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List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower

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On the Eiffel Tower, seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions.[1] Gustave Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the protests against the tower.[2] The engravings are found on the sides of the tower under the first balcony, in letters about 60 cm high, and originally painted in gold. The engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century and restored in 1986–1987 by Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, the company contracted by the city of Paris to operate the Tower. The repainting of 2010–2011 restored the letters to their original gold colour.

Eiffel Tower (72 names).jpg
 
The location of the names on the tower

There are also names of the engineers who helped build the tower and design its architecture on the top of the tower on a plaque, where a laboratory was also built.[citation needed]

Contents

ListEdit

LocationEdit

The list is split in four parts (for each side of the tower). The sides have been named after the parts of Paris that each side faces:

  • The North-East side (also known as La Bourdonnais side, La Bourdonnais is a part of Paris)
  • The South-West side (also known as the Grenelle side)
  • The North West side (also known as the Trocadéro side)

NamesEdit

In the table below are all the names on the four sides.

Name appearing Full name Occupation Location Portrait
SEGUIN Marc Seguin engineer
NW01
 
LALANDE Jérôme Lalande astronomer
NW02
 
TRESCA Henri Tresca engineer and mechanic
NW03
 
PONCELET Jean-Victor Poncelet geometer
NW04
 
BRESSE Jacques Antoine Charles Bresse civil engineer and hydraulic engineer
NW05
 
LAGRANGE Joseph-Louis Lagrange mathematician
NW06
 
BELANGER Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Joseph Bélanger mathematician and hydraulic engineer
NW07
 
CUVIER Georges Cuvier naturalist
NW08
 
LAPLACE Pierre-Simon Laplace mathematician and astronomer
NW09
 
DULONG Pierre Louis Dulong physicist and chemist
NW10
 
CHASLES Michel Chasles geometer
NW11
 
LAVOISIER Antoine Lavoisier chemist
NW12
 
AMPERE André-Marie Ampère mathematician and physicist
NW13
 
CHEVREUL Michel Eugène Chevreul chemist
NW14
 
FLACHAT Eugène Flachat civil engineer
NW15
 
NAVIER Claude-Louis Marie Henri Navier mathematician
NW16
 
LEGENDRE Adrien-Marie Legendre mathematician
NW17
 
CHAPTAL Jean-Antoine Chaptal agronomist and chemist
NW18
 
JAMIN Jules Jamin physicist
SW01
 
GAY-LUSSAC Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac chemist
SW02
 
FIZEAU Hippolyte Fizeau physicist
SW03
 
SCHNEIDER Eugène Schneider industrialist
SW04
 
LE CHATELIER Louis Le Chatelier engineer
SW05
 
BERTHIER Pierre Berthier mineralogist
SW06
 
BARRAL Jean-Augustin Barral agronomist, chemist, physicist
SW07
 
DE DION Henri de Dion engineer
SW08
 
GOUIN Ernest Goüin engineer and industrialist
SW09
 
JOUSSELIN Louis Didier Jousselin engineer
SW10
 
BROCA Paul Broca physician and anthropologist
SW11
 
BECQUEREL Antoine César Becquerel physicist
SW12
 
CORIOLIS Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis engineer and scientist
SW13
 
CAIL Jean-François Cail industrialist
SW14
 
TRIGER Jacques Triger engineer
SW15
 
GIFFARD Henri Giffard engineer
SW16
 
PERRIER François Perrier geographer and mathematician
SW17
 
STURM Jacques Charles François Sturm mathematician
SW18
 
CAUCHY Augustin-Louis Cauchy mathematician
SE01
 
BELGRAND Eugène Belgrand engineer
SE02
 
REGNAULT Henri Victor Regnault chemist and physicist
SE03
 
FRESNEL Augustin-Jean Fresnel physicist
SE04
 
DE PRONY Gaspard de Prony engineer
SE05
 
VICAT Louis Vicat engineer
SE06
 
EBELMEN Jacques-Joseph Ebelmen chemist
SE07
 
COULOMB Charles-Augustin de Coulomb physicist
SE08
 
POINSOT Louis Poinsot mathematician
SE09
 
FOUCAULT Léon Foucault physicist
SE10
 
DELAUNAY Charles-Eugène Delaunay astronomer
SE11
 
MORIN Arthur Morin mathematician and physicist
SE12
 
HAUY René Just Haüy mineralogist
SE13
 
COMBES Charles Combes engineer and metallurgist
SE14
 
THENARD Louis Jacques Thénard chemist
SE15
 
ARAGO François Arago astronomer and physicist
SE16
 
POISSON Siméon Denis Poisson mathematician and physicist
SE17
 
MONGE Gaspard Monge geometer
SE18
 
PETIET Jules Petiet engineer
NE01
 
DAGUERRE Louis Daguerre artist and chemist
NE02
 
WURTZ Charles-Adolphe Wurtz chemist
NE03
 
LE VERRIER Urbain Le Verrier astronomer
NE04
 
PERDONNET Albert Auguste Perdonnet engineer
NE05
 
DELAMBRE Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre astronomer
NE06
 
MALUS Étienne-Louis Malus physicist
NE07
 
BREGUET Louis Breguet physicist and inventor
NE08
 
POLONCEAU Camille Polonceau engineer
NE09
 
DUMAS Jean-Baptiste Dumas chemist
NE10
 
CLAPEYRON Émile Clapeyron engineer and physicist
NE11
 
BORDA Jean-Charles de Borda mathematician
NE12
 
FOURIER Joseph Fourier mathematician
NE13
 
BICHAT Marie François Xavier Bichat anatomist and physiologist
NE14
 
SAUVAGE François Clément Sauvage engineer and geologist
NE15
 
PELOUZE Théophile-Jules Pelouze chemist
NE16
 
CARNOT Lazare Carnot[3] mathematician
NE17
 
LAME Gabriel Lamé mathematician
NE18
 

CriticismEdit

WomenEdit

The list contains no women. The list has been criticized for excluding the name of Sophie Germain, a noted French mathematician whose work on the theory of elasticity was used in the construction of the tower itself.[4] In 1913, John Augustine Zahm suggested that Germain was excluded because she was a woman.[5]

Hydraulic engineers and scholarsEdit

14 hydraulic engineers and scholars are listed on the Eiffel Tower. Eiffel acknowledged most of the leading scientists in the field. Henri Philibert Gaspard Darcy is missing; some of his work did not come into wide use until the 20th century. Also missing are Antoine Chézy, who was less famous; Joseph Valentin Boussinesq, who was early in his career at the time;[6] and mathematician Évariste Galois.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The 72 Scientists". La Tour Eiffel. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  2. ^ Harriss, Joseph (1975). The Tallest Tower: Eiffel And The Belle Epoque. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 100–101. ISBN 0395204402. 
  3. ^ Not to be confused with Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, his son.
  4. ^ Gray, Mary (1978). "Sophie Germain (1776-1831)". In Louise S. Grinstein and Paul Campbell. Women of Mathematics: A Bibliographic Sourcebook. Greenwood. pp. 47–55. ISBN 978-0-313-24849-8. 
  5. ^ Mozen, H. J. (pseud.) (1913). Women in Science: With an Introductory Chapter on Women's Long Struggle for Things of the Mind. D. Appleton. pp. 154–157. 
  6. ^ Chanson, Hubert (13 April 2009). "Hydraulic Engineering Legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower". In Jerry R. Rogers. Great Rivers History: Proceedings and Invited Papers for the EWRI Congress and Great Rivers History Symposium. American Society of Civil Engineers. pp. 1–7. doi:10.1061/41032(344)1. ISBN 978-0-7844-1032-5. 

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit