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List of weather records

  (Redirected from Temperature extremes)

This is a list of weather records, a list of the most extreme occurrences of weather phenomena for various categories. Many weather records are measured under specific conditions—such as surface temperature and wind speed—to keep consistency among measurements around the Earth. Each of these records is understood to be the record value officially observed, as these records may have been exceeded before modern weather instrumentation was invented, or in remote areas without an official weather station. This list does not include remotely sensed observations such as satellite measurements, since those values are not considered official records.[1]

TemperatureEdit

Measuring conditionsEdit

The standard measuring conditions for temperature are in the air, 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) above the ground, and shielded from direct sunlight intensity (hence the term, x degrees "in the shade").[2] The following lists include all officially confirmed claims measured by those methods.

Temperatures measured directly on the ground may exceed air temperatures by 30 to 50 °C (54 to 90 °F).[2] The highest natural ground surface temperature ever recorded was 93.9 °C (201.0 °F) at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, United States on 15 July 1972.[3] In recent years a ground temperature of 84 °C (183.2 °F) has been recorded in Port Sudan, Sudan.[4] The theoretical maximum possible ground surface temperature has been estimated to be between 90 and 100 °C (194 and 212 °F) for dry, darkish soils of low thermal conductivity.[5]

Satellite measurements of ground temperature taken between 2003 and 2009, taken with the MODIS infrared spectroradiometer on the Aqua satellite, found a maximum temperature of 70.7 °C (159.3 °F), which was recorded in 2005 in the Lut Desert, Iran. The Lut Desert was also found to have the highest maximum temperature in 5 of the 7 years measured (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2009). These measurements reflect averages over a large region and so are lower than the maximum point surface temperature.[2]

Satellite measurements of the surface temperature of Antarctica, taken between 1982 and 2013, found a coldest temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) on 10 August 2010, at 81°48′S 59°18′E / 81.8°S 59.3°E / -81.8; 59.3. Although this is not comparable to an air temperature, it is believed that the air temperature at this location would have been lower than the official record lowest air temperature of −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F).[6][7]

HottestEdit

Highest temperatures ever recordedEdit

 
A world map showing areas with Köppen B (dry climates). The temperatures in these regions have the potential to exceed 50 °C (122 °F) during the hottest seasons.

According to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the highest temperature ever recorded was 56.7 °C (134.1 °F) on 10 July 1913 in Furnace Creek (Greenland Ranch), California, United States,[8] but the validity of this record is challenged as possible problems with the reading have since been discovered. Christopher C. Burt, a weather historian writing for Weather Underground, believes that the 1913 Death Valley reading is "a myth", and is at least 2.2 or 2.8 °C (4 or 5 °F) too high.[9] Burt proposes that the highest reliably recorded temperature on Earth could be at Death Valley, but is instead 54.0 °C (129.2 °F) recorded on 30 June 2013.[10] This alleged record has since been tied twice by readings in Kuwait and Iran. The WMO has stated they stand by the 1913 record pending any future investigations.

The former highest official temperature on Earth (held for 90 years by ‘Aziziya, Libya) was reassessed in July 2012 by the WMO which published a report that invalidated the record.[11] There have been other unconfirmed reports of high temperatures, with readings as high as 66.8 °C (152.2 °F) in the Flaming Mountains of China in 2008.[12] However, these temperatures have never been confirmed, and are currently considered to have been recorder's errors,[13] thus not being recognised as world records.[14]

By continentEdit

Africa[notes 1]Edit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Algeria 51.3 °C (124.3 °F) El Bayadh, El Bayadh Province
Ouargla, Ouargla Province
2 September 1979[17]
5 July 2018[16]
  Botswana 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Maun 7 January 2016[18]
  Burkina Faso 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Dori 1984[19]
  Chad 47.6 °C (117.7 °F) Faya-Largeau 22 June 2010[20]
  Comoros 36.0 °C (96.8 °F) Hahaya International Airport 15 November 2017[21]
  Eswatini (Swaziland) 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Lavumisa ?[22]
  Ghana 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) Navrongo 26 March 2017[21]
  Guinea 45 °C (113 °F) Koundara, Boké Region 29 March 2017[21]
  Morocco (then the French protectorate in Morocco) 51.7 °C (125.1 °F) Agadir 19 August 1940[23]
  Niger 49.5 °C (121.1 °F) Diffa 7 September 1978[24]
  Nigeria 46.4 °C (115.5 °F) Yola 3 April 2010[20]
  Réunion 36.9 °C (98.4 °F) Le Port 6 March 2004[25]
  South Africa (then the   Union of South Africa) 50 °C (122 °F) Dunbrody, Eastern Cape 3 November 1918[26][notes 2]
  Sudan 49.7 °C (121.5 °F) Dongola 25 June 2010[20]
  Tunisia (then the French protectorate of Tunisia) 55 °C (131 °F) Kebili 7 July 1931[28]
  Western Sahara (then the   Spanish Sahara) 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Semara 13 July 1961[15]
  Zambia 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Mfuwe, Eastern Province 13 October 2010[20]

AntarcticaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Antarctica (all land/ice south of 60°S) 19.8 °C (67.6 °F) Signy Research Station, South Orkney Islands 30 January 1982[29]
  Antarctica (mainland and adjoining islands) 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) Esperanza Base, Trinity Peninsula 24 March 2015[30][31]
  Antarctica (Antarctic Plateau > 2,500 metres (8,202 ft)) −7.0 °C (19.4 °F) Automated Weather Station D-80 (coordinates: 70°6'S, 134°53'W, elevation: 2,500 metres (8,202 ft)) 28 December 1989[32]
South Pole −12.3 °C (9.9 °F) Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station 25 December 2011[33]

AsiaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Afghanistan 49.9 °C (121.8 °F) Farah August 2009[34]
  Armenia 43.7 °C (110.7 °F) Meghri 1 August 2011[35][36]
  Azerbaijan 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Julfa and Ordubad ?[37]
  Bangladesh 45.1 °C (113.2 °F) Rajshahi 30 May 1972[38]
  Bhutan 40 °C (104 °F) Phuentsholing 27 August 1997[39]
  Cambodia 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) Preah Vihear 15 April 2016[40]
  China 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) Erbao Township, Turpan, Xinjiang 10 July 2017[41]
  Hong Kong 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) Wetland Park 22 August 2017[21]
  Macau 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) Coloane 22 August 2017[21]
  India 51.0 °C (123.8 °F) Phalodi, Rajasthan 19 May 2016[42]
  Indonesia 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) Jatiwangi, Majalengka Regency, West Java
Semarang, Central Java
December 2006
27 October 2015[43]
  Iran 54 °C (129 °F) Ahvaz Airport (OIAW) 29 June 2017[15][44][45]
  Iraq 53.8 °C (128.8 °F) Basra 22 July 2016[44][46]
  Israel (then   Mandatory Palestine) 54 °C (129 °F) Tirat Zvi 21 June 1942[47][notes 3]
  Japan 41.1 °C (106.0 °F) Kumagaya, Saitama 23 July 2018[49]
  Jordan 50 °C (122 °F) Jordan University Agriculture Research Center 6 September 2002[50]
  Kazakhstan 49.1 °C (120.4 °F) Turkistan ?[51]
  Kuwait 53.9 °C (129.0 °F) Mitribah 21 July 2016[52][notes 4]
  Kyrgyzstan 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) ? ?[53]
  Laos 42.3 °C (108.1 °F) Seno 12 April 2016[40]
  Malaysia 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) Chuping 9 April 1998[54]
  Maldives 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) Hanimaadhoo 16 April 2016[40]
  Mongolia 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Khongor, Darkhan-Uul Province 24 July 1999[55]
  Myanmar 47.2 °C (117.0 °F) Myinmu 14 May 2010[56][57]
    Nepal 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Chisapani ?[58]
  Oman 50.8 °C (123.4 °F) Buraimi
Sohar
Qurayyat
July 1990
May 2009
30 May 2017[59]
  Pakistan 53.7 °C (128.7 °F) Mohenjo-Daro and Turbat 28 May 2017[60]
26 May 2010[52]
  Philippines (first recorded under the   Insular Government) 42.2 °C (108.0 °F) Tuguegarao, Cagayan Valley 12 April 1912
11 May 1969[61]
  Qatar 50.4 °C (122.7 °F) Doha 14 July 2010[20]
  Russia (Siberia) 42.3 °C (108.1 °F) Belogorsk, Amur Oblast 12 July 2010[62]
  Saudi Arabia 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) Jeddah 23 June 2010[63]
  Singapore 37.0 °C (98.6 °F) Tengah 17 April 1983[64]
  South Korea 41.0 °C (105.8 °F) Hongcheon, Gangwon Province 1 August 2018[65]
  Syria 49.4 °C (120.9 °F) ? ?[66]
  Taiwan 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Tianxiang, Hualien County 9 July 2018[16][67]
  Tajikistan 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) Panji Poyon ?[68]
  Thailand 44.6 °C (112.3 °F) Mae Hong Son 28 April 2016[40]
  Turkey 49.0 °C (120.2 °F) Cizre, Şırnak Province 27 August 1961[69]
  Turkmenistan (then the   Turkmen SSR,   Soviet Union) 50.1 °C (122.2 °F) Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, Karakum Desert 28 July 1983[70][71]
  United Arab Emirates 52.1 °C (125.8 °F) Al Jazeera Border Gate July 2002[72][73]
  Vietnam 43.4 °C (110.1 °F) Huong Khe District 20 April 2019[74]

EuropeEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Albania 43.9 °C (111.0 °F) Tirana 1973[75]
  Austria 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) Bad Deutsch-Altenburg 8 August 2013[76]
  Belarus 38.9 °C (102.0 °F) Gomel 7 August 2010[20]
  Belgium 41.8 °C (107.2 °F) Begijnendijk, Flemish Brabant[notes 5] 25 July 2019[77]
  Bosnia and Herzegovina (then   Austria–Hungary-occupied   Bosnia Vilayet,   Ottoman Empire) 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) Mostar 31 July 1901[78][79]
  Bulgaria 45.2 °C (113.4 °F) Sadovo, Plovdiv Province 5 August 1916[80]
  Croatia (then the   SR Croatia,   SFR Yugoslavia) 42.8 °C (109.0 °F) Ploče 5 August 1981[81]
  Cyprus 45.6 °C (114.1 °F) Nicosia 1 August 2010[20]
  Czech Republic 40.4 °C (104.7 °F) Dobřichovice, Prague-West District 20 August 2012[82]
  Denmark 36.4 °C (97.5 °F) Holstebro, Midtjylland 10 August 1975[83]
  Estonia 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Võru 11 August 1992[84]
  Finland 37.2 °C (99.0 °F) Joensuu Airport, Liperi 29 July 2010[85]
  France 46.0 °C (114.8 °F) Vérargues, Hérault 28 June 2019[79]
  Germany 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) Lingen, Lower Saxony[notes 5] 25 July 2019[86]
  Greece 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) Athens [notes 6] 10 July 1977[88]
  Hungary 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) Kiskunhalas 20 July 2007[89]
  Iceland (then the   Kingdom of Iceland) 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) Teigarhorn, Djúpivogur 22 June 1939[90][91]
  Ireland (then part of the   United Kingdom) 33.3 °C (91.9 °F) Kilkenny Castle, County Kilkenny 26 June 1887[92]
  Italy 47.0 °C (116.6 °F) Foggia, Apulia [notes 7] 25 June 2007[93][94]
  Latvia 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) Ventspils 4 August 2014[95]
  Lithuania 37.5 °C (99.5 °F) Zarasai, Utena County 30 July 1994[96]
  Luxembourg 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Steinsel, Luxembourg[notes 5] 25 July 2019[97]
  Malta 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) Malta International Airport 9 August 1999[98][99]
  Moldova 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Fălești 7 August 2012[100]
  Montenegro 44.8 °C (112.6 °F) Podgorica
Danilovgrad
16 August 2007
8 August 2012[101]
  Netherlands 40.7 °C (105.3 °F) Gilze en Rijen[notes 5][notes 8] 25 July 2019[103]
  North Macedonia 45.7 °C (114.3 °F) Demir Kapija, Demir Kapija 24 July 2007[104]
  Norway 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Nesbyen, Buskerud 20 June 1970[105]
  Poland 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) Prószków[notes 9] 29 July 1921[107]
  Portugal 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Amareleja, Beja 1 August 2003[108]
  Romania 44.5 °C (112.1 °F) Ion Sion, Brăila County 10 August 1951[109]
  Russia (in Europe) 45.4 °C (113.7 °F) Utta, Kalmykia 12 July 2010[110]
  San Marino 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Serravalle 3 August 2017
9 August 2017[21]
  Serbia 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Smederevska Palanka, Podunavlje 24 July 2007[111]
  Slovakia 40.3 °C (104.5 °F) Hurbanovo 20 July 2007[112]
  Slovenia 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) Cerklje ob Krki 8 August 2013[113]
  Spain 47.3 °C (117.1 °F) Montoro, Cordoba (as Montoro Vega Armijo) 13 July 2017[114]
  Sweden 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) Ultuna, Uppsala County
Målilla, Kalmar County
9 July 1933
29 June 1947[115]
   Switzerland 41.5 °C (106.7 °F) Grono, Moesa District 11 August 2003[116]
  Ukraine 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) Luhansk 12 August 2010[117]
  United Kingdom 38.7 °C (101.7 °F) Cambridge, Cambridgeshire[notes 5] 25 July 2019[118][119]
   Vatican City 40.7 °C (105.3 °F) Vatican City 2 August 2017[21]

North AmericaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Anguilla 34.2 °C (93.6 °F) The Valley 12 September 2015[120]
  Antigua and Barbuda 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, St. John's 12 August 1995[121][122]
  British Virgin Islands 35.0 °C (95.0 °F) Terrance B. Lettsome International Airport 22 July 2016[123]
  Canada 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan
Midale, Saskatchewan
5 July 1937[124]
  Cayman Islands 34.9 °C (94.8 °F) Owen Roberts International Airport, Grand Cayman 21 August 2016[123]
  Cuba 39.1 °C (102.4 °F) Veguitas (Granma Province) 30 June 2019[125]
  Dominica 35.5 °C (95.9 °F) Canefield Airport 3 October 2015[120]
  Dominican Republic 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) Mao 31 August 1954[126]
  Greenland 30.1 °C (86.2 °F) Ivittuut 23 June 1915[127][128][129]
  Guatemala 45 °C (113 °F) Estanzuela, Zacapa ?[130]
  Martinique 36.5 °C (97.7 °F) Saint-Pierre 6 October 2010[131]
  Mexico 52.0 °C (125.6 °F) Mexicali area 28 July 1995[132][133]
  Panama 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) San Francisco 20 March 1998[134]
  Puerto Rico 40 °C (104 °F) Mona Island 2 July 1996[135]
  United States 56.7 °C (134 °F) Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California 10 July 1913[9][136][10]
  United States Virgin Islands 37.2 °C (99 °F) Saint Thomas
Cruz Bay
4 August 1994 and 23 June 1996[135]
31 July 1988[135]

Oceania[notes 10]Edit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Australia 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) Oodnadatta, South Australia 2 January 1960[137][138][139]
  Marshall Islands 35.6 °C (96.1 °F) Utirik Atoll 24 August 2016[123]
  New Zealand 42.4 °C (108.3 °F) Rangiora, Canterbury /
Jordan, Marlborough (tied)
7 February 1973[140]
  Palau 35 °C (95 °F) Koror 22 March 2018[141]
  Samoa 35.3 °C (95.5 °F) Asau 24 December 1968[142]
  Solomon Islands 36.1 °C (97.0 °F) Honiara, Guadalcanal Province 1 February 2010[20]
  Tonga 35.5 °C (95.9 °F) Niuafoou 1 February 2016[123]
  Vanuatu 36.2 °C (97.2 °F) Lamap Malekula 8 February 2016[123]
  Wallis and Futuna 35.8 °C (96.4 °F) Futuna Airport 10 January 2016[123]

South America[notes 11]Edit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Argentina 48.9 °C (120.0 °F) Rivadavia, Salta Province 11 December 1905[137][143][144]
  Bolivia 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) Villamontes, Tarija Department 29 October 2010[20][notes 12]
  Brazil 44.7 °C (112.5 °F) Bom Jesus, Piauí 21 November 2005[145]
  Chile 44.9 °C (112.8 °F) Quillón, Biobio Region[notes 13] 26 January 2017[146][147]
  Colombia 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Puerto Salgar, Cundinamarca 29 December 2015[148]
  French Guiana 38.0 °C (100.4 °F) Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni 27 September 2016[123]
  Paraguay 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 14 November 2009[149]
  Peru 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) Juan Guerra, San Martín 3 November 2018[150]
  Uruguay 44.0 °C (111.2 °F) Paysandú, Paysandú Department 20 January 1943[151][152]
  Venezuela 43.6 °C (110.5 °F) Santa Ana de Coro, Falcón 29 April 2015[120]

Other high-temperature recordsEdit

  • Greatest 2-minute temperature increase: 27 °C (49 °F), from −20 °C (−4 °F) to 7 °C (45 °F); Spearfish, South Dakota, on 22 January 1943.[153]
  • Most consecutive days above 37.8 °C (100 °F): 160 days; Marble Bar, Western Australia from 31 October 1923 to 7 April 1924.[154]
  • Most consecutive days above 43.3 °C (110 °F): 84 days; Death Valley, California from 14 June through 5 September 1917.[155]
  • Most consecutive days above 48.9 °C (120 °F): 43 days; Death Valley, California from 6 July through 17 August 1917.[156]
  • Highest natural ground surface temperature: 93.9 °C (201.0 °F), in Death Valley, California, 15 July 1972.[3] (Not verified)
  • Highest temperature during rain: 46.1 °C (115.0 °F), in Needles, California, 13 August 2012.[157]
  • Highest overnight low temperature: 44.2 °C (111.6 °F) at the Khasab weather station (WMO Index = 41241) in Oman on 17 June 2017.[158][notes 14]
  • Highest minimum temperature for a 24-hour period and for a calendar day: 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) at Qurayyat, Oman on 25 June 2018.[160]
  • Highest average monthly temperature: 42.3 °C (108.1 °F), in Death Valley, California, for the month of July 2018.[161][162]

HumidityEdit

  • Highest dew point temperature: A dew point of 35 °C (95 °F) was observed at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, at 3:00 p.m. on 8 July 2003.[163]

ColdestEdit

Lowest temperatures recordedEdit

By continentEdit

AfricaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Algeria −13.8 °C (7.2 °F) Mécheria 28 January 2005[17]
  Burkina Faso 5 °C (41 °F) Markoye January 1975[19]
  Botswana −15.0 °C (5.0 °F) Tsabong ?[164]
  Eswatini (Swaziland) −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) Big Bend ?[22]
  Ghana 11.0 °C (51.8 °F) Kumasi, Tafo ?[165]
  Guinea 2.5 °C (36.5 °F) Bareing 2 January 1982[166]
  Lesotho −21.0 °C (−5.8 °F) ? ?[167]
  Morocco (then the French protectorate in Morocco) −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) Ifrane 11 February 1935[168]
  Niger −2.4 °C (27.7 °F) Bilma 13 January 1995[24]
  Réunion −5.0 °C (23.0 °F) Gite de Bellecome 10 September 1975[25]
  South Africa −20.1 °C (−4.2 °F) Buffelsfontein, near Molteno, Eastern Cape 23 August 2013[169]
  Sudan −1.0 °C (30.2 °F) Zalingei December 1961
January 1962[170]

AntarcticaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Antarctica −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) Vostok Station 21 July 1983[137][153][171][notes 15]
Dome A −82.5 °C (−116.5 °F) Dome A July 2005[172]
South Pole −82.8 °C (−117.0 °F) Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station 23 June 1982[173]

AsiaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Afghanistan −52.2 °C (−62.0 °F) Shahrak January 1964[34]
  Armenia (then the   Armenian SSR,   Soviet Union) −42.0 °C (−43.6 °F) Paghakn and Ashocq 1961[35]
  Azerbaijan −33.0 °C (−27.4 °F) Julfa and Ordubad ?[37]
  Bangladesh 2.6 °C (36.7 °F) Tetulia Upazila, Panchagarh 8 January 2018[174]
  China −58 °C (−72 °F) Genhe, Inner Mongolia 31 December 2009[175]
  Hong Kong −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) Tai Mo Shan 24 January 2016[176]
  India (then   Jammu and Kashmir,   British Raj) −33.9 °C (−29.0 °F) Dras, Jammu and Kashmir 22 March 1911[177]
  Iran −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) Saqqez 1972[178]
  Israel −14.2 °C (6.4 °F) Merom Golan 10 January 2015[179]
  Japan −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Asahikawa, Hokkaidō 25 January 1902[49]
  Jordan −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Shoubak 15 December 2013[50]
  Kazakhstan −57.0 °C (−70.6 °F) Atbasar ?[51]
  Kuwait −4.8 °C (23.4 °F) Salmy 3 January 2009[180]
  Kyrgyzstan −53.6 °C (−64.5 °F) Fergana Valley ?[53]
  Malaysia 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) Cameron Highlands 1 February 1978[54]
  Maldives 17.2 °C (63.0 °F) Hulhulé Island, located at Ibrahim Nasir International Airport 11 April 1978[181]
  Mongolia −55.3 °C (−67.5 °F) Züüngovi, Uvs Province 31 December 1976[55][182]
  Myanmar −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) Hakha 30 December 1990[183]
    Nepal −26.0 °C (−14.8 °F) Thakmarpha, Mustang district ?[58]
  North Korea (then Japanese Korea) −43.6 °C (−46.5 °F) Chunggangjin 12 January 1933[184]
  Pakistan −24 °C (−11 °F) Skardu 7 January 1995[185]
  Philippines 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) Baguio 18 January 1961[61][186] [notes 16]
  Qatar 1.5 °C (34.7 °F) Abu Samra 5 February 2017[21]
  Russia (Siberia) (first in the   Russian Empire, then in the   Russian SFSR,   Soviet Union) −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) Verkhoyansk and
Oymyakon, both in Sakha Republic
7 February 1892
6 February 1933
[188]
  Saudi Arabia −12.0 °C (10.4 °F) Turaif ?[189]
  Singapore 19.0 °C (66.2 °F) Paya Lebar 14 February 1989[64]
  South Korea −32.6 °C (−26.7 °F) Yangpyeong 5 January 1981[190]
  Syria −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) Idlib January 1951[191]
  Taiwan −18.4 °C (−1.1 °F) Yushan 31 January 1970[192]
  Thailand −1.4 °C (29.5 °F) Sakon Nakhon 2 January 1974[193]
  Turkey −46.4 °C (−51.5 °F) Çaldıran, Van Province 9 January 1990[69]
  Turkmenistan −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) Daşoguz Region ?[70]
  United Arab Emirates −5.4 °C (22.3 °F) Jebel Jais 3 February 2017[21]
  Vietnam (then DR Vietnam) −6.1 °C (21.0 °F) Sa Pa 4 January 1974[194]

EuropeEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Albania −25.8 °C (−14.4 °F) ? ?[195]
  Austria −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) Grünloch doline 19 February 1932[196]
  Belarus (then the   Byelorussian SSR,   Soviet Union) −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Slavnom, Vitsebsk Voblast 17 January 1940[197]
  Belgium −30.1 °C (−22.2 °F) Valley of the Lesse in Rochefort 20 January 1940[198]
  Bosnia and Herzegovina (then the   SR Bosnia and Herzegovina,   SFR Yugoslavia) −42.5 °C (−44.5 °F) Igman in Sarajevo Canton 24 January 1963[199]
  Bulgaria −38.3 °C (−36.9 °F) Tran 25 January 1947[80]
  Croatia −34.6 °C (−30.3 °F) Gračac 13 January 2003[200][notes 17]
  Cyprus −16 °C (3 °F) ? ?[201]
  Czech Republic (then part of   Czechoslovakia) −42.2 °C (−44.0 °F) Litvínovice 11 February 1929[82]
  Denmark −31.2 °C (−24.2 °F) Thisted Municipality, North Denmark Region 8 January 1982[83]
  Estonia −43.5 °C (−46.3 °F) Jõgeva, Jõgeva County 17 January 1940[84]
  Finland −51.5 °C (−60.7 °F) Pokka, Kittilä, Lapland 28 January 1999[85]
  France −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Mouthe, Doubs 17 January 1985[202]
  Germany −45.9 °C (−50.6 °F) Funtensee, Berchtesgadener Land, Bavaria 24 December 2001[203]
  Greece −27.8 °C (−18.0 °F) Ptolemaida 27 January 1963[87]
  Hungary −35 °C (−31 °F) Görömbölytapolca 16 February 1940[89]
  Iceland (then   Danish Iceland) −37.9 °C (−36.2 °F) Grímsstaðir 21 January 1918[90]
  Ireland (then part of the   United Kingdom) −19.1 °C (−2.4 °F) Markree Castle, County Sligo 16 January 1881[92]
  Italy −49.6 °C (−57.3 °F) Busa Fradusta, Pale di San Martino 10 February 2013[204]
  Latvia (then the   Latvian SSR,   Soviet Union) −43.2 °C (−45.8 °F) Daugavpils 8 February 1956[95]
  Lithuania (then the   Lithuanian SSR,   Soviet Union) −42.9 °C (−45.2 °F) Utena, Utena County 1 February 1956[96]
  Malta 1.4 °C (34.5 °F) Malta International Airport 29 January 1981[98][99]
  Moldova −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) Brătușeni, Edineț District 20 January 1963[100]
  Netherlands (then Nazi-occupied Netherlands) −27.4 °C (−17.3 °F) Winterswijk 27 January 1942[205]
  North Macedonia (then the   SR Macedonia,   SFR Yugoslavia) −31.5 °C (−24.7 °F) Berovo, Berovo Municipality 27 January 1954[206]
  Norway (then part of   Sweden–Norway) −51.4 °C (−60.5 °F) Karasjok, Finnmark 1 January 1886[105]
  Poland (then   Soviet-occupied Poland) −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Siedlce, Masovian Voivodeship 11 January 1940[107]
  Portugal −16.0 °C (3.2 °F) Penhas da Saúde, Covilhã Municipality
Miranda do Douro
16 January 1945 and 5 February 1954[207]
  Romania −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F) Bod, Braşov County 25 January 1942[208]
  European Russia (then the   Russian SFSR,   Soviet Union) −58.1 °C (−72.6 °F) Ust' Shchugor, Komi Republic 31 December 1978[88]
  Serbia −39.8 °C (−39.6 °F) Karajukica Bunari, Zlatibor District 26 January 2006[209]
  Slovakia (then   Czechoslovakia) −41.0 °C (−41.8 °F) Vígľaš-Pstruša 11 February 1929[112]
  Slovenia (then   SR Slovenia,   SFR Yugoslavia) −34.5 °C (−30.1 °F) Babno Polje 15 February 1956
16 February 1956
13 January 1968[notes 18][210]
  Spain −30 °C (−22 °F) Calamocha Airport, Teruel Province 17 December 1963[211]
  Sweden −52.6 °C (−62.7 °F) Vuoggatjålme, Lappland 2 February 1966[115]
   Switzerland −41.8 °C (−43.2 °F) La Brévine 12 January 1987[116]
  Ukraine (then the   Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic,   Soviet Union) −41.9 °C (−43.4 °F) Luhansk 8 January 1935[117][212]
  United Kingdom −27.2 °C (−17.0 °F) Braemar, Aberdeenshire
Altnaharra, Sutherland
11 February 1895
10 January 1982
30 December 1995[119]

North AmericaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Antigua and Barbuda 16.1 °C (61.0 °F) V. C. Bird International Airport, Antigua 31 December 1974 and 28 January 1976[121][122]
  Canada −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F) Snag, Yukon 3 February 1947[153][213]
  Cayman Islands 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Owen Roberts International Airport, Grand Cayman ?[214]
  Cuba 0.6 °C (33.1 °F) Bainoa, Mayabeque Province 18 February 1996[125][215]
  Dominican Republic −7.0 °C (19.4 °F) Valle Nuevo, La Vega Province 17 January 1983[216]
  Greenland −66.1 °C (−87.0 °F) North Ice 9 January 1954[217]
  Guatemala −11.5 °C (11.3 °F) Olintepeque, Quetzaltenango Department ?[130]
  Martinique 14.1 °C (57.4 °F) Le Lamentin 25 December 1964[131]
  Panama 2.0 °C (35.6 °F) Bajo Grande, Chiriquí Province 20 February 1995[134]
  Puerto Rico 4.4 °C (40 °F) Aibonito
San Sebastian
9 March 1911
24 January 1966[135]
  US Virgin Islands 10.6 °C (51 °F) Anna's Hope, Saint Croix 31 January 1954[135]
  United States
(  Alaska)
−62.2 °C (−80 °F) Prospect Creek, Alaska 23 January 1971[218]
  United States
(Mainland)
−56.7 °C (−70 °F) Rogers Pass, Montana 20 January 1954[219]

South AmericaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Argentina −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) Sarmiento, Chubut Province 1 June 1907[220][notes 19]
  Brazil −14.0 °C (6.8 °F) Caçador, Santa Catarina 11 June 1952[221][222]
  Chile −37 °C (−34.6 °F) Coyhaique Alto, Aysen Region 21 June 2002[223]
  French Guiana 16.9 °C (62.4 °F) Maripasoula 23 January 1964[224]
  Paraguay −7.5 °C (18.5 °F) Pratts Gill, Boquerón Department 13 July 2000[225]
  Peru −25.2 °C (−13.4 °F) Mazo Cruz, Puno Region 30 June 1966[226]
  Uruguay −11.0 °C (12.2 °F) Melo, Cerro Largo Department 14 June 1967[151][152]

OceaniaEdit

Country/Region Temperature Town/Location Date
  Australia −23.0 °C (−9.4 °F) Charlotte Pass, New South Wales 29 June 1994[138]
  United States
(  Hawaii)
−11.1 °C (12.0 °F) Mauna Kea, Hawaii 17 May 1979[227]
  New Zealand −25.6 °C (−14.1 °F) Ranfurly, Central Otago 18 July 1903[228]
  Samoa 11.1 °C (52.0 °F) Afiamalu 29 September 1971[142]

Other low-temperature recordsEdit

  • Fastest temperature drop: 27.2 °C (49 °F) in 5 minutes; Rapid City, South Dakota, 10 January 1911.[153]
  • Coldest summer (month of July in the Northern Hemisphere): −33 °C (−27.4 °F) degrees; Summit Camp, Greenland on 4 July 2017.[229]

PrecipitationEdit

RainEdit

SnowEdit

  • Most in a 24-hour period: 2.56 meters (100.8 inches) in Capracotta, Italy on 5 March 2015.[233]
  • Most in one calendar month: 9.91 meters (390 inches) of snow fell in Tamarack, California in January 1911, leading to a snow depth in March of 11.46 meters (451 inches) (greatest measured in North America).[234][235]
  • Most in one season (1 July – 30 June): 29.0 meters, (95 ft); Mount Baker, Washington, United States, 1998 through 1999.[234]
  • Most in one-year period: 31.5 meters (102 ft); Mount Rainier, Washington, United States, 19 February 1971 to 18 February 1972.[153]
  • Deepest snowfall recorded: 11.82 meters (38.8 ft) on Mt. Ibuki, Japan on 14 February 1927.[236]

Wind SpeedsEdit

TornadoesEdit

 
The Tri-State Tornado holds many records, including the longest known tornado track, fastest speed for a significant tornado, and the deadliest tornado outside of Bangladesh.

Deadliest in historyEdit

OutbreaksEdit

  • Largest and most severe: The 2011 Super Outbreak: 207 confirmed tornadoes occurred in a span of 24 hours, with a total of 337 occurring throughout the duration of the outbreak. They affected six US states, and included 11 rated EF4 and 4 rated EF5.[244]

Tropical cyclonesEdit

Most intense (by minimum surface air pressure)Edit

Most precipitationEdit

  • Most precipitation from a single tropical storm: 6,433 mm (253.3 in); Commerson, Réunion, during Cyclone Hyacinthe in January 1980.

Other severe weatherEdit

 
A picture of the Aurora, Nebraska hailstone, measured at 47.6 cm (18.75 in) in circumference

HailEdit

LightningEdit

Ultraviolet indexEdit

  • Highest ultraviolet index measured: On 29 December 2003, a UV index of 43.3 was detected at Chile/Bolivia's Licancabur volcano. A light-skinned individual in such conditions may experience moderate sunburn in as little as 4 minutes.[255]

Other categoriesEdit

  • Highest air pressure ever recorded [above 750 meters (2,461 feet)]: 1,084.8 hPa (32.03 inHg); Tosontsengel, Khövsgöl Province, Mongolia, 19 December 2001.[256] This is the equivalent sea-level pressure; Tosontsengel is located at 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) above sea level. The highest adjusted-to-sea-level barometric pressure ever recorded (below 750 meters) was at Agata, Evenhiyskiy, Russia (66°53’N, 93°28’E, elevation: 261 m (856.3 ft)) on 31 December 1968 of 1,083.3 hectopascals (hPa) (31.99 inHg).[257] The discrimination is due to the problematic assumptions (assuming a standard lapse rate) associated with reduction of sea level from high elevations.[256][257]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to Christopher Burt, Africa's hottest reliably measured temperature is 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Semara, Western Sahara on 13 July 1961.[15] This value was surpassed on 5 July 2018 when 51.3 °C (124.3 °F) was recorded at Ouargla, Algeria on 5 July 2018.[16]
  2. ^ A reading of 50.1 °C (122.2 °F) in Vioolsdrif on 28 November 2019 was declared invalid by the South African Weather Service.[27]
  3. ^ The temperature has been reported as 54 °C (129 °F), however weather historian Christopher Burt argues that the thermograph trace was misread.[48]
  4. ^ According to the World Meteorological Organization, the reported temperature is the highest recorded in Asia.[52]
  5. ^ a b c d e Part of the July 2019 European heat wave
  6. ^ A temperature of 48.7 °C (119.7 °F) has also been measured on the same day in Tatoi, however it is not considered to be the official temperature record for Greece.[87]
  7. ^ A disputed record temperature of 48.5 °C (119.3 °F) was measured on 10 August 1999 in Catenanuova, Sicily.[93]
  8. ^ A disputed record temperature of 42.9 °C (109.2 °F) was measured on 24 July 2019 in Deelen, Gelderland.[102]
  9. ^ Record measured on German territory at that time: Proskau, Landkreis Oppeln, Oberschlesien (now Prószków, Opole Voivodeship). The record in Poland proper at that time was attained on the same day by the village of Zbiersk at 40.0 °C.[106]
  10. ^ On 16 January 1889, a temperature of 53 °C (128 °F) was recorded at Cloncurry, Queensland. It was measured with a non-standard thermometer, so it is unknown if this reading was valid or not.[137] The reading is not recognised by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology.[138]
  11. ^ According to Christopher Burt, South America's hottest reliably measured temperature is 47.3 °C (117.1 °F) at Campo Gallo, Argentina on 16 October 1936.[15]
  12. ^ Temperature reached on multiple occasions; this is the most recent.
  13. ^ This record is disputed because of the forest fires that occurred around the town of Quillón. It is highly probable those fires have influenced this record.
  14. ^ The former world record was 43.3 °C (110 °F) set on 5 July 1918, in Death Valley, California.[159]
  15. ^ This temperature is considered the lowest ever officially recorded in Antarctica and in the World, as it was perceived by ground-positioned thermometers in 1983. Satellite analyses made on 10 August 2010 pointed to a temperature of −93.2 °C (−135.8 °F) near Dome F in Queen Maud Land, but this record is not officially listed because it was measured by remote sensing methods that are not totally consistent, unlike the 1983 temperature. See Lowest temperature recorded on Earth for details.
  16. ^ It is reported by local news outlet that temperatures Mount Pulag which is 2,926 meters above sea level plunges to as low as −2.0 °C (28.4 °F) although it was not verifiable.[187]
  17. ^ A reading of −35.5 °C (−31.9 °F) in Čakovec on 3 February 1929 and −36.0 °C (−32.8 °F) in Gospić were not measured under standard conditions and are not considered to be official record lows in Croatia.[200]
  18. ^ The lowest unofficially measured temperature in Slovenia was recorded at Komna on 9 January 2009 and reached −49 °C (−56 °F).
  19. ^ the Servicio Meteorologico Nacional, Argentina's national meteorological organization, reports a record low of −39 °C (−38 °F) in a high mountain valley of Río de los Patos, but this is not recognized by the World Meteorological Organization.[15]

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