System of bilinear equations

In algebra, systems of bilinear equations are collections of equations, each one of which is written as a bilinear form, for which a common solution is sought. Given one set of variables represented as a vector x, and another represented by a vector y, then a system of bilinear equations for x and y can be written . Here, i is an integer whose value ranges from 1 to some upper bound r, the are matrices and are some real numbers. Systems of bilinear equations arise in many subjects including engineering, biology, and statistics.

Solving in integersEdit

We consider here the solution theory for bilinear equations in integers. Let the given system of bilinear equation be


This system can be written as


Once we solve this linear system of equations then by using rank factorization below, we can get a solution for the given bilinear system.


Now we solve the first equation by using the Smith normal form. Given any   matrix  , we can get two matrices   and   in   and  , respectively such that  , where   is as follows:


where   and   for  . Given a system  , we can rewrite it as  , where   and  . Solving   is easier as the matrix   is somewhat diagonal. Since we are multiplying with some nonsingular matrices, the two systems of equations are equivalent in the sense that the solutions of one system have a one-to-one correspondence with the solutions of another system. We solve  , and take  . Let the solution of   be


where   are free integers and these are all solutions of  . So, any solution of   is  . Let   be given by


Then   is


We want matrix   to have rank 1 so that the factorization given in second equation can be done. Solving quadratic equations in 2 variables in integers will give us the solutions for a bilinear system. This method can be extended to any dimension, but at higher dimension solutions become more complicated. This algorithm can be applied in Sage or MATLAB.

See alsoEdit

Systems of linear equations