Terre-de-Haut Island (in Creole:Tèdého, also formerly known as Petite Martinique) is the easternmost island in the Îles des Saintes archipelago of Guadeloupe. Like name of neighboring Terre-de-Bas, name Terre-de-Haut comes from the maritime vocabulary, which called the islands exposed to the "highland" winds and those protected from the wind, "lowlands".
|Native name: |
Terre-de-Haut des Saintes
Terre-de-Haut view from Chameau hill.
|Archipelago||Îles des Saintes|
|Major islands||Terre-de-Bas Island|
|Area||5.2 km2 (2.0 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||306 m (1,004 ft)|
|Highest point||Chameau hill|
|Pop. density||352 /km2 (912 /sq mi)|
Terre-de-Haut is separated from Terre-de-Bas by a narrow channel of 890 m (0.55 mi). Besides Terre-de-Bas, several small islands surround Terre-de-Haut. It is an island of 5.2 km2 (2.0 sq mi) dominated in the north by Morne Mire hill (107 metres (351 ft)) and Morel hill (136 metres (446 ft)).
The Chameau 306 metres (1,004 ft), in the southwest, is the highest elevation in the archipelago. It is covered with forest. On the summit, there is a watchtower, called La tour modèle. Chameau is the property of the Conservatoire du littoral and is a protected site category IV IUCN.
The strategic position of Petite Martinique (its former name) was important. In August 1666 French victory over the British ensured French sovereignty over these islands. However from 1759 to 1815, alternations of British and French Dominions. In 1777 France built the defensive system Fort Napoléon des Saintes. In April 1782 the Battle of the Saintes. The British, who occupied les Saintes in 1809, kept Fort Joséphine and added water butt to it.
From the later French dominion it became a penitentiary from 1851, but it was ravaged by a hurricane in 1865. It continued however to welcome convicts on the way towards Îles du Salut, in French Guiana until 1902.
In 1871, Îlet à Cabrit became a place of quarantine: a lazaretto, was opened instead of the penitentiary.
The local vocabulary says: "to go up" to move towards the windward quartier (to Fort Napoléon) and "to go down" to move towards the leeward quartier (to Pain-de-sucre).
The low quantitative precipitation forecast do not allow the establishment of agriculture. Few slaves were brought onto these islands. The population is constituted historically by Bretons, Normans and by inhabitants of Poitou who came to fish.
In 2006 the population of Terre-de-Haut was 1,838, with a density of population of 306 inhabitants/km2. The number of households was 693.
|Sous le Vent|
Pain de sucre
Anse à Cointe
- Popo (18 May 2010). "Morne Morel à Terre de Haut" (in French). Zoom-guadeloupe.fr.
- "Monographie sur les Saintes (dépendance de la Guadeloupe)" (in French). Gallica.bnf.fr. 25 January 2010.
- (in French) Guadeloupe et dépendances BIODIVERSITÉ ET CONSERVATION EN OUTRE-MER
- "Insee - Chiffres clés : Commune de Terre-de-Haut (97131)". statistiques-locales.insee.fr. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- Bonniol, J.L. (1980). Terre-de-Haut des Saintes: contraintes insulaires et particularisme ethnique dans la Caraïbe. L HARMATTAN. p. 299. ISBN 9782903033132. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
- "Au bourg débute la visite de Terre de Haut". escale-creole.wifeo.com. Retrieved 2014-10-10.