Talha ibn Ubayd Allah (Arabic: طلحة إبن عبيد الله, romanizedṬalḥa ibn ʿUbayd Allāh; c. 594 – December 656) was an Arab Muslim military commander and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is best known for his roles in the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Camel, in which he died. According to Sunnis, he was given the title "The Generous" by Muhammad.[1]

Talha ibn Ubayd Allah
Native name
Arabic: طلحة إبن عبيد الله, romanizedṬalḥa ibn ʿUbayd Allāh
Other name(s)Al-Jawad ('the Generous')
Bornc. 594
Mecca, Hejaz
Diedc. December 656
Basra, Iraq
AllegianceRashidun Caliphate
Service/branchRashidun army
Rashidun cavalry
Years of service624–656
Commands held
  • Field commander in the Jamal
Battles/wars
Spouse(s)Hammana bint Jahsh al-Asadiyya
ChildrenMuhammad

BiographyEdit

Talha was born c.594,[2] A member of the Taym clan of the Quraysh in Mecca, Talha was the son of Ubayd Allah ibn Uthman ibn Amr ibn Ka'b ibn Sa'd ibn Taym ibn Murra ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ay ibn Ghalib and of al-Sa'ba bint Abd Allah, who was from the Hadram tribe. Talha's lineage meets with that of Muhammad at Murra ibn Ka'b.

Acceptance of IslamEdit

Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall describes how Abu Bakar, after embracing Islam, immediately urged his closest associates to do likewise. Among them were Talha, Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf, Uthman ibn Affan, and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas.[3] Talha was said to have been one of the first eight converts.[4]: 115 [2]: 164 

Among the converts in Mecca, Talha was given a shared responsibility as a hafiz, people who memorized every verse of the Quran, along with Abu Bakr, Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf, Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas.[5] During the persecution of the Muslims in 614–616, Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid tied Talha to Abu Bakr and left them roped together. Nobody from the Taym clan came to help.[2]: 164  Thereafter they were known as "the Two Tied Together".[4]: 127–128, 337 [3]

Emigration to MedinaEdit

In September 622, when Talha was returning from a business trip to Syria, he met with the Muslims who had left Mecca and were emigrating to Medina.[6] Talha gave them some Syrian garments and mentioned that the Muslim community in Medina had said that their prophet was slow to arrive. As Muhammad and Abu Bakr continued to Medina, Talha returned to Mecca to put his affairs in order. Soon afterwards, he accompanied Abu Bakr's family to Medina, where he settled.[2]: 164 

At first he lodged with As'ad ibn Zurara, but later Muhammad gave him a block of land on which he built his own house. He was made the brother in Islam of Sa'id ibn Zayd.[2]: 165  Talha and Sa'id missed fighting at the Battle of Badr because Muhammad sent them as scouts to locate Abu Sufyan's caravan. However, both were awarded shares of the plunder, as if they had been present.[2]: 165 

Talha distinguished himself at the Battle of Uhud by keeping close to Muhammad while most of the Muslim army fled. He protected Muhammad's face from an arrow by taking the shot in his own hand, as a result of which his index and middle fingers were cut. He was also hit twice in the head, and it was said that he suffered a total of 39[7] or 75[2]: 165–166  wounds. Toward the end of the battle, Talha fainted from his heavy injuries,[8] Abu Bakar soon reached their location to check Muhammad condition first, who immediately instructing Abu Bakar to check the condition of Talha, who already passed out due to his severe bloodloss.[9] and his hand was left paralysed.[7] For this heroic defence of Muhammad, Talha earned the byname "the living martyr".[10][7] Talha is said to be the anonymous believer counted as a "martyr" in Quran 33:23 (Translated by Shakir).[11] Abu Bakr also called the battle of Uhud "the day of Talha".[7]

Talha fought at the Battle of the Trench and all the campaigns of Muhammad.[2]: 166  During the Expedition of Dhu Qarad, Talha personally sponsored the operation through his wealth, thus causing Muhammad to give him the sobriquet "Talha al-Fayyad".[12]

Talha is included among the ten to whom Paradise was promised.[10][13]

Ridda WarsEdit

In the third week of July 632, Medina faced an imminent invasion by the apostate forces of Tulayha, a self-proclaimed prophet. Abu Bakr scraped together an army mainly from the Hashim clan (the clan of Muhammad), appointing Talha, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Zubayr each as commanders of one-third of the newly organised force.[citation needed]

Rashidun caliphateEdit

For the rest of his life, Talha served Majlis-ash-Shura as a council member of the Rashidun caliphate.[10]

In 635 to 636, caliph Umar assembled his council, including Zubayr, Ali and Talha, about the battle plan to face the Persian army of Rostam Farrokhzad in Qadisiyyah.[14] At first the caliph himself led the forces from Arabia to Iraq,[14] but the council urges Umar not to lead the army in person and instead appoint someone else, as his presence was needed more urgently in the capital.[14] Umar agreed and asked the council to suggest a commander. The council agreed to send Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas; Sa'd served as the overall commander on Persian conquest and won the Battle of al-Qadisiyyah.[14]

Later, the caliph heard that Sassanid forces from Mah, Qom, Hamadan, Ray, Isfahan, Azerbaijan, and Nahavand had gathered in Nahavand to counter the Arab invasion.[15] Caliph Umar responded by assembling a war council consisting of Zubayr, Ali, Uthman ibn Affan, Talha, Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas, Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf, and Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib to discuss the strategy to face the Sassanids in Nahavand.[16] The caliph want to lead the army himself, but Ali urged the caliph to instead delegate the battlefield commands to the field commanders, prompting the caliph decides instead delegate the reinforcement commands to Zubayr, Tulayha, Amr ibn Ma'adi Yakrib, Abdullah ibn Amr Al-Ash'ath ibn Qays and others under the command of Al-Nu'man ibn Muqrin to go to Nahavand,[17] to face the army of the Sasanian Empire in the battle of Nahavand.[18]

Battle of the Camel and deathEdit

 
Tomb of Talha ibn Ubayd Allah at Basra, Iraq

The Battle of the Camel was fought between Ali on one side and Aisha, Talha and Zubayr on the other on 10 December 656. According to some sources, during the battle, Marwan ibn al-Hakam, who was fighting on the same side as Aisha, shot Talha in the thigh. Marwan commented, "After this, I will never again seek a killer of Uthman.".His motivations for killing Talha were because of Talha's involvement in the killing of Uthman. Other sources attribute Talha's death to being killed by Ali's supporters while retreating from the field.[19][20]

FamilyEdit

Talha had at least fifteen children by at least eight different women.[21]

  1. Hamna bint Jahsh of the Asad tribe, whom he married in 625.
    1. Muhammad ibn Talha, who was also killed at the Battle of the Camel
    2. Imran ibn Talha
  2. Khawla bint al-Qa'qa' ibn Ma'bad ibn Zurara of the Tamim tribe
    1. Musa ibn Talha
  3. Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr
    1. Zakariya
    2. Yusuf, who died in childhood
    3. A'isha bint Talha
  4. Suda bint Awf of the Murra clan
    1. Isa
    2. Yahya
  5. al-Jarba bint Qasama (Umm al-Harith) of the Tayy tribe
    1. Umm Ishaq bint Talha ibn Ubayd Allah, married first to Hasan ibn Ali and later to the latter's brother Husayn ibn Ali
  6. Umm Aban bint Utbah ibn Rabi'ah
    1. Ya'qub "the Generous", who was killed at the Battle of al-Harrah
    2. Isma'il bin Talha
    3. Ishaq ibn Talha
  7. A concubine
    1. al-Sa'ba
  8. Another concubine
    1. Maryam
  9. al-Faraa bint Ali, a war-captive from the Taghlib tribe
    1. Salih

The known descendants of Talha by his various wives and concubines have divided into six lines.[10]

Personal characteristicsEdit

Talha was described as a dark-skinned man with a great deal of wavy hair, a handsome face and a narrow nose. He liked to wear saffron-dyed clothes and musk. He walked swiftly and, when nervous, he would toy with his ring, which was of gold and set with a ruby.[2]: 167–168 

Talha was a successful cloth-merchant who eventually left an estate estimated at 30 million dirhams.[2]: 153, 169–1670  According to modern writer Asad Ahmed, Talha possessed wealth that second only to that of Uthman ibn Affan.[10] A report from Munzir ibn Sawa Al-Tamimi states that Talha had one property in Iraq that yielded four to five hundred dinar in gold.[10] His enterprises included the initiation of al-Qumh (wheat) agricultural work among his community.[10] Talha was said to have accumulated his lucrative properties and wealth by exchanging those that he acquired from the battle of Khaybar for the properties in Iraq that were possessed by Arab Hejazi settlers there and from the transaction of several land properties in Hadhramaut with Uthman.[10] Talha is also said to have drawn profits from his lifetime of trade in Syria and Yemen.[10]

TombEdit

The tomb of Talha ibn Ubayd Allah is located in Basra, Iraq. It is near a large mosque with modern architecture. The grave itself is under the cenotaph under the dome, which is built in a similar style to the cenotaph of Anas ibn Malik.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ سير أعلام النبلاء، لشمس الدين الذهبي، ترجمة طلحة بن عبيد الله، الجزء الأول، صـ 24: 40 Archived 18 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013. The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  3. ^ a b Marmaduke Pickthall; Muhammad Asad (1979). Islamic Culture Volume 53 (zation, Islamic -- Periodicals, Civilization, Mohammedan, Islam -- Periodicals, Islamic civilization -- Periodicals, Islamic countries -- Civilization, Islamic countries -- Civilization -- Periodicals, Mohammedanism -- Periodical). Hydebarad, India: Islamic Culture Boards; Academic and Cultural Publications Charitable Trust. p. 152. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  4. ^ a b Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ Abdullah et al. 2016, p. 43. quoting al-Azami, 2005; Ahmad Don, 1991; al-Zarqani, t.th.
  6. ^ Muhammad Yasin Mazhar Siddiqi (2016). The Prophet Muhammad A Role Model for Muslim Minorities (ebook) (Biography & Autobiography / Religious, Religion / Islam / General, Religion / Islam / History, Social Science / Islamic Studies, Muhammad, Prophet, -632, Muslims, Muslims -- Non-Islamic countries -- Religious life). Kube Publishing Limited. p. 103. ISBN 9780860376774. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri (2021). Nayra, Abu (ed.). Periode Madinah; Aktivitas Militer Menjelang Perang Uhud dan Perang Ahzab [Medina period: military activity on the eve of battle of Uhud & Ahzab] (ebook) (Religion / General, Religion / Islam / General, Religion / Islam / History, Religion / Reference) (in Indonesian). Translated by Abu Ahsan. Hikam Pustaka. pp. 78–79. ISBN 9786233114158. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  8. ^ Ibn Kathir, Ismail. البداية والنهاية/الجزء الرابع/فصل فيما لقي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يومئذ من المشركين قبحهم الله  – via Wikisource. The Beginning and the End, by Ibn Kathir al-Dimashqi, Part IV, Chapter: What the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, met on that day from the polytheists, may God vilify them
  9. ^ Afzal Hoosen Elias (2008). The Lives of the Sahabah (Religion / Islam / General). Dar al-Kotob Ilmiyah. p. 491. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Q. Ahmed 2011, pp. 81–105
  11. ^ Ahmad Salah (2009). في حب الصحابة [In love with the Companions] (Religion / Islam / General) (in Arabic). Dar Annashr For Universit. p. 260. ISBN 9796500050379. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  12. ^ Muhammad Al-Said bin Bassiouni Zaghloul (2021). الموسوعة الكبرى لأطراف الحديث النبوي الشريف 1-50 ج49 [The Great Encyclopedia of Extremities of the Noble Hadith 1-50 C 49] (ebook) (Literary Criticism / Subjects & Themes / General) (in Arabic). Dar al Kotob Ilmiyah. p. 515. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  13. ^ Abu Dawud 41:4632.
  14. ^ a b c d "معركة القادسية" [The story of Arab civilization in one digital library; Battle of Qadisiyyah]. 2022 © Al-Hakawati - Arab Foundation for Culture. 2022 © Al-Hakawati - Arab Foundation for Culture. ISSN 2379-7290. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  15. ^ bin Muhammad bin Jaafar bin Hayyan, Abi Muhammad Abdullah (1991 (1412 AH)). Abdul-Haq Al-Hussein Al-Balushi, Abdul-Ghafoor (ed.). طبقات المحدثين بأصبهان والواردين عليها - ج ١ [The layers of the modernists in Isfahan and those who received it - Part 1]. al-Risalah foundation publishing, printing, and distribution. p. 195. Retrieved 20 December 2021. ذكر ابن فارس بأن الفاء والشين والغين : أصل. يدل على الانتشار. يقال : انفشغ الشيء وتفشغ ، إذا انتشر ، انظر «معجم مقاييس اللغة» ٤ / ٥٠٥. {{cite book}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  16. ^ Sirjani, Raghib (2006). "the dismissal of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas". Islamstory.com (in Arabic). Islamstory.com. Retrieved 19 December 2021.
  17. ^ bin Shamil as-sulami, Muhammad (2004). Amin Sjihab, Ahmad (ed.). Tartib wa Tahdzib Al-Kkitab bidayah wan Nihayah by Ibn Kathir (in Indonesian and Arabic). Translated by Abu Ihsan al-Atsari. Jakarta: Dar al-Wathan Riyadh KSA ; DARUL HAQ, Jakarta. pp. 218–220. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  18. ^ Abd al Hadi, Ahmad (2001). من معارك الفتوح الإسلامية [From the battles of the Islamic conquests] (in Arabic). مركز الراية للنشر والإعلام،. p. 120. ISBN 9789775967466. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
  19. ^ Landau-Tasseron 1998, pp. 27–28, note 126.
  20. ^ Modern Muslim Objections to Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī,Modern Muslim Objections to Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī,Nebil Husayn,2022,page 159
  21. ^ Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers:

SourcesEdit