TORCH syndrome

TORCH syndrome is a cluster of symptoms caused by congenital infection with toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and other organisms including syphilis, parvovirus, and Varicella zoster.[1] Zika virus is considered the most recent member of TORCH infections.[2]

TORCH syndrome
Other namesTORCH infection

TORCH is an acronym for (T)oxoplasmosis, (O)ther Agents, (R)ubella, (C)ytomegalovirus, and (H)erpes Simplex.[3]

Signs and symptomsEdit

Though caused by different infections, the signs and symptoms of TORCH syndrome are consistent. They include hepatosplenomegaly (enlargement of the liver and spleen), fever, lethargy, difficulty feeding, anemia, petechiae, purpurae, jaundice, and chorioretinitis. The specific infection may cause additional symptoms.[1]

TORCH syndrome may develop before birth, causing stillbirth, in the neonatal period, or later in life.[4]


TORCH syndrome is caused by in-utero infection with one of the TORCH agents, disrupting fetal development.[1]


Presence of IgM is diagnostic and persistence of IgG beyond 6–9 months is diagnostic.[citation needed]


TORCH syndrome can be prevented by treating an infected pregnant person, thereby preventing the infection from affecting the fetus.[4]


The treatment of TORCH syndrome is mainly supportive and depends on the symptoms present; medication is an option for herpes and cytomegalovirus infections.[1]


Developing countries are more severely affected by TORCH syndrome.[4]


  1. ^ a b c d "TORCH Syndrome - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2016-04-21.
  2. ^ Mehrjardi, Mohammad Zare (2017). "Is Zika Virus an Emerging TORCH Agent? An Invited Commentary". Virology: Research and Treatment. 8: 1178122X17708993. doi:10.1177/1178122X17708993. ISSN 1178-122X. PMC 5439991. PMID 28579764.
  3. ^ "TORCH Syndrome".
  4. ^ a b c Neu, Natalie; Duchon, Jennifer; Zachariah, Philip (2015-03-01). "TORCH infections". Clinics in Perinatology. 42 (1): 77–103, viii. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2014.11.001. ISSN 1557-9840. PMID 25677998.