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(Directly struck membranophone)
The drumhead was usually made from animal skin like goats, while the actual frame was made of wood
- Lane, Edward William (1860) . An Account of the Manners and Customs of Modern Egyptians (5th ed.). London: John Murray Publishers. p. 366. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Campbell, Kay Hardy (2007). "Saudi Folk Music: Alive and Well". Saudi Aramco World. Vol. 58 no. 2. pp. 2–13.