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List of autonomous areas by country

  (Redirected from Territorial autonomy)

Countries with at least one autonomous area

This list of autonomous areas arranged by country gives an overview of autonomous areas of the world. An autonomous area is defined as an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or has freedom from an external authority. It is typical for it to be geographically distant from the country, or to be populated by a national minority. Countries that include autonomous areas are often federacies.[1] The autonomous areas differ from federal units and independent states in the sense that they, in relation to the majority of other sub-national territories in the same country, enjoy a special status including some legislative powers, within the state (for a detailed list of federated units, see Federated state).[2]

This list includes areas that are internationally recognized, as well as some that are generally unrecognized.AB The definition of an autonomous area varies from country to country, so the native term as defined by the respective country's government is listed, and the English translation of the term is included.

Contents

Autonomous areasEdit

Created by international agreementsEdit

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the treaty and year(s) indicated, if available) References
  People's Republic of China 特別行政區 (Chinese, an official language of both Hong Kong and Macau)
região administrativa especial (Portuguese, another official language of Macau)
special administrative region (English, another official language of Hong Kong)
  Hong Kong (1997)  · Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984[3]
  Macau (1999)  · Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987[4]
[5]
  Finland itsehallinnollinen maakunta (Finnish)
självstyrande landskap (Swedish)
autonomous province
  Åland (1922)  · Åland convention[6][7] [8]
  United Kingdom UK constituent country with devolution  Northern Ireland (1999)  · Good Friday Agreement (1998) [9]
  Italy autonome Provinz (German)
provincia autonoma (Italian)
autonomous province
  South Tyrol (1946, 1972)  · Gruber–De Gasperi Agreement (1946) [10]

Notes:

Created by internal statutesEdit

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year(s) indicated, if available) References
  Antigua and Barbuda autonomous island Barbuda
  Australia regional authority Torres Strait Islands (1994)
  Azerbaijan muxtar respublika
autonomous republic
Nakhchivan (1924) [16][17]
  China (PRC) 自治区 (zìzhìqū)
autonomous region
Guangxi (1958)  · Inner Mongolia (1947)  · Ningxia (1958)  · Xinjiang (1955)  · Tibet (1965) [5]
自治州 (zìzhìzhōu)
autonomous prefecture
Bayingolin  · Bortala  · Changji  · Chuxiong  · Dali  · Dehong  · Dêqên  · Enshi  · Gannan  · Garzê  · Golog  · Yushu  · Haibei  · Hainan  · Haixi  · Honghe  · Huangnan  · Ili  · Kizilsu  · Liangshan  · Linxia  · Ngawa  · Nujiang  · Qiandongnan  · Qiannan  · Qianxinan  · Wenshan  · Xiangxi  · Xishuangbanna (Sibsongbanna)  · Yanbian [5]
自治县 (zìzhìxiàn)
autonomous county
117 (full list) [5]
自治旗 (zìzhìqí)
autonomous banner
Evenki  · Morin Dawa  · Oroqen [5]
  Denmark rigsfællesskabet
country with devolution
  Faroe Islands (1948)  ·   Greenland (1979) [8]
  Fiji autonomous region Rotuma [18]
  France Sui generis collectivité
Collectivity special sui generis
  New Caledonia (1999) [19]
Collectivité d'outre-mer
Overseas collectivity
  Saint Martin (2007)  ·   Saint Barthélemy (2007)  ·   Saint Pierre and Miquelon (2003)  ·   Wallis and Futuna (2003)
Pays d'outre-mer
Overseas country
  French Polynesia (2004)
Collectivité territoriale unique
Single territorial collectivity
  Mayotte (2011)  ·   French Guiana (2015)  ·   Martinique (2015)  ·   Corsica (2018)  ·   Alsace (2021)
  Georgia avtonomiuri respublika
autonomous republic
Abkhazia (1991)  ·   Adjara (1991) [20]
provisional administrative entity   South Ossetia (2007) [21]
  Greece aftonomi monastiki politia
autonomous monastic state
  Mount Athos (1913) [22]
  India autonomous district and territorial council Bodoland (2003)  · Chakma (1972)  · Dima Hasao (1970)  · Garo Hills (1952)  · Gorkhaland (2011)  · Jaintia Hills (1972)  · Karbi Anglong (1970)  · Kargil Hills (1995)  · Khasi Hills (1952)  · Lai (1972)  · Leh Hills (1995)  · Mara (1972)  · Mising  · Rabha Hasong (1995)  · Sadar Hills (1995)  · Tripura Tribal Areas (1982) and de facto autonomous area – North Sentinel Island (1947) [23]
  Indonesia daerah istimewa
special region
  Yogyakarta (1950)  ·   Aceh (2005)
daerah otonomi khusus
special autonomous region
  Papua (2000)  ·   West Papua (2008)  ·   Jakarta (1961)
  Iraq kurdistan region
autonomous region
  Kurdistan Region (1992) [24]
  Italy regione autonoma
autonomous region
  Aosta Valley (1948)  ·   Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1963)  ·   Sardinia (1948)  ·   Sicily (1946)  ·   Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (1948) [8]`
provincia autonoma
autonomous province
  South Tyrol (1972)  ·   Trentino (1972)
  Mauritius autonomous island   Rodrigues (2002) [25]
  Mexico autonomous city   Mexico City (2016) [26]
  Moldova unitate teritorială autonomă
autonomous territorial unit
  Găgăuzia (1995)  · Transnistria (2005) [8]
  Myanmar self-administered zones Danu Self-Administered Zone  · Kokang Self-Administered Zone  · Naga Self-Administered Zone  · Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone  · Pa-O Self-Administered Zone  · Wa Self-Administered Division (2011)
  Nicaragua región autónoma
autonomous region
  Atlántico Norte (1986)  ·   Atlántico Sur (1986) [27]
  Panama comarca indígena
indigenous territory
Emberá-Wounaan (1983)  · Kuna de Madugandí (1996)  · Kuna de Wargandí (2000)  ·   Kuna Yala (1938)  ·   Ngöbe-Buglé (1997) [28]
  Papua New Guinea autonomous region   Bougainville (2000) [29]
  Philippines rehiyong awtonomus
autonomous region
Bangsamoro Autonomous Region (2019) [30]
  Portugal região autónoma
autonomous region
  Azores (1976)  ·   Madeira (1976) [8]
  Russia respublika
(autonomous) republic
  Adygea ·   Altai Republic ·   Bashkortostan ·   Buryatia ·   Chechnya ·   Chuvashia ·   Republic of Crimea[31] ·   Dagestan ·   Ingushetia ·   Kabardino-Balkaria ·   Kalmykia ·   Karachay-Cherkessia ·   Karelia ·   Khakassia ·   Komi ·   Mari El ·   Mordovia ·   North Ossetia-Alania ·   Sakha Republic ·   Tatarstan ·   Tuva ·   Udmurtia [8]
avtonomnaya oblast
autonomous province
  Jewish Autonomous Oblast (1934) [8]
avtonomny okrug
autonomous district
  Chukotka ·   Khanty-Mansi ·   Nenets ·   Yamalo-Nenets [8]
  Saint Kitts and Nevis autonomous island   Nevis (1967) [32]
  São Tomé and Príncipe região autónoma
autonomous region
  Autonomous Region of Príncipe (1995) [33]
  Serbia autonomna pokrajina
autonomous province
   Vojvodina (1945)  ·   Kosovo and Metohija (1963) [34]
  Somalia autonomous region   Puntland (1998) [35]
  South Korea teukbyeol jachido
special autonomous province
  Jejudo (2006) [36]
  Tajikistan viloyat mukhtor
autonomous province
Gorno-Badakhshan (1925) [37]
  Tanzania Serikali ya Mapinduzi Zanzibar
revolutionary government
  Zanzibar (1964) [38]
  Trinidad and Tobago autonomous island Tobago
  Ukraine avtonomna respublika
autonomous republic
  Crimea (1992)[39] [8]
  United Kingdom UK constituent country with devolution   Scotland (1999)  ·   Wales (1999) [8]
  Uzbekistan respublika
(autonomous) republic
  Karakalpakstan

All territories called "autonomous"Edit

In a number of countries, all territories or regions of a particular type are called "autonomous". Depending on the case, this may or may not reflect a special devolution of powers or freedom from external authority.

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
  Bolivia departamento
(autonomous) department
  Beni (2006)  ·   Pando (2006)  ·   Santa Cruz (2006)  ·   Tarija (2006)  ·   La Paz (2009)  ·   Cochabamba (2009)  ·  Chuquisaca (2009) ·   Oruro (2009) ·   Potosi (2009) [40]
provincia autónoma
autonomous province
Gran Chaco [41]
municipio autónomo
autonomous municipality
Huacaya · Tarabuco · Mojocoya · Charazani · Jesús de Machaca · Pampas Aullagas · San Pedro de Totora · Chipaya · Salinas de Garci Mendoza · Chayanta · Charagua [42]
territorio indígena
indigenous territory
All native community lands (tierras comunitarias de origen): Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní, Central de Pueblos Nativos Guarayos, Central de Pueblos Indigenas del Beni, Central Indigena de la Region Amazonica de Bolivia, Central Indigena de Pueblos Amazonicos de Pando, Central de Pueblos Indigenas del Tropico de Cochabamba, Central de Pueblos Indigenas de La Paz, Organizacion de la Capitania Wehenayek Tapiete.
  Bosnia and Herzegovina entitet
entity
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994)  ·   Republika Srpska (1992) [43]
  Comoros île autonome
autonomous island
  Anjouan (2002)  ·   Grande Comore (2002)  ·   Mohéli (2002) [44]
  Spain comunidad autónoma (in Spanish)[45]
autonomia erkidegoa (in Basque)[46]
comunautat autonòma (in Occitan)[47]
comunitat autònoma (in Catalan/Valencian)[48]
comunidade autónoma (in Galician)[49]
autonomous community
(nationalities and regions of Spain)
  Andalusia (1981)  ·   Aragon (1982)  ·   Asturias (1981)  ·   Balearic Islands (1983)  ·   Basque Country (1979)  ·   Canary Islands (1982)  ·   Cantabria (1982)  ·   Castile–La Mancha (1982)  ·   Castile and León (1983)  ·   Catalonia (1979)  ·   Extremadura (1983)  ·   Galicia (1981)  ·   La Rioja (1982)  ·   Madrid (1983)  ·   Murcia (1982)  ·   Navarre (1982)  ·   Valencian Community (1982) [8]
ciudad autónoma
autonomous city
  Ceuta (1995)  ·   Melilla (1995) [8]

Dependent and associated territories with autonomyEdit

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year(s) indicated, if available) References
  Netherlands autonoom land
autonomous country
  Aruba (1986) ·   Curaçao (2010) ·   Sint Maarten (2010)
  New Zealand state in free-association   Cook Islands (1965) ·   Niue (1974)
self-administering territory   Tokelau (1948) [19]
  United Kingdom Crown dependency   Guernsey  ·   Isle of Man ·   Jersey [8]
British Overseas Territory   Falkland Islands  ·   Gibraltar  ·   Bermuda  ·   Cayman Islands  ·   British Virgin Islands  ·   Montserrat  ·   Anguilla [8]
  United States commonwealth   Puerto Rico (1952)  ·   Northern Mariana Islands (1978) [50]

Other entities called "autonomous"Edit

A number of entities are also officially called "autonomous", though they do not have an exceptional freedom from external authority, and would not fall under the definition of autonomous area. They are listed here for clarity.

Capitals called "autonomous"Edit

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
  Argentina ciudad autónoma
autonomous city
  Buenos Aires (1994) [51]
  Cambodia krong
autonomous municipality
Phnom Penh, along with independent cities under the same classification [52]
  Central African Republic commune autonome
autonomous commune
Bangui [53]
  Guinea-Bissau sector autónomo
autonomous sector
  Bissau Region [54]
  Indonesia daerah khusus ibukota
special capital region
  Jakarta [55]
  Uzbekistan shahar
autonomous city
Tashkent (1918) [56]

Independent cities called "autonomous"Edit

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
  South Korea 특별자치시
special autonomous city
Sejong
  Cambodia krong
autonomous municipality
Phnom Penh · Sihanoukville · Pailin · Kep [52]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  • ^ For example: "China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". United Nations. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  • ^ See International recognition of Kosovo for states that do and do not recognize the Republic of Kosovo.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lucas I. González (11 February 2008). "Political Power, Fiscal Crises, and Decentralization in Latin America: Federal Countries in Comparative Perspective (and some Contrasts with Unitary Cases)". Publius: The Journal of Federalism. Oxford University Press. 38 (2): 211. doi:10.1093/publius/pjn001. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  2. ^ Olausson, Pär M. (2007) Autonomy and Islands: A Global Study of the Factors that Determine Island Autonomy, Turku: Åbo Akademi University Press, pp. 21–25
  3. ^ "The Joint Declaration (and following pages)". Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, The Government of the HKSAR. 1 July 2007.
  4. ^ "Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macao". io.gov.mo.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Provinces of China". Statoids. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  6. ^ (in French) Edouard Gourdon, Histoire du Congrès de Paris, Paris, 1857, full text at google Print
  7. ^ Later confirmated by the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920 (which was later replaced by new legislations by the same name in 1951 and 1991) and the League of Nations in 1922 following the Åland crisis.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Benedikter, Thomas (19 June 2006). "The working autonomies in Europe". Society for Threatened Peoples. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  9. ^ "Agreement reached in the multi-party negotiations" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
  10. ^ http://www.regione.taa.it/codice/accordo.aspx
  11. ^ "Treaty concerning the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, and Protocol [1925] ATS 10". austlii.edu.au.
  12. ^ Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 (as amended) on the common system of value added tax (OJ L 347, 11.12.2006, p. 1) Eur-lex.europa.eu.
  13. ^ NM Currency Converter. "Currency converter Swiss Franc, CHF". nm-devises.com.
  14. ^ It is legal tender in Campione d'Italia
  15. ^ "2.1.2 Erhebungsgebiet". admin.ch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013.
  16. ^ "Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh". BBC News. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  17. ^ Treaty of Moscow (1921) and Treaty of Kars (1921)
  18. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Archived from the original on 19 April 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2010..
  19. ^ a b Included on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.
  20. ^ "Regions of Georgia". Statoids. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  21. ^ "Sanakoev Appointed as Head of S.Ossetia Administration". Civil.ge. 10 May 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
  22. ^ "Departments of Greece". Statoids. 1 September 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  23. ^ "The World's Working Regional Autonomies, Thomas Benedikter". Anthem Press. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
  24. ^ "Provinces of Iraq". Statoids. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  25. ^ "Districts of Mauritius". Statoids. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  26. ^ "DECRETO por el que se declaran reformadas y derogadas diversas disposiciones de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, en materia de la reforma política de la Ciudad de México" [DECREE declaring reformed and repealed various provisions of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, regarding the political reform of Mexico City]. Diario Oficial de la Federación [Official Journal of the Federation] (in Spanish). 29 January 2016.
  27. ^ "Departments of Nicaragua". Statoids. 12 April 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  28. ^ "Panama Provinces". Statoids. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  29. ^ "Provinces of Papua New Guinea". Statoids. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  30. ^ "Provinces of the Philippines". Statoids. 31 January 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  31. ^ Recognized as a part of Ukraine by most of the international community
  32. ^ See section 3 and 4 about Nevis Island Legislature and Administration in The Saint Christopher and Nevis Constitution Order 1983. Published online by Georgetown University and also by University of the West Indies. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
  33. ^ "Sao Tome and Principe". Central Intelligence Agency. 12 February 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  34. ^ "Districts of Serbia". Statoids. 17 February 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  35. ^ "Constitucional act granting special status of Easter Island and Juan Fernández Islands. As the special charter is being discussed, they remain being governed as provinces of the Valparaíso Region". Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  36. ^ "Jeju City". Galbijim. 8 April 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  37. ^ "Regions of Tajikistan". Statoids. 16 October 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  38. ^ "Regions and territories: Zanzibar". BBC News. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  39. ^ Was annexed by the Russian Federation in March 2014
  40. ^ Doug Hertzler. "Debunking Myths Part II: Bolivia's Autonomy Initiatives". Retrieved 1 April 2010.
  41. ^ "5 departamentos se suman a la autonomía; Gran Chaco la primera región autónoma". eju.tv. 7 December 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
  42. ^ "Las autonomías indígenas avanzan a paso lento per seguro, entre consensos e interrogantes" Diálogos en Democracia, 21 March 2010 (Supplement to Pulso Bolivia).
  43. ^ "Bosnia and Herzegovina Government". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  44. ^ "Autonomous Islands of Comoros". Statoids. 16 October 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  45. ^ Spanish (aka Castilian) is official in
  46. ^ Basque is official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Basque Country and Navarre.
  47. ^ Occitan is official in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.
  48. ^ Catalan/Valencian is official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, Balearic Islands Valencian Community.
  49. ^ Galician is official in the Spanish autonomous community of Galicia.
  50. ^ "December 2005 report of the President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status" (PDF). pfraa.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009.
  51. ^ Pinduli, Irene; Spivacow, R; Del Valle, E; Vidal, S; Negri, AL; Previgliano, H; Farías Edos, R; Andrade, JH; Negri, GM (20 January 2006). "Prevalence of urolithiasis in the autonomous city of Buenos Aires, Argentina". Urological Research. 34 (1): 8–11. doi:10.1007/s00240-005-0003-7. PMID 16425020.
  52. ^ a b "Provinces of Cambodia". Statoids. 13 May 2005. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  53. ^ "Prefectures of the Central African Republic". Statoids. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  54. ^ "Regions of Guinea-Bissau". Statoids. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  55. ^ "Jakarta". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
  56. ^ "Regions of Uzbekistan". Statoids. 17 May 2007. Retrieved 25 February 2008.