Doyle on The Commitments musical". The Irish Post. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  36. ^ Brown, Mark (4 July 2016). "Commitments West End". The Guardian. London.
  37. ^ "The Commitments to close in November". 21 May 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  38. ^ Meany, Helen (23 June 2018). "The Snapper review – Roddy Doyle's baby banter brought to vivid life". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  39. ^ "The Snapper". Gate Theatre Dublin. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  40. ^ "The Commitments (1991)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  41. ^ "The Van (1997)". Box Office Mojo. IMDb. Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  42. ^ "The Commitments (1991)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 3 March 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  43. ^ "The Commitments Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  44. ^ "The Snapper (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  45. ^ "The Snapper Reviews". Metacritic. Archived from the original on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  46. ^ "The Van (1996)". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Ireland 1996: Irish Cinema Centenary". Emerald Isle Gifts, original stamps from An Post. 17 September 1996. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2016.

External linksEdit

Official website