Further information: Testicular infertility factors
|Aspermia —lack of semen; anejaculation|
|Asthenozoospermia —sperm motility below lower reference limit|
|Azoospermia —absence of sperm in the ejaculate|
|Hyperspermia —semen volume above higher reference limit|
|Hypospermia —semen volume below lower reference limit|
|Oligozoospermia —total sperm count below lower reference limit|
|Necrozoospermia—absence of living sperm in the ejaculate|
|Teratozoospermia —percent normal forms below lower reference limit|
The causes of teratozoospermia are unknown in most cases. However, Hodgkin's disease, coeliac disease, and Crohn's disease may contribute in some instances. Lifestyle and habits (smoking, toxin exposure, etc.) can also cause poor morphology. Varicocele is another condition that is often associated with decreased normal forms (morphology).
Symptoms and treatmentEdit
The presence of abnormally-shaped sperm can negatively affect fertility by preventing transport through the cervix and/or preventing sperm from adhering to the ovum. Achieving a pregnancy may be difficult.
In testing for teratozoospermia, sperm are collected, stained and analyzed under a microscope to detect abnormalities. These abnormalities may include heads that are large, small, tapered, or pyriform or tails that are abnormally shaped.
Teratozoospermia (including the globozoospermia type), may be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), injecting sperm directly into the egg. Once the egg is fertilized, abnormal sperm morphology does not appear to influence blastocyst development or blastocyst morphology. Even with severe teratozoospermia, microscopy can still detect the few sperm cells that have a "normal" morphology, allowing for optimal success rate.
- Page 155 in: Hermann Behre; Eberhard Nieschlag (2000). Andrology : Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-67224-9.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2008-12-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Egashira A, Murakami M, Haigo K, Horiuchi T, Kuramoto T (September 2009). "A successful pregnancy and live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with globozoospermic sperm and electrical oocyte activation". Fertil. Steril. 92 (6): 2037.e5–2037.e9. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.08.013. PMID 19800059.
- French DB, Sabanegh ES, Goldfarb J, Desai N (March 2010). "Does severe teratozoospermia affect blastocyst formation, live birth rate, and other clinical outcome parameters in ICSI cycles?". Fertil Steril. 93 (4): 1097–1103. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.10.051. PMID 19200957.