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The Abolition of Man is a 1943 book by C. S. Lewis. It is subtitled "Reflections on education with special reference to the teaching of English in the upper forms of schools," and uses that as a starting point for a defense of objective value and natural law, and a warning of the consequences of doing away with or "debunking" those things. It defends science as something worth pursuing but criticizes using it to debunk values—the value of science itself being among them—or defining it to exclude such values. The book was first delivered as a series of three evening lectures at King's College, Newcastle, part of the University of Durham, as the Riddell Memorial Lectures on February 24–26, 1943.

Abolition of Man
TheAbolitionOfMan.jpg
First edition
Author C. S. Lewis
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Subject Value and Natural law
Publisher Oxford University Press
Publication date
1943
Media type hard⁓ & paperback
Preceded by A Preface to Paradise Lost
Followed by Beyond Personality

Contents

Moral subjectivism vs. natural lawEdit

Lewis begins with a critical response to “The Green Book”, by “Gaius and Titius”, i.e. The Control of Language: A Critical Approach to Reading and Writing, published in 1939 by Alexander ("Alec") King and Martin Ketley.[1] The Green Book was used as a text for upper form students in British schools.[2]

Lewis criticizes the authors for subverting student values. He claims that they teach that all statements of value (such as "this waterfall is sublime") are merely statements about the speaker's feelings and say nothing about the object.[3] Such a view, Lewis argues, makes nonsense of value talk. It implies, for example, that when a speaker condemns some act as contemptible, he or she is really saying: "I have contemptible feelings."[4] By denying that values are real or that sentiments can be reasonable, subjectivism saps moral motivation[5] and robs people of the ability to respond emotionally to experiences of real goodness and real beauty in literature and in the world.[6] Moreover, it is impossible, Lewis claims, to be a consistent moral subjectivist. Even the authors of The Green Book clearly believe that some things (such as improved student learning) are really good and desirable.[7]

Lewis cites ancient thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle and Augustine, who believed that the purpose of education was to train children in "ordinate affections," that is, to train them to like and dislike what they ought; to love the good and hate the bad. He says that although these values are universal, they do not develop automatically or inevitably in children (and so are not "natural" in that sense of the word), but must be taught through education. Those who lack them lack the specifically human element, the trunk that unites intellectual man with visceral (animal) man, and may be called "men without chests".

Men without chests: a dystopian futureEdit

Lewis criticizes modern attempts to debunk "natural" values (such as those that would deny objective value to the waterfall) on rational grounds. He says that there is a set of objective values that have been shared, with minor differences, by every culture, which he refers to as, "...the traditional moralities of East and West, the Christian, the Pagan, and the Jew...". Lewis calls this the Tao (from the Taoist word for the ultimate "way" or "path" of reality and human conduct).[a] Without the Tao, no value judgments can be made at all, and modern attempts to do away with some parts of traditional morality for some "rational" reason always proceed by arbitrarily selecting one part of the Tao and using it as grounds to debunk the others.

The final chapter describes the ultimate consequences of this debunking: a distant future in which the values and morals of the majority are controlled by a small group who rule by a "perfect" understanding of psychology, and who in turn, being able to "see through" any system of morality that might induce them to act in a certain way, are ruled only by their own unreflected whims. In surrendering rational reflection on their own motivations, the controllers will no longer be recognizably human, the controlled will be robot-like, and the Abolition of Man will have been completed.

An appendix to The Abolition of Man lists a number of basic values seen by Lewis as parts of the Tao, supported by quotations from different cultures.

A fictional treatment of the dystopian project to carry out the Abolition of Man is a theme of Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength.

Passages from The Abolition of Man are included in William Bennett's 1993 book The Book of Virtues.

CriticismsEdit

Critical discussion of The Abolition of Man often centers on the following points:

  • Does Lewis attack a weak and simplistic form of moral subjectivism? Are there stronger versions that are not vulnerable to his critiques?
  • Can one believe that moral values are in some sense "objective" without accepting Lewis's full-blown natural-law theory of ethics?
  • Does Lewis commit the fallacy of false alternatives by arguing that one must either reject all values or accept the traditional natural-law theory of ethics?
  • Is it true that believers in moral subjectivism typically or always lack moral motivation?
  • Does Lewis overstate the degree of moral consensus that exists across different cultures and religions?[8]

Modern reviewsEdit

In popular cultureEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Although Lewis saw natural law as supernatural in origin, as evidenced by his use of it as a proof of theism in Mere Christianity, his argument in this book does not rest on theism.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Foumilog, CH: Fourmi lab, May 2007, retrieved July 11, 2008 .
  2. ^ Fuse action (review), Brothers Judd .
  3. ^ C. S. Lewis, The Abolition of Man. New York: Macmillan, 1947, pp. 14, 30. In fact, the "associationist" theory of meaning King and Ketley defend in the book (borrowed largely from C. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards' influential book, The Meaning of Meaning (1923)), does not claim that all value statements refer solely to the speaker's feelings. See The Control of Language (London: Longmans, Green and Co, 1939), p. 14.
  4. ^ Lewis, The Abolition of Man, p. 15.
  5. ^ Lewis, The Abolition of Man, p. 15.
  6. ^ Lewis, The Abolition of Man, p. 20
  7. ^ Lewis, The Abolition of Man, pp. 39-40.
  8. ^ See, e.g., John Beversluis, C. S. Lewis and the Search for Rational Religion, revised ed. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007, pp. 83-92.
  9. ^ "The 100 Best Non-Fiction Books of the Century", NR (list) .
  10. ^ Book ranking (PDF), Intercollegiate Studies Institute .
  11. ^ Kreeft, Peter, Lost in the cosmos (audio) .

Further readingEdit

  • Gregory Bassham, ed., C. S. Lewis's Christian Apologetics: Pro and Con. Leiden: Brill/Rodopi, 2015.
  • Jean Beth Elshtain, "The Abolition of Man: C. S. Lewis's Prescience Concerning Things to Come." In David Baggett, Gary R. Habermas, and Jerry L. Walls, eds., C. S. Lewis as Philosopher. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2008: 85-95.
  • C. S. Lewis, "The Poison of Subjectivism." In C. S. Lewis, The Seeing Eye and Other Selected Essays from Christian Reflections. Edited by Walter Hooper. New York: Ballantine Books, 1986: 99-112.
  • Gilbert Meilaender, "On Moral Knowledge." In Robert MacSwain and Michael Ward, eds. The Cambridge Companion to C. S. Lewis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010: 119-31.

External linksEdit