Template:JhanaFactors lists factors traditionally identified as related to Buddhist states of meditative absorption (jhana). This includes factors that both whose quelling immediately precede and that are concurrent with jhana states.


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Because of the size of this table, it is initially transcluded in the "collapsed" state (unless the "expanded" parameter is non-null). To reveal the table when it is collapsed, click on "[show]".

Background informationEdit

These jhana factors are those identified in the Pali Canon's Sutta Pitaka, such as Samyutta Nikaya 28.1-4 and AN 5.28.[citation needed]

The discourses identify two factors that are withdrawn from prior to the arising of the first jhana state:[1][2]

  • Kama - sensuality
  • Akusala dhamma - unskillful or unwholesome states or qualities

The factors identified with jhana states are:[1][2]

  • Piti - joy
  • Sukha - happiness
  • Vitakka - "applied thought"
  • Vicara - "sustained thought"
  • Ekaggata - unification of awareness
  • Sampasadana - inner tranquility
  • Upekkha - equanimity
  • Upekkhāsatipārisuddhi - purity of equanimity and mindfulness

More than just checking off which of these factors is present or absent in a particular jhana state, this table attempts to show in what way the factor is present or overcome as articulated by the aforementioned discourses.

It is hoped that this template's visual representation of the stepwise progression of factors entailed in the development of jhana states will help readers appreciate what is achieved with such attainment and its pertinence to the overall Buddhist pursuit of nirvana.


  • Bucknell, Robert S. (1993), "Reinterpreting the Jhanas", Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, 16 (2)
  • Vetter, Tilmann (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, BRILL

The sources for this template are included in the table itself. They include the Sinhala edition of Pali text (gratis MettaNet-Lanka) as well as the English translations of two popular contemporary translators, Bhikkhu Bodhi and Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Some condensation of their translations was done to keep this table simple and relatively small. (The actual URLs for the identified web sites are wiki-piped into the hosting site's identified name [MettaNet-Lanka, Access to Insight] for the sake of relative textual brevity.)

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