Tamralipta, Tamolika, Tamralipti, Tamoluk
|Elevation||7 m (23 ft)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||WB 29-xxxx,WB 30-xxxx|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Tamluk|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Tamluk, Moyna, Nandakumar|
Tamluk (//) (Bengali: তমলুক) is a town in India. It is the district headquarters of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. Though there is some controversy, scholars have generally agreed that present day Tamluk is the site of the ancient city variously known as Tamralipta or Tamralipti. The present town is located on the banks of the Rupnarayan River close to the Bay of Bengal.
At the 2001 census of India, Tamluk had a population of 45,826. Males constituted 52% of the population and females 48%. Tamluk had an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; male literacy was 83%, and female literacy was 72%. 11% of the population was under 6 years of age.
This ancient kingdom and port city was bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the south, Rupnarayan River in the east and Subarnarekha River in the west. The Rupnarayana is the joint flow of the rivers Dwarakeswar and Silai. The Bay of Bengal and these great rivers with their numerous branches created a prosperous and easy water navigational system fostering commerce, culture and early contacts with the people outside the region. At the same time, these rivers helped to develop the agriculture in this region.
Archaeological remains show continuous settlement from about the 3rd century BC. It was known as Tramralipta (in the Puranas and the Mahabharata), Tamralipta (in the Mahabharata), Tamalika (in historical documents), Tamalitti (in foreigners' descriptions), or Tamoluk (in the British Raj). It was a seaport, now buried under river silt. For this reason, Tamluk has many ponds and lakes remaining today.
In the Mahabharata (Bhishma Parba/Nabam Adhyay), while describing the names of the holiest rivers and kingdoms of India, Sanjay took the name of "Tramralipta" to Dhritarashtra.
Tamluk was also known as Bhivas, in religious texts, and Madhya Desh, as the Middle State of Utkal/Kalinga and Banga.
According to Jain sources, Tamralipti was the capital of the kingdom of Venga and was long known as a port.
The people of Tamluk are primarily Bengali speaking. There are some lingering effects of successive migrations and invasions from both the west, east, and especially from northern India . Its history shows the complex combination of indigenous, Muslim, Buddhist, Jain and Hindu cultures, through trade, travel, and migration.
Unlike other parts of Bengal, Tamluk was always well connected with the Gangetic plains. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that the culture of Aryavarta influenced life in early Tamluk. The worship of Bheema is a sign of the socio-religious acceptance of Aryan culture in this area. Even in the recent past, Tamluk was divided into many areas based on caste and occupation, such as Malakar Para (flower traders), Adhikary Para (Brahmins), Metia Para in Nimtala (transport business and timber merchants), Dey Para (gold traders), and Mathore Para (sweeper's colony).
As a seaport, Tamluk was once famous as a centre for trade.
Tamluk is mainly an agricultural area. About 60% of the land is under cultivation. Tamluk is one of the largest producers and exporters of paan (betel leaf). Fishing was an important occupation of the local residents.
Tamluk is well linked by road and rail. Tamluk is a major roadway junction with six bus-routes originating from it:
- Tamluk to Srirampur , Tangrakhali and Pursha ghat
- Tamluk to Mecheda, Kolaghat, and Kolkata
- Tamluk to Panskura, Kharagpur and Ghatal
- Tamluk to Haldia, Durgachowk
- Tamluk to Digha, Contai, and Egra
NH 116 and SH 4 passes through Tamluk.
Tamluk also has a railway junction.
There are many schools and colleges in Tamluk.
- Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya (Tamluk College) is one of the oldest colleges of this south-west region of West Bengal providing graduation courses.
There is no university but Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has a presence in the form of a Study Centre with Tarun Sangha Information & Documentation Centre (TASIDOC) as the host institution.
There is a district hospital in the town, named Tamluk District Hospital.
Landmarks and tourist placesEdit
- Rupnarayan river bank : The bank of river Rupnarayan is famous for picnic.
- Devi Barghobhima : Nearly 1150-year-old Temple of Kali named as Devi Bargobhima. This temple is a part of 51 Shakti Peethas. Puranas say that the small finger of left feet of Sati/Parvati fell here when Lord Vishnu cut the sacred Body of Goddess Sati into several pieces to make Lord Shiva quite.
- Tamluk Rajbari :Located on the outskirts of town, the royal abode of the Mayura-dhwaja (Peackok) Dynasty mentioned in Mahabharata, etc. is a poular tourist destination.
- Rakhit Bati : It is another place to visit in Tamluk. In the beginning of 19th century it was famous as a secret centre of the then revolutionary party ‘Anusilan Samiti’ & ‘Gupta samiti. Famous historian late Shri Tailakyanath Rakhit rebuilt this building.
- Geonkhali : At geonkhali river Rupnarayan joins Hooghly river with a beautiful backdrop.
-  Archived 4 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purba Medinipur". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Tamluk PS". Purba Medinipur District Police. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya". Tamralipta Mahavidyalaya. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- Amin, Sonia (2012). "Hazra, Matangini". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Tamluk.|