Tadj ol-Molouk

Tâdj ol-Molouk Âyromlu (Persian: تاج‌الملوک آیرملو‎, born Nimtâj Âyromlu,[2] (نیم‌تاج آیرملو); 17 March 1896 – 10 March 1982) was an Iranian royal, who was the Queen of Iran as the wife of Reza Shah, founder of the Pahlavi dynasty and Shah of Iran between 1925 and 1941. The title she was given after becoming queen means "Crown of the Kings" in the Persian language. She was the first queen in Iran after the Muslim conquest in the 7th century to have participated in public royal representation and played a major role in the kashf-e hijab (ban of the veil) in 1936.

Tâdj ol-Molouk Âyromlu
Tadj olMolouk.jpg
Queen consort of Iran
Tenure15 December 1925 – 16 September 1941
BornNimtâj Âyromlu
(1896-03-17)17 March 1896
Baku, Russian Empire
(now in Azerbaijan)
Died10 March 1982(1982-03-10) (aged 85)
Acapulco, Mexico
Spouse
(m. 1916; died 1944)

Gholamhossein Saheb Divani
(m. 1945)
IssuePrincess Shams
Mohammad Reza Shah
Princess Ashraf
Prince Ali Reza
HousePahlavi
FatherTeymur Khan Ayromlou
MotherMalek os-Soltan[1]
ReligionIslam

BiographyEdit

She was the daughter of Brigadier General Teymūr Khan Ayromlou,[3] who was of Turkic Ayrum descent, and wife Malek os-Soltan. Her marriage was reportedly arranged and proved an advantage in the military career of Reza Shah at the time, due to the connections of her father, enabling him to advance in the Cossack hierarchy.

On 23 February 1921, Reza Shah took power in a coup in Tehran.

QueenEdit

 
Queen Taj ol-Molouk, between 1926–1941

On 15 December 1925, her spouse declared himself Shahanshah (King of Kings), and she was granted the title Maleke (Queen).

Privately, Tadj ol-Molouk did not live with Reza Shah at this point, as he reportedly devoted his time on his other wives, Touran Amir Soleimani, and, from 1923, Esmat Dowlatshahi. Neither did she involve herself in politics on her own initiative. However, it was she who was given the position of Queen during his reign, which signified an important role in his policy on women. She was the first Queen of Iran to have played a public role, and to have performed an official position out in public society.

Her role as a queen participating in public representational duties had a great importance within the new policy of women's role in Iran, as it was the policy of her husband to increase women's participation in society as a method of modernization, in accordance with the example of Turkey.[4] She played an important part in the abolition of the veil in Iran during the reign of her husband: the Kashf-e hijab. The unveiling of women had a huge symbolic importance to achieve women's participation in society, and the shah introduced the reform gradually so as not to cause unrest: while women teachers where encouraged to unveil in 1933 and schoolgirls and women students in 1935, the official declaration of unveiling were made on 8 January 1936, and the queen and her daughters where given an important role in this event.[4] That day, Reza Shah attended the graduation ceremony of the Tehran Teacher's College with the queen and their two daughters unveiled and dressed in modern clothes, without veils.[4] The queen handed out diplomas, while the shah spoke about half the population being disregarded, and told women that the future was now in their hands.[4] This was the first time an Iranian queen showed herself in public. Afterwards, the Shah had pictures of his wife and daughters published, and unveiling enforced throughout Iran.[4]

Tadj ol-Molouk continued to participate in public representation in this fashion when obliged to by her husband and thus played an indirect role in his policy, but she never made any initiatives of her own and stayed out of political involvement. In 1939, she attended the wedding of her son to Fawzia of Egypt. The relationship to Fawzia was not, however, described as a good one.

Later lifeEdit

On 16 September 1941, Reza Shah was deposed and exiled. She did not follow him to his exile in South Africa, instead choosing to remain at the court of her son in Iran. A year after Reza Shah's death, she married Gholamhossein Saheb Divani, the son of a prominent family from Shiraz who was her junior.[3] He was later elected to the National Consultative Assembly.[3]

She held significant influence over her son and reportedly dominated the royal household.[3] The conflict between Tadj ol-Molouk and her daughter-in-law Queen Fawzia attracted attention at the time, and reportedly participated in the factors which lead to the departure of Fawzia to Egypt and the dissolution of the royal marriage in 1948. She was acknowledged to have had a deeply devoted relationship to Princess Shahnaz.

In 1950, Tadj ol-Molouk participated in arranging the marriage between her son the shah and Soraya Esfandiari-Bakhtiari. She left Iran with most of the members of the royal house during the tenure of Mossadegh, and returned to Iran after the fall of Mossadegh in 1953.

During the reign of her son, Tadj ol-Molouk normally did not participate in royal representation, in contrast to her daughters and daughter-in-law, nor did she participate much in charity. She did not fully attend the coronation of the shah on 26 October 1967, attending only the reception following it rather than the coronation itself. She did arrange two receptions in her palace annually: one to celebrate the birthday of her eldest grandson, and one to celebrate the fall of Mossadegh. When the health of the shah was beginning to deteriorate in 1971, this was not admitted, and the official reason for physicians to visit the palace was for the sake of the elderly Tadj ol-Molouk.

Before the 1979 revolution, Tadj ol-Molouk was sent by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to the house of Shams Pahlavi in Beverly Hills.[5] She arrived in Los Angeles on 30 December 1978 aboard an Imperial Iranian Air Force Boeing 747.[6] Soon after her arrival, on 2 January 1979, Iranian students in the city attacked the house and attempted to burn it.[5][7] Then she and her daughter took refuge at the Palm Springs estate of Walter Annenberg, former US ambassador to the United Kingdom.[5]

She died in Acapulco, Mexico, on 10 March 1982, seven days before her 86th birthday.[8]

IssueEdit

Queen Nimtaj had four children: Shams, Mohammad Reza, the last Shah of Iran, and his twin sister Ashraf, and Ali Reza.[9]

HonoursEdit

NationalEdit

ForeignEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Exemption from court fees in lawsuits against the heirs and relatives of the deceased king". Islamic Parliament Research Center of The Islamic Republic of IRAN (in Persian). Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Ashraf Pahlavi Official Site. Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ a b c d "Wives of Reza Shah". Institute for Iranian Contemporary Historical Studies (in Persian). Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e Lois Beck, Guity Nashat, Women in Iran from 1800 to the Islamic Republic
  5. ^ a b c Scott, Lois (24 February 1980). "The Shah's dawnfall". The Victoria Advocate.
  6. ^ Kent, Thomas (30 December 1978). "Shah looking for way out Iran". Williamson Daily News. Tehran. AP.
  7. ^ "Riots force Shah's mother to leave house". Boca Raton News. Beverly Hills. AP. 3 January 1979.
  8. ^ "Late Shah's mother dies". Gadsden Times. Paris. AP. 16 March 1982.
  9. ^ Cyrus Ghani; Sīrūs Ġanī (2001). Iran and the Rise of the Reza Shah: From Qajar Collapse to Pahlavi Power. I.B.Tauris. p. 194. ISBN 978-1-86064-629-4.
  10. ^ "All sizes | The Pahlavi Family,Royal Family of Iran | Flickr - Photo Sharing!". Flickr. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  11. ^ [1][dead link]
  12. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). Iranian.com. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  13. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). Farm4.staticflickr.com. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Visitor anti-robot validation". Danamotor.ir. Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
  15. ^ "Image: Reza_Shah_Tajolmoluk.jpg, (409 × 515 px)". fouman.com. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  16. ^ "Image: 8512151874_3f4e043e90_b.jpg, (1024 × 603 px)". c1.staticflickr.com. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  • (fr) Yves Bomati et Houchang Nahavandi : Mohammad Réza Pahlavi, le dernier shah - 1919–1980 . Editions Perrin, Paris, 2013. ISBN 978-2262035877
Iranian royalty
Preceded by
Badr al-Molouk
Queen consort of Iran
1925–1941
Succeeded by
Fawzia of Egypt