A tantrum, temper tantrum, meltdown, fit or hissy fit is an emotional outburst, usually associated with those in emotional distress, that is typically characterized by stubbornness, crying, screaming, violence, defiance,[1] angry ranting, a resistance to attempts at pacification, and, in some cases, hitting and other physically violent behavior. Physical control may be lost; the person may be unable to remain still; and even if the "goal" of the person is met, they may not be calmed. Throwing a temper tantrum can lead to a child being placed in timeout, being grounded, or even getting detention or being suspended from school for older school age children.[2][3][4][5][6][7] A tantrum may be expressed in a tirade: a protracted, angry speech.[2][3][8]

"Christina Rossetti in a Tantrum" by her brother, Dante Gabriel Rossetti

In early childhoodEdit

Tantrums are one of the most common forms of problematic behavior in young children but tend to decrease in frequency and intensity as the child grows older.[9] For a toddler, tantrums can be considered as normal, and even as gauges of developing strength of character.[10][11][12]

Child having a tantrum

While tantrums are sometimes seen as a predictor of future anti-social behaviour,[13] in another sense they are simply an age-appropriate sign of excessive frustration,[14] and will diminish over time given a calm and consistent handling.[15][16][17] Parental containment where a child cannot contain themself—rather than what the child is ostensibly demanding—may be what is really required.[18]

Selma Fraiberg warned against "too much pressure or forceful methods of control from the outside" in child-rearing: "if we turn every instance of pants changing, treasure hunting, napping, puddle wading and garbage distribution into a governmental crisis we can easily bring on fierce defiance, tantrums, and all the fireworks of revolt in the nursery".[19]

Intellectual and developmental disordersEdit

Some people who have developmental disorders such as autism, Asperger syndrome,[20][21] ADHD, and intellectual disability[22] could be more vulnerable to tantrums than others, although anyone experiencing brain damage (temporary or permanent) can suffer from tantrums.[23] Anyone may be prone to tantrums once in a while, regardless of gender or age.[24][25] However, a meltdown due to sensory overload (which even neurotypical children can experience) is not the same as a temper tantrum.[26]


A Welsh Government video explaining the difference between tantrums and meltdowns.

Freud considered that the Wolf Man's development of temper tantrums was connected with his seduction by his sister: he became "discontented, irritable and violent, took offence on every possible occasion, and then flew into a rage and screamed like a savage".[27] Freud linked the tantrums to an unconscious need for punishment driven by feelings of guilt[28]—something which he thought could be generalised to many other cases of childhood tantrums.[29]

Heinz Kohut contended that tantrums were narcissistic rages,[30] caused by the thwarting of the infant's grandiose-exhibitionist core. The blow to the inflated self-image, when a child's wishes are (however justifiably) refused, creates fury because it strikes at the feeling of omnipotence.[31]

Jealousy over the birth of a sibling, and resulting aggression, may also provoke negativistic tantrums, as the effort at controlling the feelings overloads the child's system of self-regulation.[32][33]

In later lifeEdit

Writer William Makepeace Thackeray claimed that in later life "you may tell a tantrum as far as you can see one, by the distressed and dissatisfied expression of its countenance—'Tantrumical', if we may term it so".[34]

Heinz Kohut contended that "the infant's core is likely to contain a self-centred, grandiose-exhibitionist part", and that "tantrums at being frustrated thus represent narcissistic rages"[30] at the blow to the inflated self-image. With "a child confronted with some refusal ... regardless of its justifications, the refusal automatically provokes fury, since it offends his sense of omnipotence".[31]

The willingness of the celebrity to throw tantrums whenever thwarted to the least degree[35] is a kind of acquired situational narcissism[36] or tantrumical behavior.

If tantrums are shown by older people, they might often be signs of immaturity or a mental disability; and often autistic or ADHD meltdowns are incorrectly labelled tantrums. It can also occur in neurotypical people under extreme stress. [37]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ GOMBERT, A. J. (1825). "The French Drama ... with Notes Critical and Explanatory, by A. G. Volume 2 of The French Drama ... with Notes Critical and Explanatory, by A. G". The French Drama... The British Library. 2: 47.
  2. ^ a b Penelope Leach. "What is a tantrum?". BabyCentre. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
  3. ^ a b "Temper Tantrums". KidsHealth. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
  4. ^ Karisa Ding (July 26, 2017). "Tantrums". BabyCenter. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
  5. ^ Jan Hunt. "When a Child Has a Tantrum". The Natural Child Project. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
  6. ^ Mullen, J.K. (1983). "Understanding and managing the temper tantrum". Child Care Quarterly. 12 (1): 59–70. doi:10.1007/BF01258080. S2CID 144110786.
  7. ^ Geelerd, E.R. (1945). "Observations on temper tantrums in children". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 15 (2): 238–246. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1945.tb04937.x.
  8. ^ Daniels, Elizabeth; Mandleco, Barbara; Luthy, Karlen E. (2012). "Assessment, management, and prevention of childhood temper tantrums". Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 24 (10): 569–573. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2012.00755.x. PMID 23006014.
  9. ^ Banham Bridges, Katharine M. (1932). "Emotional Development in Early Infancy". Child Development. 3 (4): 324–341. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1932.tb05842.x. JSTOR 1125359.
  10. ^ Robin Skynner; John Cleese (1993). Families and how to survive them. p. 177.
  11. ^ Isaacs, S. (1940). "Temper tantrums in early childhood in their relation to internal objects". The International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 21: 280–293.
  12. ^ Solter, A. (1992). "Understanding Tears and Tantrums". Young Children. 47 (4): 64–68. JSTOR 42725308.
  13. ^ Potegal, Michael; Davidson, Richard J. (June 2003). "Temper Tantrums in Young Children". Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 24 (3): 140–147. doi:10.1097/00004703-200306000-00002. PMID 12806225. S2CID 23682833.
  14. ^ Green, J.A.; Whitney, P.G.; Potegal, M. (2011). "Screaming, yelling, whining, and crying: Categorical and intensity differences in vocal expressions of anger and sadness in children's tantrums". Emotion. 11 (5): 1124–1133. doi:10.1037/a0024173. PMC 3192404. PMID 21707157.
  15. ^ Roy Benaroch (2008). Solving Health and Behavioral Problems from Birth Through Preschool. p. 157.
  16. ^ Kopp, C.B. (1989). "Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view". Developmental Psychology. 25 (3): 343–354. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.25.3.343.
  17. ^ Levine, Linda (1995). "Young Children's Understanding of the Causes of Anger and Sadness". Child Development. 66 (3): 967–709. doi:10.2307/1131944. JSTOR 1131944.
  18. ^ Patrick Casement (1990). Further Learning from the Patient. p. 113–4.
  19. ^ Selma H. Fraiberg (1987). The Magic Years. p. 65.
  20. ^ Margolies, P.J. (1977). "Behavioral approaches to the treatment of early infantile autism: A review". Psychological Bulletin. 84 (2): 249–264. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.84.2.249. PMID 840962.
  21. ^ Lord, C. (1993). "Early Social Development in Autism". In Edsopler, E.; Bourgondien, M. Van; Bristol, M. (eds.). Preschool Issues in Autism. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 61–94.
  22. ^ Luiselli, J.; Murbach, L. (2002). "Providing Instruction from Novel Staff as an Antecedent Intervention for Child Tantrum Behavior in a Public School Classroom". Education and Treatment of Children. 25 (3): 356–365. JSTOR 42899711.
  23. ^ Lancioni, G. E.; Smeets, P. M.; Ceccarani, P. S.; Capodaglio, L.; Campanari, G. (1984). "Effects of gross motor activities on the severe self-injurious tantrums of multihandicapped individuals". Applied Research in Mental Retardation. 5 (4): 471–482. doi:10.1016/S0270-3092(84)80039-9. PMID 6240965.
  24. ^ Sandra Ketcham. "Temper Tantrums and Autism". LoveToKnow. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  25. ^ Osterman, Karin; Bjorkqvist, Kaj (April 1, 2010). "A Cross-Sectional Study of Onset, Cessation, Frequency, and Duration of Children's Temper Tantrums in a Nonclinical Sample". Psychological Reports. 106 (2): 448–454. doi:10.2466/pr0.106.2.448-454. PMID 20524545. S2CID 43291154.
  26. ^ Bennie, Maureen (2 February 2016). "Tantrum vs Autistic Meltdown: What Is The Difference?". Autism Awareness. Autism Awareness Centre Inc. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  27. ^ Sigmund Freud. Case Histories II (PFL 9). p. 242.
  28. ^ Sigmund Freud. Case Histories II (PFL 9). p. 257.
  29. ^ Sigmund Freud. Case Histories II (PFL 9). pp. 242 & 257–8.
  30. ^ a b H. Goldenberg; I. Goldenberg (2007). Family Therapy. p. 172.
  31. ^ a b Edmund Bergler in J. Halliday/P. Fuller eds., The Psychology of Gambling (London 1974) p. 182
  32. ^ Selma H. Fraiberg (1987). The Magic Years. p. 152.
  33. ^ Dennis, Tracy A. (2006). "Emotional self-regulation in preschoolers: The interplay approach reactivity, and control capacities". Developmental Psychology. 42 (1): 84–97. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.42.1.84. PMID 16420120. S2CID 14692506.
  34. ^ William Makepeace Thackeray (1848). The Irish Sketch Book. p. 138.
  35. ^ Cooper Lawrence, The Cult of Celebrity (2009) p. 72
  36. ^ Simon Crompton, All about Me (London 2007) p. 176
  37. ^ "North Jersey". North Jersey. Retrieved 25 March 2018.

External linksEdit

  •   The dictionary definition of tantrum at Wiktionary