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A manuscript copy of the 1722 Table of Ranks

The Table of Ranks (Russian: Табель о рангах, romanizedTabel' o rangakh) was a formal list of positions and ranks in the military, government, and court of Imperial Russia. Peter the Great introduced the system in 1722 while engaged in a struggle with the existing hereditary nobility, or boyars. The Table of Ranks was formally abolished on 11 November 1917 by the newly established Bolshevik government.

Contents

PrinciplesEdit

The Table of Ranks re-organised the foundations of feudal Russian nobility (mestnichestvo) by recognising service in the military, in the civil service, and at the imperial court as the basis of an aristocrat's standing in society. The table divided ranks in 14 grades, with all nobles regardless of birth or wealth (at least in theory) beginning at the bottom of the table and rising through their service (sluzhba) to the tsar.[1] While all grades were open by merit, promotion required qualification for the next rank, and grades 1 through 5 required the personal approval of the tsar himself. Despite initial resistance from noblemen, many of whom were still illiterate in the 18th century and who shunned the paper-pushing life of the civil servant, the eventual effect of the Table of Ranks was to create an educated class of noble bureaucrats.

Peter's intentions for a class of nobles bound to the tsar by their personal service to him were watered down by subsequent tsars. In 1762 Peter III abolished the compulsory 25-year military or civilian service for nobles.[2] In 1767 Catherine the Great bought the support of the bureaucracy by making promotion up the 14 ranks automatic after seven years regardless of position or merit. Thus the bureaucracy became populated with time servers.[3]

Achieving a certain level in the table automatically granted a certain level of nobility. A civil servant promoted to the 14th grade gained personal nobility (dvoryanstvo), and holding an office in the 8th grade endowed the office holder with hereditary nobility. Nicholas I raised this threshold to the 5th grade in 1845.[4] In 1856 the grades required for hereditary nobility were changed to the 4th grade for the civil service and to the 6th grade for military service. The father of Vladimir Lenin progressed in the management of education, reaching the 4th rank and becoming an "active state councillor" (действительный статский советник), which gave him the privilege of hereditary nobility.[5]

With occasional revisions, the Table of Ranks remained in effect until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Table of RanksEdit

An abridged version of the Table of Ranks[6] with time expiration set for promotion is shown below:

Class
(K)
Civil (governmental)
ranks
Military ranks Court
ranks
Expiration[7] set
for promotion
Clergy

ranks

... in the Army ... in the Navy
K-1 General-fieldmarshal (General-feldmarshal) General-admiral (General-admiral)
none
Metropolit Black clergy
K-2 Admiral
  • Ober-Kammerherr
  • Ober-Hofmeister
  • Ober-Stallmeister
  • Ober-Jägermeister
  • Ober-Hofmeister
  • Ober-Schenk
not planned
Archbishop
K-3 Privy Councillor
(Tayny sovetnik)
Lieutenant general Vice admiral Grand master of the stables Bishop
K-4 Active State Councillor
(Deystvitelny statsky sovetnik)
Major general Rear admiral
  • Grand marshal of the court
  • Grand chamberlain
Archimandrite
K-5 State Councillor
(Statsky sovetnik)
Brigadier (until 1796) Captain-commodore
  • Marshal of the court
  • Grand cup bearer
Hegumen
Protopresbyter White clergy
K-6 Collegiate Councillor
(Kollezhsky sovetnik)
  • Polkovnik (infantry)
  • Ober-krigskomissar (until 1868)
Kapitan 1st rank Master of the stables Presbyter

Protoiereus

K-7 Court councillor (from 1745)
(Nadvorny sovetnik)
  • Podpolkovnik (infantry)
  • Voyskovoy starshina (cossaks from 1884)
  • Krigskomissar (until 1868)
Kapitan 2nd rank
none
Iereus
K-8 Collegiate assessor
(Kollezhsky assessor)
  • Premjor-mayor / Secund-mayor (1731-1798)
  • Mayor (infantry 1798-1884)
  • Kapitan (infantry 1884-1917)
  • Rotmistr (cavalry 1884-1917)
  • Cossacks:
    • Voyskovoy starshina (1796-1884)
    • Esaul (from 1884)
  • Kapitan 3rd rank (1722-1764)
  • Kapitan-leytenant (1907-1911)
  • Starshy leytenant (from 1912)
Titular chamberlain Protodeacon
K-9 Titular councillor
(Tituljarny sovetnik)
  • Kapitan (infantry 1722-1884)
  • Shtabs-kapitan (infantry from 1884)
  • Rotmistr (cavalry 1798-1884)
  • Shtabs-rotmistr (from 1884)
  • Cossacks:
    • Esaul (1798-1884)
    • Podesaul (from 1884)
  • Galerny master (until 1826)
  • Kapitan-poruchik (1764-1796)
  • Kapitan-leytenant (1798-1884)
  • Leytenant (1884-1906, from 1912)
  • Starshy leytenant (1907-1911)
none
Deacon
K-10 Collegiate secretary
(Kollezhsky sekretar)
  • Kapitan-poruchik (infantry 1730-1797)
  • Shtabs-kapitan (infantry 1779-1884)
  • Sekund-rotmistr (cavalry until 1797)
  • Shtabs-rotmistr (cavalry 1779-1884)
  • Tseychvart (artillery until 1884)
  • Poruchik (from 1884)
  • Cossacks:
    • Podesaul (until 1884)
    • Sotnik (from 1884)
  • Leytenant (1722-1884)
  • Michman ( from 1884)
none
K-11 Naval secretary
(Korabelny sekretar)
none
none
K-12 District secretary
(Gubernsky sekretar)
  • Podporuchik (infantry 1730-1884)
  • Praposhchik (from 1884, in war only )
  • Sekund-poruchik (artillery 1722-1796 )
  • Unter-leytenant (1722—1732)
  • Michman (1796—1884)
K-13 Provincial registrar
(Kabinetsky redistrator)
  • Podporuchik (infantry 1730-1884)
  • Praposhchik (from 1884, in war only )
  • Sekund-poruchik (artillery 1722-1796 )
none
K-14
  • Collegiate registrar (Kollezhsky registrator)
  • Collegiate yunker (Kollezhsky yunker, Kollei-yunker 1720—1822)
  • Fendrik (infantry, 1722—1730)
  • Praporshchik (infantry, 1730—1884)
  • Cornet (kavalry, 1731—1884)
  • Shtyk-yunker (Штык-юнкер, artillery, 1722—1796)
  • Khorunzhy (kossacks, to 1884)
Michman (1732—1796)
none
3 years to K-12

The table below contains the military ranks of the Guards (infantry and cavalry) 1722 until 1917.[8]

Class Infantry Cavalry
1722 1730 1748 1884–1917 1730 1748 1798 1884–1917
1 – not scheduled –
2
3 Colonel
(Polkovnik)
Colonel
4 Colonel Lieutenant colonel
(Podpolkovnik)
Lieutenant colonel
5 Lieutenant colonel Prime major
(Premer-mayor)
Prime major
6 Major Second major
(Skund-mayor)
Colonel Second major Colonel
7 Captain (Kapitan) Captain Captain Captain Rittmeister (Rotmistr) Rittmeister Rittmeister Rittmeister
8 Captain lieutenant
(Kapitan-leytenant)
Captain poruchik
(Kapitan-poruchik)
Stabskapitän
(Stabs-kapitan)
Sekundrittmeister
(Sekund-rotmistr)
Stabsrittmeister
(Stabs-rotmistr)
9 Lieutenant
(Leytenant)
Poruchik Poruchik
10 Unterleutnant
(Unter-leytenant)
Podporuchik Podporuchik Cornet
(Kornet)
11 – not scheduled –
12 Fähnrich (Fendrik) Praporshchik Cornet
13 – not scheduled –
14
 
An 1898 copy of the Table of Ranks

Peter I stipulated that "princes related to us or married to our princesses always take precedence" and that when military officers of the army and navy were of the same rank, "the naval officer is superior at sea to the land officer; and on land the land officer is superior to the naval officer". He laid down that fines of two months' salary should be assessed against those falsely claiming a higher rank or gaining a rank without qualification. He stated that service with a foreign monarch would not automatically confer the rank until approved by the tsar, as "we do not grant any rank to anyone until he performs a useful service to us or to the state", while women were to "advance in rank with their husbands".

Style of AddressEdit

In a way the government, court, military and clergy ranks represented the gentry class of the Russian Empire. Similarly to the noble titles, the rank holders each had their specific style of address:

As of 1917 (the year of the monarchy's collapse)
Class Civil, court and military ranks Clergy ranks Class
in Russian English translation in Russian[9] English translation
K-1 Ваше высокопревосходительство Your High Excellency Ваше высокопреосвященство, владыко Your High Eminence,

Lordship

Black

clergy

K-1
K-2 K-2
K-3 Ваше превосходительство Your Excellency Ваше преосвященство, владыко Your Eminence,

Lordship

K-3
K-4 Ваше высокопреподобие Your High Reverence K-4
K-5 Ваше высокородие Your High Birth K-5
Ваше высокоблагословение Your High Blessedness White

clergy

K-5
K-6 Ваше высокоблагородие Your High Well Birth K-6
K-7 Ваше благословение Your Blessedness K-7
K-8 Ваше высокоблаговестие Your High Evangelism K-8
K-9 Ваше благородие Your Well Birth

* Also applied to the lowest ranks of the nobility: Barons, the generic titles of Dvoryanin, Pomeshchik and landless nobles

Ваше благовестие Your Evangelism K-9
K-10 K-10
K-11 K-11
K-12 K-12
K-13 K-13
K-14 K-14

Outside that table are the rank of Generalissimus, which was an honorary title and not a military rank and the title of Patriarch, which theoretically equaled the eminence of the Russian Emperor, but which Peter the Great kept vacant between 1700 and 1720 and eventually substituted for the collective board of the Most Holy Synod, effectively turning the Church into a department of the state.

First complete translation into EnglishEdit

The first complete translation into English of the original Table of Ranks promulgated by Peter the Great in 1722 was presented by Brazilian historian Angelo Segrillo in 2016. It is available online at http://lea.vitis.uspnet.usp.br/arquivos/arttableofrankslea.pdf.[10]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The Russian word "действительный" means "actual, valid, real, effective, true" and in this context is sometimes translated as "actual" or "acting" (which has the disadvantage of confusion with the English language concept of acting rank).

External linksEdit

  • Waliszewski, Kazimierz. "The Social Reform — The Table of Ranks". Peter the Great: his life and work. Forgotten books. pp. 454–456.
  • (in Russian) Table of Ranks
  • Peter I's original Table of Ranks

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Catherine A. Schuler (1 May 2009). Theatre and Identity in Imperial Russia. University of Iowa Press. pp. 16–18. ISBN 978-1-58729-847-9.
  2. ^ Marc Raeff (18 May 1966). Origins of the Russian intelligentsia: the eighteenth-century nobility. Harcourt, Brace & World. pp. 91–92.
  3. ^ Richard Pipes (1990). Russia Under the Old Regime. Penguin. p. 135.
  4. ^ Geoffrey A. Hosking (1997). Russia: People and Empire, 1552-1917. Harvard University Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-674-78119-1.
  5. ^ Louis Fischer (2001). The Life of Lenin. Phoenix. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84212-230-3.
  6. ^ Mark Conrad’s Russian Military History - Table of Ranks
  7. ^ In case of «His/ Her Majesty highest of all protégé», the period of time, set for promotion to the next higher rank, might be shortened by one year.
  8. ^ Table of ranks, section infantry and cavalry 1722 to 1917, called, 7 May 2017.
  9. ^ ""Табели о рангах"…". КУЛЬТУРНЫЙ ЛАНДШАФТ (in Russian). 5 February 2013. Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  10. ^ Segrillo, Angelo (November 2016). A First Complete Translation into English of Peter the Great’s Original Table of Ranks: Observations on the Occurrence of a Black Hole in the Translation of Russian Historical Documents (PDF). São Paulo: LEA Working Paper Series, no. 1. pp. 6–9.