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Village girls wearing thanaka at Ava, Burma

Thanaka (Burmese: သနပ်ခါး; MLCTS: sa. nap hka:; pronounced [θənəkʰá], also spelt thanakha) is a yellowish-white cosmetic paste made from ground bark. It is a distinctive feature of the culture of Myanmar, seen commonly applied to the face and sometimes the arms of women and girls, and is used to a lesser extent also by men and boys.[1][2][3] The use of thanaka has also spread to neighbouring countries including Thailand.[2][3][4]

It is not similar to the Bindi worn by the Indian women or Tilaka worn by Indians of either gender. It is similar to Chandan.

HistoryEdit

The earliest literary reference to thanaka is in a 14th-century poem written by King Razadarit's Mon-speaking consort.[5] Mentions of thanaka also exist in the 15th-century literary works of Burmese monk-poet Shin Maharatthasara (1486-1529).[5]

Source and preparationEdit

 
Thanaka wood (Hesperethusa crenulata) for sale
 
Kyauk pyin stone slabs for grinding thanaka at a pagoda market in Sagaing

The wood of several trees may be used to produce thanaka cream; these trees grow abundantly in central Myanmar. They include principally Murraya spp. (thanaka) [2] but also Limonia acidissima (theethee or wood apple).[6] The two most popular are Shwebo thanaka from Sagaing Region and Shinmadaung thanaka from Magway Region. A more recent contender sold as a paste is Taunggyi Maukme thanaka from southern Shan State. Thanaka trees are perennials, and a tree must be at least 35 years old before it is considered mature enough to yield good-quality cuttings. Thanaka in its natural state is sold as small logs individually or in bundles, but nowadays also available as a paste or in powder form.

Thanaka cream is made by grinding the bark, wood, or roots[2] of a thanaka tree with a small amount of water[6] on a circular slate slab called kyauk pyin,[4] which has a channel around the rim for the water to drain into.

Application, style and propertiesEdit

Thanaka cream has been used by Burmese women for over 2000 years.[4] It has a fragrant scent somewhat similar to sandalwood.[2][7] The creamy paste is applied to the face in attractive designs, the most common form being a circular patch on each cheek, nose, sometimes made stripey with the fingers known as thanaka bè gya, or patterned in the shape of a leaf, often also highlighting the bridge of the nose with it at the same time.[4] It may be applied from head to toe (thanaka chi zoun gaung zoun). Apart from cosmetic beauty, thanaka also gives a cooling sensation and provides protection from sunburn.[1] It is believed to help remove acne and promote smooth skin.[4] It is also an anti-fungal.[2] The active ingredients of thanaka are coumarin and marmesin.[8]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Streissguth, Thomas (2007). Myanmar in Pictures. Twenty-First Century. pp. 44, 73. ISBN 0-8225-7146-3. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Mabberley, D J (1997). The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. Cambridge University Press. p. 470. ISBN 0-521-41421-0. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  3. ^ a b Kemp, Charles & Lance Andrew Rasbridge (2004). Refugee and Immigrant Health: A Handbook for Health Professionals. Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN 0-521-53560-3. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  4. ^ a b c d e Moe, J. "Thanaka withstands the tests of time". Mizzima News, 17 September 2008. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
  5. ^ a b Yeni (5 August 2011). "Beauty That's More Than Skin Deep". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  6. ^ a b Köllner, Helmut & Axel Bruns (1998). Myanmar (Burma). Hunter Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 3-88618-415-3. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  7. ^ Baker, William & Ira Bruce Nadel (2004). Redefining the Modern. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8386-4013-3. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2014-10-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)