Taking the knee

Taking the knee (or taking a knee) is a symbolic gesture against racism whereby an individual kneels upon one knee in place of standing to attention for an anthem or other such occasion. It was originated by American football player Colin Kaepernick on September 1, 2016, in protest against the lack of attention given to the issues of racial inequality and police brutality in the United States. Kaepernick's protest led to a wider series of national anthem protests.[1] It has since been adopted by sports players in countries around the world, including soccer in the United Kingdom, in solidarity with Kaepernick's protest against racism, and has been seen worldwide in non-sporting contexts such as the Black Lives Matter protests.[1][2]

Washington Redskins players kneeling before a game against the Oakland Raiders in September 2017

U.S. national anthem kneeling protestsEdit

The gesture originated in a 2016 American football game, during which Colin Kaepernick and his 49ers teammate Eric Reid chose to kneel during the playing of the US national anthem, to call attention to the issues of racial inequality and police brutality.[3]

"After hours of careful consideration, and even a visit from Nate Boyer, a retired Green Beret and former NFL player, we came to the conclusion that we should kneel, rather than sit, ... during the anthem, as a peaceful protest," said Reid. "We chose to kneel because it's a respectful gesture. I remember thinking our posture was like a flag flown at half-mast to mark a tragedy."[3]

During the 2016 season, a small number of other players also took the knee before matches.[4] Taking a knee became more frequent after then-President Trump criticized the gesture during a rally in September 2017, describing it as a disrespectful act against the United States national anthem and flag, and urging NFL team owners to sack "son of a bitch" players who performed it. In response, over a hundred NFL players took the knee in subsequent weeks, along with athletes from other sports, and spectators.[4]

Use in association footballEdit

 
Players from FC Krasnodar and Chelsea F.C. kneeling at the start of a UEFA Champions League match in October 2020

Taking the knee was used by many clubs before kick-off throughout the 2020–21 English soccer season, which was booed by some fans.[5][6][7]

In a June 2020 radio interview, Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab said that he saw the gesture as "a symbol of subjugation and subordination, rather than one of liberation and emancipation", adding that he was unaware whether it had a broader history and that it seemed to him to be "taken from the Game of Thrones".[8][9][10][11]

In September 2020 Middlesbrough said they would stop taking the knee.[12] In December 2020 players from Millwall and QPR said they would not take the knee, but would instead stand arm-in-arm.[13] By February 2021 other teams had stopped taking the knee, including Brentford,[14] while individual players from other teams such as Wilfried Zaha said they would also stop.[15] Zaha later became the first Premier League player to stop taking the knee.[16] Derby County stopped in March 2021.[17]

On June 8, 2021, prior to an international friendly game between Hungary and the Republic of Ireland, the Irish players were booed by some Hungarian fans prior to kick-off for taking the knee.[18]

The England national team took the knee before matches in 2021's UEFA European Football Championship,[19] resulting in booing from some fans.[20][21][22][23] Conservative MP Lee Anderson stated that he would not watch England games in the tournament as a direct result of this political gesture, saying he believed that "the vast majority of these fans booing last night are not racist" and thought they were "more likely to [...] not share the Marxist views of BLM".[24][25] Kick It Out's chief executive Tony Burnett considered the booing an example of racism in the sport.[26] The English Football Association later asked fans to respect the players' wishes to take the knee.[27] England players were booed by Polish fans for kneeling against racism ahead of 2022 FIFA World Cup qualifying match at National Stadium, Warsaw.[28]

In July 2021, Conservative MP Steve Baker said the Government should start backing players taking the knee,[29] after Prime Minister Boris Johnson and Home Secretary Priti Patel had declined to condemn those who booed.[30][31][32] Keir Starmer, Leader of the Opposition and leader of the Labour Party, said England's players were "right to take the knee".[33]

Similar gestures in historyEdit

 
Am I Not a Man and a Brother? medallion created as part of anti-slavery campaign by Josiah Wedgwood, 1787

Josiah Wedgwood pottered the image of a black man kneeling in shackles and depicting slavery on the emblem of the British abolitionist movement during the 18th and 19th centuries—a movement to ban slavery and ill-treatment of people.[34]

In 1965, Martin Luther King Jr knelt in prayer with a group of equalities marchers during the Selma to Montgomery marches.[34]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Black Lives Matter: Where does 'taking a knee' come from?". BBC News. June 18, 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  2. ^ "What's taking the knee and why was it an issue at Euro 2020?". July 13, 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  3. ^ a b Reid, Eric (September 25, 2017). "Opinion | Eric Reid: Why Colin Kaepernick and I Decided to Take a Knee". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  4. ^ a b Garber, Megan (September 24, 2017). "They Took a Knee". The Atlantic. Retrieved July 20, 2021.
  5. ^ "Wayne Rooney hits out at Millwall fans' 'disgraceful and mindless' behaviour in booing BLM gesture". The Independent. December 6, 2020. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022.
  6. ^ "Minister decries Millwall fans who booed players for taking a knee". The Guardian. December 7, 2020.
  7. ^ "Cambridge fans' jeers for knee protest 'embarrassing' - Mark Bonner". BBC Sport. December 15, 2020.
  8. ^ "Black Lives Matter: Raab criticised over 'Game of Thrones' comment". BBC News. June 18, 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  9. ^ Walker, Peter (June 18, 2020). "Dominic Raab criticised for comments on BLM protesters taking the knee". The Guardian. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  10. ^ Stone, Jon (June 19, 2020). "Dominic Raab says he would only take the knee for Queen or his wife". The Independent. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  11. ^ Kinnock, Neil (June 18, 2020). "Raab is wrong about taking the knee". The Guardian. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  12. ^ "Britt Assombalonga explains why Middlesbrough's players have decided to stop taking a knee". The Northern Echo. September 28, 2020.
  13. ^ "Millwall and QPR players to stand arm-in-arm in 'show of solidarity' before Tuesday's match". BBC Sport. December 8, 2020.
  14. ^ "Brentford to stop taking a knee but reiterate support of anti-discrimination projects". BBC Sport. February 15, 2021.
  15. ^ "Wilfried Zaha: Crystal Palace forward will stop taking the knee before matches". BBC Sport. February 19, 2021.
  16. ^ "Wilfried Zaha: Crystal Palace forward is first Premier League player not to take a knee". BBC Sport. March 13, 2021.
  17. ^ "Derby County: Wayne Rooney's Rams decide to stop taking a knee". BBC Sport. March 6, 2021.
  18. ^ "Chiedozie Ogbene calls for Uefa action after Ireland players booed for taking a knee in Hungary". BBC Sport. June 9, 2021.
  19. ^ "Southgate, PM & FA condemn player abuse". BBC Sport. July 12, 2021. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  20. ^ "England taking the knee: Why some fans say they are booing players". BBC News. June 7, 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  21. ^ Conway, Ryan (June 3, 2021). "'Why should I support violence?' Answering the objections to taking a knee". The Athletic.
  22. ^ Burt, Jason (June 8, 2021). "Jordan Henderson: Taking the knee and racism - and why Roy Keane was wrong". The Telegraph – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  23. ^ John Sinnott (June 9, 2021). "Euro 2020: Football's coming home, but taking a knee divides England fans". CNN.
  24. ^ "Taking the knee: Tory MP Lee Anderson admits he is 'annoyed' about boycotting Euros final over the gesture". inews.co.uk. July 9, 2021. Retrieved July 13, 2021.
  25. ^ Locker, Joseph (June 5, 2021). "Nottinghamshire MP Lee Anderson will not watch 'beloved England' in Euro 2020 after players take knee". Nottinghamshire Live. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  26. ^ "England players being booed for taking a knee considered 'a racist act' by officials, according to senior football administrator". Sky Sports. June 8, 2021.
  27. ^ "Uefa Euro 2020: Respect England players' wishes over taking a knee, says FA". BBC Sport. June 12, 2021.
  28. ^ "Polish fans booed English players for kneeling against racism". TVN24. September 9, 2021. Retrieved September 14, 2021.
  29. ^ "Conservative MP Steve Baker urges party to back players taking the knee". July 14, 2021 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  30. ^ "Boris Johnson refuses to condemn fans booing England taking the knee". The Guardian. June 7, 2021.
  31. ^ "Priti Patel says fans have right to boo England team for 'gesture politics' of taking the knee". The Independent. June 14, 2021. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022.
  32. ^ "Everything Boris Johnson and Priti Patel said about taking the knee". The Independent. July 13, 2021. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022.
  33. ^ Starmer, Keir (June 12, 2021). "Keir Starmer: 'Southgate's squad were right to take the knee - they show best of England'". Daily Mirror.
  34. ^ a b "Taking the knee, and how BLM became synonymous with Communism". The Independent. June 15, 2021. Archived from the original on May 26, 2022. Retrieved July 27, 2021.