Talhae of Silla

Talhae of Silla (5 BC [1]–80 AD, r. 57–80) was the fourth king of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He is commonly called Talhae Isageum, isageum being the royal title in early Silla. Also known by his personal name as Seok Tal-hae (昔脫解).

Talhae of Silla
Hangul
탈해 이사금, 토해 이사금
Hanja
脫解尼師今, 吐解尼師今
Revised RomanizationTalhae Isageum, Tohae Isageum
McCune–ReischauerT'arhae Isagŭm, T'ohae Isagŭm

FamilyEdit

Parents

  • Father: King Hamdalpa (함달파왕)
  • Mother: Princess Jignyeongug (직녀국 공주)

Consorts and their respective issue:

  • Queen Ahyo, of the Park clan (아효부인 박씨) , daughter of Namhae of Silla and Lady Unje, sister of Yuri Isageum
    • Son: Crown Prince Seok Gu-chu (태자 석구추)
      • Daughter-in-law: Queen Jijinaelye of the Kim clan (지진내례부인 김씨)
    • Adopted Son or Great-grandfather: Kim Alji

BackgroundEdit

He was a member of the Gyeongju Seok clan, one of the noble clans that shared the Silla throne during the early Common Era.

He was born in a small kingdom 1000 li northeast of Wa (Japan).[2] (The name of the kingdom is Dapana-guk 다파나국 多婆那國 "Dapana Country" according to Samguk Sagi, or Ryongseong-guk 룡성국 龍城國 "Dragon Castle/City Country," Jeongmyeong-guk 正明國 "Proper and Enlightened Country," Wanha-guk 琓夏國 "(A Kind of) Jade Summer Country," or Hwaha-guk 花厦國 "Flower Mansion Country"[3] according to Samguk Yusa.) His father, King Hamdalpa, was a king of this kingdom; his mother was a queen or princess of another kingdom, called Nyeo-guk 女国 "Woman Country."

According to the Samguk Sagi, when he was born as an egg, his father considered it an ill omen and had it boxed and floated at sea. The egg landed east of Gyerim (near today's Gyeongju, South Korea), where he was raised by an old woman as a fisherman. His family is said to have taken over a high official's house by claiming to be metalsmiths.

His birth year is unknown, but he was probably an old man when he assumed the throne, having married the daughter (or younger sister) of King Namhae of Silla in the year 8 AD. He was offered the throne as successor to the second king Namhae, but the older Yuri served as king first. Yuri in turn designated Tal-hae his successor.

Hogong is chief retainer who served for establishment of Silla. He also discovered Kim Alji who is the founder of Kim clan in Korea. He got involved to three royals who are founder of Silla. He has Japanese origin. Tal-hae also came over by ship. The location of his birth place Dapana Country is estimated as somewhere in the Japanese archipelago. It is precisely estimated some part in Sea of Japan side or Kyushu.[4] According to Kenichi Kamigaito, as it is a myth, other lines would be mixed, but Tal-hae of Silla was a King of Tanba province and he made jade there. He reached Silla by following a trade route. Even though excluding details of myth, it can be assumed that clan Seok had trade with Japan.[5]

On the other hand, there is a view that Ryongseong-guk (Korean룡성국; Hanja龍城國) listed in Samguk yusa has been regarded as a nation of Ainu, and Tal-hae has been regarded as a citizen of Ainu.[6]

LegendEdit

According to the book Garakguk-gi, Talhae came to Garakguk through the sea. He willingly went in to the palace and said to the king, "I'm here to take the position of King of Geumgwan-guk". So the king replied, "The purpose of heaven's appointment of me as king is to stabilize the country and make the people comfortable in the future. I cannot dare to give the throne to others in violation of heaven's orders, nor can I entrust our people to you". Then, Talhae said, "Then are you going to compete with magic(術法)?" So the king agreed. In a flash, when Talhae turned into a hawk, the king turned into an eagle. when Talhae turned into a sparrow, the king turned into a big hawk, and the speed was really fast. When Talhae returned to its original shape, the king also changed to its original shape. Accordingly, Talhae lies prone and surrenders. "When I compete with magic, the hawk does not die from the eagle, and the sparrow does not die from the big hawk because of the good heart that the saint(聖人) hates killing. It will be really difficult for me to fight for the throne with the king". Talhae said farewell to the king and went out to the port through the water route where ships from China were transported. The king hurriedly sent 500 naval vessels to chase them, fearing that he would stay and rebel, and all the naval forces returned because Talhae fled into the land of Gyerim. However, the articles published here are different from those of Silla.

ReignEdit

In 64, the rival Korean kingdom Baekje attacked several times. Silla battled the Gaya confederacy in 77.

According to legend, in 65 the infant Kim Alji, ancestor of the Gyeongju Kim family, was found by Hogong in a golden box in the royal Gyerim forest. Tal-hae named his kingdom Gyerim at this time (the name Silla was officially adopted much later).

A tomb believed to be Tal-hae's is located in northern Gyeongju City. The Gyeongju National Museum is constructed on the site where Tal-hae had a palace built.

In popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

^一 A li is roughly equivalent to 400–500 meters.
^二 Tanba no kuni was located 460 km northeast of Wakoku (Hanja: 倭国:zh:倭国, ja:倭国).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "三國史記/卷01 - 维基文库,自由的图书馆". zh.wikisource.org. Retrieved 2020-07-25.
  2. ^ 三國史記 卷第一 新羅本紀第一 脱解尼師今, 脱解本多婆那國所生也 其國在倭國東北一千里
  3. ^ 三國遺事 紀異 卷第一 脱解王, 我本龍城國人 亦云正明國 或云琓夏國 琓夏或作花厦國 龍城在倭東北一千里
  4. ^ Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies, vol. 8, Sungkyunkwan University, 2008, p. 107
  5. ^ Kamigaito, Kenichi (2003-11-11). 倭人と韓人 (in Japanese). Kodansha. p. 73. ISBN 978-4061596238.
  6. ^ Lee Hee Yong (2017-01-17). "[이희용의 글로벌시대] 귀화 성씨의 어제와 오늘" [Lee Hee Yong's Global Era: Yesterday and Today]. Yonhap News. Archived from the original on 2017-07-16.

External linksEdit

Talhae of Silla
 Died: 80
Regnal titles
Preceded by Ruler of Silla
57–80
Succeeded by