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Terre-de-Haut Island (in Creole:Tèdého, also formerly known as Petite Martinique) is the easternmost island in the Îles des Saintes archipelago of Guadeloupe. Like name of neighboring Terre-de-Bas, name Terre-de-Haut comes from the maritime vocabulary, which called the islands exposed to the "highland" winds and those protected from the wind, "lowlands".

Terre-de-Haut
Native name:
Terre-de-Haut des Saintes
IlesDesSaintes.jpg
Terre-de-Haut view from Chameau hill.
Terre-de-Haut.png
Terre-de-Haut is located in Guadeloupe
Terre-de-Haut
Terre-de-Haut
Terre-de-Haut is located in Lesser Antilles
Terre-de-Haut
Terre-de-Haut
Terre-de-Haut is located in Caribbean
Terre-de-Haut
Terre-de-Haut
Geography
LocationCaribbean sea
Coordinates15°51′45″N 61°35′00″W / 15.86250°N 61.58333°W / 15.86250; -61.58333Coordinates: 15°51′45″N 61°35′00″W / 15.86250°N 61.58333°W / 15.86250; -61.58333
ArchipelagoÎles des Saintes
Total islands9
Major islandsTerre-de-Bas Island
Area5.2 km2 (2.0 sq mi)
Highest elevation306 m (1,004 ft)
Highest pointChameau hill
Administration
Overseas departmentGuadeloupe
Cantonles Saintes
communeTerre-de-Haut
Capital cityFond-du-Curé
Largest settlementFond-du-Curé
MayorLouis Molinié
Demographics
Population1838 (2006)
Pop. density352 /km2 (912 /sq mi)
Additional information

Terre-de-Haut
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
Area3.51 km2 (1.36 sq mi)
Established1991 (1991)
WebsiteTerre-de-Haut in Guadeloupe

Contents

GeographyEdit

 
Chameau hill

Terre-de-Haut is separated from Terre-de-Bas by a narrow channel of 890 m (0.55 mi). Besides Terre-de-Bas, several small islands surround Terre-de-Haut. It is an island of 5.2 km2 (2.0 sq mi) dominated in the north by Morne Mire hill (107 metres (351 ft)) and Morel hill (136 metres (446 ft)).

Morel is on the North of the island, between the bay of Marigot and the bay of Pompierre. There is an ancient fortress there, Caroline battery.[1][2]

The Chameau 306 metres (1,004 ft), in the southwest, is the highest elevation in the archipelago. It is covered with forest. On the summit, there is a watchtower, called La tour modèle. Chameau is the property of the Conservatoire du littoral and is a protected site category IV IUCN.[3]

HistoryEdit

Island was discovered and first named by Christopher Columbus in November 1493. First colonist arrived in 1648. In 1666, the church Notre Dame de l'Assomption was built.

The strategic position of Petite Martinique (its former name) was important. In August 1666 French victory over the British ensured French sovereignty over these islands. However from 1759 to 1815, alternations of British and French Dominions. In 1777 France built the defensive system Fort Napoléon des Saintes. In April 1782 the Battle of the Saintes. The British, who occupied les Saintes in 1809, kept Fort Joséphine and added water butt to it.

From the later French dominion it became a penitentiary from 1851, but it was ravaged by a hurricane in 1865. It continued however to welcome convicts on the way towards Îles du Salut, in French Guiana until 1902.

In 1871, Îlet à Cabrit became a place of quarantine: a lazaretto, was opened instead of the penitentiary.

The local vocabulary says: "to go up" to move towards the windward quartier (to Fort Napoléon) and "to go down" to move towards the leeward quartier (to Pain-de-sucre).

DemographicsEdit

The low quantitative precipitation forecast do not allow the establishment of agriculture. Few slaves were brought onto these islands. The population is constituted historically by Bretons, Normans and by inhabitants of Poitou who came to fish.

In 2006 the population of Terre-de-Haut was 1,838, with a density of population of 306 inhabitants/km2. The number of households was 693.[4]

Populated areasEdit

The oldest settlements are the villages of Mouillage and Fond-du curé.[5] The population is spread among 20 quartiers, grouped into two halves:[6]

Au vent
(Windward)
Sous le Vent
(Leeward)
Nr Quartier Nr Quartier
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Pompierre
Marigot
Vieille-Anse
Fort Napoléon
Maison blanche
la Coulée
Coquelet
Anse-Mire
Mouillage
Grande-Anse
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Fond-du-Curé
la Savane
Anse Rodrigue
Anse Galet
Prés Cassin
la Convalescence
Anse Figuier
Pain de sucre
Anse à Cointe
Anse Crawen


See alsoEdit

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Popo (18 May 2010). "Morne Morel à Terre de Haut" (in French). Zoom-guadeloupe.fr.
  2. ^ "Monographie sur les Saintes (dépendance de la Guadeloupe)" (in French). Gallica.bnf.fr. 25 January 2010.
  3. ^ (in French) Guadeloupe et dépendances BIODIVERSITÉ ET CONSERVATION EN OUTRE-MER
  4. ^ "Insee - Chiffres clés : Commune de Terre-de-Haut (97131)". statistiques-locales.insee.fr. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
  5. ^ Bonniol, J.L. (1980). Terre-de-Haut des Saintes: contraintes insulaires et particularisme ethnique dans la Caraïbe. L HARMATTAN. p. 299. ISBN 9782903033132. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
  6. ^ "Au bourg débute la visite de Terre de Haut". escale-creole.wifeo.com. Retrieved 2014-10-10.