Taj al-Din al-Subki
Abū Naṣr Tāj al-Dīn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb ibn ʿAlī ibn ʻAbd al-Kafi al-Subkī (تاج الدين عبد الوهاب بن علي بن عبد الكافي السبكي), or Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī (تاج الدين السبكي) – or simply Ibn al-Subki – was a leading Islamic scholar, a faqīh, a muḥaddith and a historian from the celebrated al-Subkī family of Shāfiʿī ʿulamā, during the Mamluk era.
Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī (تاج الدين السبكي)
Qadi al-Qudah (chief judge)
|Died||July 3, 1370 (aged 43)|
|Main interest(s)||Islamic theology, Hadith, Islamic jurisprudence|
Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī was born and educated in Cairo, Egypt, in 1327 (727 AH). He was first educated by his father, the celebrated scholar Taqī al-Dīn al-Subkī, an influential figure in the umma. At age 11 years he joined his father in Damascus, where he studied under the leading scholars of his day, such as the historian al-Dhahabi and the jurist Ibn al-Naqīb. Aged 18 he became a mudarris (professor) and khaṭīb at the Umayyad Mosque. In his late twenties he began to assist his father as qāḍī (Chief judge) of Syria, and on his father's retirement to Cairo in 1354, he replaced him as qāḍī of Damascus. He also held the title Mufti In 1357 he was removed from office but reinstated several months later. In 1368 he was jailed for misappropriation of funds. Following a petition by friends, he was released after 80 days and seems to have been exonerated. He died of the plague in 1370 (771 AH) aged 44 years. 
- Ṭabaqāt al-Šāfiʻiyyaẗ— Kubrā, Wusṭā wa Ṣughrā (Large, Medium and Concise); Biographical dictionary of the scholars of the Shāfi’ī legal school; based on the Tabyīn kadhib al-Muftarī fī mā nusiba ilā al-Imām Abī al-Ḥasan al- Ash’arī of Ibn ’Asākir; (Cairo: Maṭbaʻaẗ al-Ḥusayniyyaẗ al-Miṣriyyaẗ, 1906)
- Kitāb Mu'īd an-Ni'am wa-Mubīd an-Niqām ("The restorer of favours and the restrainer of chastisements"); Arabic text with introduction and notes by David Vilhelm Myhrman: treats 113 trades, professions and offices of the author's own time, in the light of how their exponents should behave in order to recover God's favour. (English translation: Luzac & Co., London, 1908).
- Kitāb al-Ashbāh wa-l-Naẓāʾir, a legal digest. Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī, al-Ashbāh wa-l-Naẓāʾir, ed. by Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Mawjūd and ʿAlī Muḥammad ʿIwaḍ, 2 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīya, 1991)
- Brockelmann 1902, p. 89.
- Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P.; Lecomte, G. (1997). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Volume IX (San-Sze) (New ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 744. ISBN 9004104224.
- Adang, Camilla; Fierro, Maribel; Schmidtke, Sabine (2012). Ibn Hazm of Cordoba: The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker (Handbook of Oriental Studies) (Handbook of Oriental Studies: Section 1; The Near and Middle East). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. p. 383. ISBN 978-90-04-23424-6.
- Berkey, Jonathan P. (2010). Saleh, Marlis J. (ed.). "Al-Subkī and His Women". Mamluk Studies Review. University of Chicago. 14: 8.
- Schacht, Bosworth 1995, p. 744. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSchacht,_Bosworth1995 (help)
- Smith, Margaret (2008). Al-Ghazali the Mystic. Archetype. p. 152. ISBN 978-1901383164.
- Brockelmann, Carl (1902). Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur (in German). 2. Berlin: E. Felber.
- Ḥājjī Khalīfa, Muṣṭafa ibn 'Abd Allāh (1858) . Flügel, Gustav (ed.). Kashf al-ẓunūn ʿan asāmī al-kutub wa-al-funūn (Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum…) (in Arabic and Latin). 4. London, Leipzig: The Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, Richard Bentley. pp. 242, 552.
- Ibn al-ʻImād, ʻAbd al-Ḥayy ibn Aḥmad (1966). Shadharāt al-dhahab fī akhbār min dhahab (in Arabic). 8. Bayrūt: al-Maktab al-Tijārī lil-T̥ibāʻch wa-al-Nashr wa-al-Tawzīʻ. pp. 308–10.
- Schacht, Joseph; Bosworth, C.E. (1995), "Al-Subkī", Encyclopedia of Islam, IX, Leiden: E. J. Brill, pp. 744–5
- Tāj-ad-Dīn, Abū Naṣr ‘Abd al-Wahhāb as-Subkī (1908), Myhrman, David W. (ed.), Kitāb Mu'īd al -Ni'am wa Mubīd an-Niķām (The Restorer of Favours and the Restrainer of Chastisements), Luzac’s Semitic Text and Translation Series (in Arabic), XVIII, London: Luzac & Co.