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Tannerite is a brand of binary explosive targets used for firearms practice and sold in kit form.[1][2] The targets comprise a combination of oxidizers and a fuel – primarily aluminum powder – that is supplied as two separate components that are mixed by the user. The combination is relatively stable when subjected to forces less severe than a high-velocity bullet impact. A hammer blow, being dropped, or impact from a low-velocity bullet or shotgun blast will not initiate a reaction. It is also designed to be non-flammable[3] (the reaction cannot be triggered by a burning fuse or electricity), although its explosion can cause other flammable material to ignite.

Because it is sold as two separate components, it can be transported and sold in many places without the legal restrictions that would otherwise apply to explosives. The term tannerite is often used to refer to the mixture itself, and other reactive targets and combination explosives are often generically referred to as tannerite.[4][2]

Contents

UsesEdit

Tannerite brand targets explode when shot by a high-velocity bullet. Low-velocity bullets and shotgun ammunition will not initiate a reaction.[1]

The explosive reaction, once initiated, occurs at a very high velocity, producing a large vapor cloud and a loud report. It is marketed as a target designation that is useful for long-range target practice: the shooter does not need to walk down-range to see if the target has been hit, as the target will react and serve as a highly visible indicator.

Binary explosives like Tannerite are also used in some business applications, including commercial blasting, product testing, and special effects.[5]

For safety reasons, Tannerite Sports recommends using no more than 1 pound (0.45 kg) of the mixed composition at once, and will sell its largest targets with a size of 2 pounds (0.91 kg) to professionals only.[6]

Target composition and saleEdit

Tannerite targets are sold in pre-sized quantities. The package includes two containers. An oxidizer composition is contained within one of the containers and a catalyst composition is contained within the other.

The product, developed by Daniel Jeremy Tanner, and initially formulated in 1996,[3] consists of two components: a fuel mixed with a catalyst or sensitizer, and a bulk material or oxidizer. The fuel/catalyst mixture is 90% 600-mesh dark flake aluminum powder, combined with the catalyst that is a mixture of 5% 325-mesh titanium sponge and 5% 200-mesh zirconium hydride[1] (with another patent document[7] listing 5% zirconium hydroxide). The oxidizer is a mixture of 85% 200-mesh ammonium nitrate and 15% ammonium perchlorate.[1] The patents on these formulations were applied for on August 20, 2001.[1][7]

United States lawEdit

In the United States, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives advises: "Persons manufacturing explosives for their own personal, non-business use only (e.g., personal target practice) are not required to have a Federal explosives license or permit."[5] However, "persons falling into certain categories are prohibited from possessing explosive materials".[5] Those prohibited from possessing explosives include most non-citizens, unlawful drug users and addicts, those convicted or indicted for serious crimes, fugitives, and those who have been officially declared mentally defective or have been committed to a mental institution.[5] Restrictions imposed at the state and local level also apply.[3][5] In California in particular, a permit may be required to use or possess the product.[6]

Various regulations also govern the storage of unmixed explosives. As oxidizers and combustibles, the unmixed components still have some shipping restrictions in the United States.[8][9]

Notable incidentsEdit

A Minnesota man was fined $2,583 and sentenced to three years' probation[10] on charges of detonating an explosive device and unlawful possession of components for explosives after he detonated 100 lb (45 kg) of Tannerite inside the bed of a dump truck by shooting it with a rifle chambered in .50 BMG from 300 yards (270 m) away on January 14, 2008, in Red Wing, Minnesota. The man was on probation when he mixed and shot the Tannerite and was not allowed to possess firearms or explosives.[11][12]

A 20-year-old man in Busti, New York, shot 18 lb (8.2 kg) of Tannerite on January 13, 2013, that sent a particularly "loud boom" through much of southern Chautauqua County, New York, and extending as far south as Pennsylvania, at least 3 miles away. Multiple other sounds of explosions were also reported in the incident. The explosive noise caused numerous phone calls to the Chautauqua County Sheriff's Office, the New York State Police, and other law enforcement in the area.[13]

The September 2016 New York and New Jersey bombings involved improvised explosive devices that contained "a compound similar to a commercial explosive known as Tannerite",[14] set off by a small charge of unstable hexamethylene triperoxide diamine, which served as a detonator[14][15] for the highly stable ammonal-type secondary charge.

On April 23, 2017, Dennis Dickey, an off-duty U.S. Border Patrol agent, shot a Tannerite target in a gender reveal celebration on state trust land south of Tucson, Arizona, which accidentally ignited the nearby dry brush and started a 46,000-acre (19,000 ha) fire known as the Sawmill Fire. At the time, winds were gusting up to 40 miles (64 km) per hour and the National Weather Service had issued a fire watch in the area. By the time the wildfire was mostly contained one week later, it had jumped over the Santa Rita Mountains and crossed Arizona Highway 83, spreading into the historic Empire Ranch and the surrounding 42,000-acre (17,000 ha) Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. The estimated damage caused by the blaze was $8.19 million.[16] Dickey pleaded guilty in September 2018 to a misdemeanor violation of U.S. Forest Service regulations and was sentenced to five years' probation. He also was ordered to pay restitution, with an initial payment of $100,000 (taken from his retirement fund) and monthly payments of $500 per month thereafter for 20 years unless his income changes significantly.[17] The payments will total $220,000 over the 20 years, after which the case will return to a judge to make a decision about future restitution.[18] The eventual restitution payments could hypothetically be up to $8,188,069.[17][18]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Binary exploding target, package process and product, July 18, 2013, retrieved April 23, 2018
  2. ^ a b Lemonick, Sam (September 19, 2016). "The Science Of Tannerite, The Explosive Possibly Used In The Chelsea Bombs". Forbes. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c "About Tannerite Sports, LLC". Tannerite Sports, LLC (official website). Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  4. ^ Ahlers, Mike M.; Marsh, Rene (September 6, 2013). "Exploding targets: shooting aid or a 'bomb kit for dummies?'". CNN. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Binary Explosives". U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  6. ^ a b "FAQ's: Got Questions?". Tannerite Sports, LLC (official website). Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  7. ^ a b US patent 20030033952 (image)
  8. ^ "344 Flammable Solids (Hazard Class 4)". U.S. Postal Service Postal Explorer.
  9. ^ "345 Oxidizing Substances, Organic Peroxides (Hazard Class 5)". U.S. Postal Service Postal Explorer.
  10. ^ "Welch man gets probation for explosion". Rochester Post-Bulletin. October 10, 2009.
  11. ^ "Blast near Red Wing brings felony charges" Hastings Star Gazette January 16, 2008
  12. ^ Barringer, Glen (January 15, 2008). "State of Minnesota Criminal Complaint" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2014. Retrieved March 17, 2009.
  13. ^ Eric Tichy, "Boom Caused By Shooting Explosives; Ban Considered In County" Post Journal January 15, 2013.
  14. ^ a b Ahmad Khan Rahami Is Arrested in Manhattan and New Jersey Bombings - The New York Times
  15. ^ Greenemeier, Larry (September 19, 2016). "Chemicals Could Be a Key in Investigating the New York and New Jersey Bombings". Scientific American. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  16. ^ Noori Farzan, Antonia (October 1, 2018). "Exploding target pegged as trigger for 46,000-acre Sawmill Fire". Washington Post. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  17. ^ a b Diaz, Andrea (November 28, 2018). "Officials release video from gender reveal party that ignited a 47,000-acre wildfire". CNN. Retrieved November 28, 2018.
  18. ^ a b Smith, Kim (September 29, 2018). "Updated: BP agent on hook for $8.2 million in Sawmill Fire". Green Valley News. Retrieved November 30, 2018.