The Syngenta Group is a global agricultural technology company that produces agrochemicals and seeds. As a biotechnology company, it conducts genomic research. The Syngenta Group is based in Basel, Switzerland, with offices in Chicago, Tel Aviv, and Shanghai.

Syngenta Group
IndustryAgrobusiness, chemicals
Founded13 November 2000; 20 years ago (2000-11-13)
HeadquartersBasel, Switzerland
Area served
Key people
ProductsPesticides, seeds, flowers
RevenueIncrease US$23 billion (2017)[1]
Decrease US$54 million[1] (2017)
Decrease US$(96) million[1] (2017)
Total assetsIncrease US$20.33 billion[1] (2017)
Total equityDecrease US$(7.97) billion[1] (2017)
Number of employees
49,000 (2020)

Syngenta was formed in November 2000 by the merger of Novartis Agribusiness and Zeneca Agrochemicals. As of 2014, Syngenta is the world's largest crop chemical producer.[2] As of 2009, it ranked third in seeds and biotechnology sales.[3][1] Since 2017, it is owned by the China National Chemical Corporation (ChemChina), a Chinese state-owned enterprise; 2020 Syngenta was merged with Adama and parts of Sinochem to form the Syngenta Group.[4]


Based in Basel, Switzerland, Syngenta was formed on 13 November 2000 by the merger of Novartis Agribusiness and Zeneca Agrochemicals.[5][6]

Novartis was formed of the 1996 merger of the three Swiss companies:[7] Geigy, which has roots back to 1758;[8] Sandoz Laboratories which was founded in 1876;[citation needed] and Ciba, founded in 1884.[9] Ciba and Geigy merged in 1971.[10]

Syngenta works in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire originally owned by ICI.

Zeneca Agrochemicals was part of AstraZeneca, and formerly of Imperial Chemical Industries.[11][12][13] ICI was formed in the UK in 1926.[12] Two years later, work began at the Agricultural Research Station at Jealotts Hill near Bracknell.[14]

In 2004, Syngenta Seeds purchased Garst, the North American corn and soybean business of Advanta, as well as Golden Harvest Seeds.[15][16] On 5 December 2004, the European Union ended a six-year moratorium when it approved imports of two varieties of genetically modified corn sold by Monsanto and its Swiss rival, Syngenta.[17]

In 2005, Syngenta opposed a Swiss ban on genetically engineered organisms.[18] On 28 November 2005, Switzerland enacted a five-year ban on the farming of genetically modified crops, underscoring the problems facing the European Commission and biotech companies like Syngenta, Bayer and Monsanto as they try to overcome consumer doubts about safety.[19]

As of 2014 Syngenta's main competitors were Monsanto Company, BASF, Dow AgroSciences, Bayer CropScience and DuPont Pioneer.[20]

In 2014, Monsanto sought to acquire Syngenta for a reported $40 billion, but Syngenta rejected the offer.[2][21] Since April 2015 Monsanto and Syngenta had been working with their investment banks Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs respectively on a deal. The U.S. Treasury tried to stop the deal for tax inversion.[22] Syngenta's Board of Directors rejected an even better offer by Monsanto during August 2015, and Monsanto withdrew from the negotiations on 26 August.[23]

According to the Swiss business weekly, Finanz und Wirtschaft [de], many Syngenta shareholders were enraged, both by the company's refusal to enter into takeover negotiations with Monsanto, and with the subsequent offer withdrawal.[24][25] This resulted in a group of investors responding by creating the Alliance of Critical Syngenta Shareholders, which urged the Board to "evaluate all options for value creation without prejudice".[26]

In a 2015 interview, Chairman Michel Demaré was asked whether Syngenta could remain independent. He responded, "If you have the patience to wait for cycles to materialize, then it would be possible. But in these circumstances, where our shareholders have a kind of a benchmark share price, what they think this company is worth, it is very difficult to say that we can deliver this in the next twelve months."[27] He thereby acknowledged that the company needs to be sold, especially given industry consolidation, which is creating larger competitors.

The failed Monsanto buyout caused Syngenta shares to increase by nearly 40%. In February 2016, ChemChina, a Chinese state-owned enterprise, offered to purchase Syngenta for $43 billion (480 Swiss francs per share), a deal which the company "unanimously recommended to shareholders".[28] In April 2017, the Federal Trade Commission, the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, and the European Commissioner for Competition approved of the acquisition, allowing the largest foreign takeover in Chinese history to proceed.[29] To secure approval, ChemChina agreed to divest from pesticide production of paraquat, abamectin, and chlorothalonil.[30][31] As an additional condition for the acquisition, 67 percent of the shareholders of Syngenta had to offer their shares to ChemChina. According to a press release, over 80 percent of shareholders agreed to the takeover by May 4, 2017. The transaction was planned to close on June 7, 2017[32] and the transaction closed on 26 June 2017.[33]

In November 2017, Syngenta agreed to purchase Nidera from Cofco International.[34]

In March 2018, Syngenta announced plans to acquire Strider, a Brazilian agtech company.[35] In July, Syngenta acquired Floranova, a flower and vegetable seeds breeder based in the UK.[36]

In September 2019, the company acquired all the assets of The Cropio Group, an agri-technology company.[37][38]

In October 2020 the company acquired Valagro.[39]

Acquisition historyEdit

The following is an illustration of the company's mergers, acquisitions, spin-offs and historical predecessors:

(Merged 2000)

Novartis Agribusiness

Zeneca Agrochemicals

Garst Seed Company
(Acq 2004)

Golden Harvest Seeds
(Acq 2004)

Circle One Global, Inc[40]
(Acq 2009)

Synergene Seed & Technology, Inc[41]
(Acq 2009)

Pybas Vegetable Seed Co., Inc[41]
(Acq 2009)

Maribo Seed[42](Acq 2010)

Pasteuria Bioscience, Inc[43]
(Acq 2012)

Devgen NV[44]
(Acq 2012)

Sunfield Seeds[45]
(Acq 2012)

MRI Seed Zambia Ltd[46]
(Acq 2013)

MRI Agro Ltd[46]
(Acq 2013)

Società Produttori Sementi[47]
(Acq 2014)

(Winter wheat & oilseed rape operations, Acq 2014)


Syngenta has eight primary product lines which it develops, markets and sells worldwide; Its five product lines for pesticides are selective herbicides, non-selective herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and seed care. Three product lines for seed products include corn and soya, other field crops and vegetables.[49][page needed] In 2014, sales from crop protection products accounted for US$11.381 billion, i.e. 75% of total sales.[50][page needed] Field crop seeds include both hybrid seeds and genetically engineered seeds, some of which enter the food chain and become part of genetically modified food. According to Syngenta, in the US their "proprietary triple stack corn seeds expanded to represent around 25 percent of units sold." [51] In 2010, the US EPA approved insecticidal trait stacks including Syngenta's AGRISURE VIPTERA™ gene, which offers resistance to certain corn pests.[51] Syngenta cross-licenses its proprietary genes with Dow AgroSciences and thus is able to include Dow's Herculex I and Herculex RW insect resistance traits in its seeds.[51] It sells a VMAX soybean that is resistant to glyphosate herbicide.[51]

Key Syngenta brands include Actara (Thiamethoxam), Agrisure (corn with Viptera trait), Alto (Cyproconazole), Amistar (azoxystrobin), Avicta, Axial, Bicep II, Bravo, Callisto, Celest, Cruiser (TMX, Thiamethoxam), Dividend, Dual, Durivo, Elatus, Fusilade, Force, Golden Harvest, Gramoxone, Karate, Northrup-King (NK), Proclaim, Revus, Ridomil, Rogers, Score, Seguris, S&G, Tilt, Topik, Touchdown, Vertimec and Vibrance.[49]

Current productsEdit

Atrazine is an herbicide of the triazine class. Atrazine is used to prevent pre- and post-emergence broadleaf weeds in crops such as maize (corn) and sugarcane and on turf, such as golf courses and residential lawns.

It is one of the most widely used herbicides in US[52] and Australian agriculture.[53] Atrazine has been banned in the European Union.[54] There has been controversy over atrazine's effects on amphibians,[54] but the EPA has concluded "that atrazine does not adversely affect amphibian gonadal development".[55]

The European Commission decided to suspend use of the company's insecticide Cruiser (thiamethoxam, TMX) on crops pollinated by bees.[56] Syngenta together with Bayer is challenging this ban in court.[57]

Former productsEdit

Syngenta's predecessor, Ciba-Geigy, introduced the insecticide Galecron chlordimeform in 1966, and it was removed from the market in 1988.[58] In 1976, Ciba-Geigy told regulatory authorities that it was temporarily withdrawing chlordimeform because ongoing long-term toxicology studies - particularly studies to determine if long-term exposure could cause cancer - showed that it was causing cancer, and that it has already started to monitor its workers' exposure and had found chlordimeform and its metabolites in the urine of its workers.[59]:8–9 Ciba-Geigy then applied for, and was granted, permission to market Galecron at lower doses for use only on cotton.[60] However, as further long term monitoring data was obtained, regulators banned chlordimeform in 1988. In a 1995 class action in the US, Ciba-Geigy agreed to cover costs for employee health monitoring and treatment. In 2005, Syngenta reported that employee health monitoring was continuing at the company's Monthey, Switzerland site.[61]


Like many agriculture companies, Syngenta also works in the biofuel space. In 2011, it announced the corn trait ENOGEN to reduce substantially the consumption of water and energy versus conventional corn.[62] Several ethanol producers plan to process such improved corn.[49] For example, Syngenta has signed a commercial agreement with Three Rivers Energy, LLC of Coshocton, Ohio, US to use grain featuring Enogen trait technology following the 2014 corn harvest.[63]

In 2007, Queensland University in Australia contracted with Syngenta to research different inputs for biofuels as a renewable energy source.[64]

Corporate structureEdit

Syngenta is led by CEO J. Erik Fyrwald. The other Directors are Vinita Bali, Stefan Borgas, Gunnar Brock, David Lawrence, Eleni Gabre-Madhin, Eveline Saupper, Jacques Vincent, and Jürg Witmer.[49] Syngenta employs over 28,000 people in over 90 countries.[65][citation needed]


In 2001, the United States Patent and Trademark Office ruled in favor of Syngenta which had filed a suit against Bayer for patent infringement on a class of neonicotinoid insecticides. The following year Syngenta filed suits against Monsanto and other companies claiming infringement of its U.S. biotechnology patents covering genetically modified corn and cotton. In 2004, it again filed a suit against Monsanto, claiming antitrust violations related to the U.S. biotech corn seed market, and Monsanto countersued. Monsanto and Syngenta settled all litigation in 2008.[66]

Syngenta was defendant in a class action lawsuit by the city of Greenville, Illinois concerning the adverse effects of atrazine in human water supplies. The suit was settled for $105 million in May 2012.[67][68][69] A similar case involving six states has been in federal court since 2010.[70][71]

In the US, Syngenta is facing lawsuits from farmers and shipping companies regarding Viptera genetically modified corn. The plaintiffs in nearly 30 states contend that Syngenta's introduction of Viptera drove down US grain market prices, leading to financial harm, and that Syngenta acted irresponsibly by doing too little to enable shipping companies to export the grain to approved ports.[72] Before Viptera's 2010 introduction Syngenta secured all US and NCGA-recommended export approvals, but none from China. China had imported little to no US grain prior to 2010, and at the time was not considered a major partner, but it became a major partner in 2010, when it dramatically increased US grain imports.[73] For three years, China imported U.S. Viptera grain without formal approval. In November 2013, Chinese officials destroyed a U.S. grain shipment containing Viptera grain, started rejecting all US shipments with the GM grain, but continued to accept it from all countries other than the US.[72] That same year, US corn market prices dropped $4 per bushel, causing over $2.9B in losses, with just over half of that loss occurring prior to China's November rejection.[74] China later approved the GM corn in 2014 but US corn grain market prices have not rebounded.[citation needed] Syngenta lost the first lawsuit to reach trial, in Kansas on 23 June 2017, and was ordered to pay the farmers $217 million.[75] However, Syngenta has stated it would appeal the verdict.



On 21 October 2007, a Brazilian peasant organization, the Landless Workers' Movement (Portuguese: Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra - MST), led a group of landless farmers in an invasion of one of the company's seed research farms, in protest against genetically-engineered ("genetically modified") vegetables and in hopes of obtaining land for landless families to cultivate. After the invasion had begun, a team from NF Security arrived in a minibus and a fight with gunfire ensued. A trespasser and a security guard were killed, and some trespassers and security guards were wounded.[76]

The Brazilian police investigation completed in November 2007 blamed the confrontation and death of the trespasser on nine employees and the owner of NF Security; the leader of MST was blamed for trespassing. The inquiry found that the invader was fatally shot in the abdomen and in the leg. The security guard was shot in the head. Eight others were injured, five of them invaders.[77]

The Civil Court of Cascavel granted an order for the repossession of the site on 20 December 2007[78] and on 12 June 2008, the remaining MST members left the Santa Teresa site they had been invading.[79] On 14 October 2008, Syngenta donated the 123-hectare station to the Agronomy Institute of Paraná (IAPAR) for research into biodiversity, recovery of degraded areas and agriculture production systems, as well as environmental education programs.[80]

Court case In November 2015, Judge Pedro Ivo Moreiro, of the 1st Civil Court of Cascavel, ruled that Syngenta must pay compensation to the family of Valmir Mota de Oliveira ("Keno"), who was killed in the attack, and to Isabel Nascimento dos Santos who was injured.[81][82] In his sentence the judge stated that "to refer to what happened as a confrontation is to close one’s eyes to reality, since […] there is no doubt that, in truth, it was a massacre disguised as repossession of property".[81][82] The version of events put forward by Syngenta was rejected by the Court. In May 2010 Syngenta was condemned by the IV Permanent People's Tribunal for human rights violations in Brazil.[83]

Conflict with Tyrone HayesEdit

There has been a long running conflict between Syngenta and University of California at Berkeley biologist Tyrone Hayes.

According to an article in the 10 February 2014, issue of The New Yorker, Syngenta's public-relations team took steps to discredit Hayes, whose research is purported to suggest that the Syngenta-produced chemical atrazine was responsible for abnormal development of reproductive organs in frogs. The article states that the company paid third-party critics to write articles discrediting Hayes's work, planned to have his wife investigated, and planted hostile audience members at scientific talks given by Hayes.[54]

During a 21 February 2014 interview conducted on Democracy Now, Hayes reiterated the claims.[84] After the interview aired, Syngenta denied targeting Hayes or making any threats, calling those statements "uncorroborated and intentionally damaging" and demanding a retraction and public apology from Hayes and Democracy Now.[85]

In 2010 Syngenta forwarded an ethics complaint to the University of California Berkeley, complaining that Hayes had been sending sexually explicit and harassing e-mails to Syngenta scientists. Legal counsel from the university responded that Hayes had acknowledged sending letters having "unprofessional and offensive" content, and that he had agreed not to use similar language in future communications.[86]

The issue has been described as "one of the weirdest feuds in the history of science”, by Dashka Slater in her 2012 profile of Hayes in Mother Jones magazine.[87]

Lobbying in the EUEdit

Syngenta is in the transparency register of the European Union as a registered lobbyist. For 2017, it declared a €1,500,000 - €1,750,000 expenditure of lobbying in European institutions.[88]

Lobbying in the USEdit

Syngenta's contributions to US federal candidates, parties, and outside groups totaled $140,822 during the 2018 election cycle, ranking it 20th on the list of companies in its sector.[89] Its lobbying expenditures in the US during 2018 were $770,000, ranking it 7th in its sector.[90]

Syngenta FoundationEdit

The objectives and goals of the Syngenta Foundation are "to work with rural communities in the Semi-arid regions of the world and improve their livelihoods."[91] This non-profit organization supports sustainable food security projects in a number of countries.[92] The Syngenta Foundation addressed the World Food Day Symposium in 2005 as an output of the Millennium Ecosystem Report.[93]

Awards and community involvementEdit

In 2007, Syngenta's Canadian division was named one of Canada's Top 100 Employers, as published in Maclean's magazine, one of only a handful of agribusiness firms to receive this honour.[94] In October 2008, Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc. was recognized as one of Waterloo Area's Top Employers, as announced in the Waterloo Region Record, Guelph Mercury and Cambridge Times.[95] In 2011, Syngenta was named among the top 10 employers in biotechnology by Science magazine.[96] The 2011 Dow Jones Sustainability Index named Syngenta one of the best performing chemical companies worldwide. Syngenta was one of five chemical companies in the World and Europe indices based on economic, social and environmental performance.[97][non-primary source needed]

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Syngenta 2017 Full Year Results" (PDF). Syngenta AG. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  2. ^ a b Aaron KirchfeldAndrew Marc Noel, Patrick Winters (24 June 2014). "Monsanto Said to Have Weighed $40 Billion Syngenta Deal". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  3. ^ Shand, Hope (Summer 2012). "The Big Six: A Profile of Corporate Power in Seeds, Agrochemicals & Biotech" (PDF). The Heritage Farm Companion. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  4. ^ "New Syngenta Group Unites Syngenta AG, ADAMA and Sinochem", CropLife, 22 June 2020, retrieved 30 October 2020
  5. ^ Andrew Ross Sorkin for the New York Times. 3 December 1999 AstraZeneca and Novartis To Shed Agricultural Units Accessed 27 May 2013
  6. ^ Staff, PRNewsWire. 13 November 2000. Syngenta Begins Trading on the New York Stock Exchange Accessed 27 May 2013
  7. ^ "A history of... Novartis - Articles". pharmaphorum. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  8. ^ Staff, The Mineralogical Record Biographical Archive. J.R. Geigy (1830-1917) Archived 22 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Drug-House Profiles". 9 October 1984. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  10. ^ Mortished, Carl. "BASF buys Ciba: time to spend the cash hoard". ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  11. ^ Reuters (26 February 1993). "Company News; Imperial Chemical Incurs Charge of $550 Million". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  12. ^ a b Kollewe, Julia; Wearden, Graeme (18 June 2007). "History of ICI". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  13. ^ "Astra, Zeneca in $35B merger - Dec. 9, 1998". Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  14. ^ "Syngenta: About us". Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  15. ^ "Syngenta buys Advanta-17/05/2004-ECN". Archived from the original on 25 July 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  16. ^ "Syngenta to Acquire Golden Harvest". Seed Today. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  17. ^ "European roadblock to biotech crops starts to crumble". Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  18. ^ "World Environment News - Swiss Adopt Five-Year GMO Farming Ban". Planet Ark. 28 November 2005. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  19. ^ "Swiss Voters Approve Ban on Genetically Altered Crops". Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  20. ^ 25 Mar. 2014 Top six agrochemical firms grew steady in 2013
  21. ^ Minkoff, Yoel (8 May 2015). "Syngenta rejects Monsanto's takeover approach". Seeking Alpha (blog). Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  22. ^ "RPT-Monsanto and Syngenta hire U.S. banks to advise on possible takeover". Reuters. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015.
  23. ^ "Monsanto drops pursuit of Swiss rival Syngenta". 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  24. ^ "Verheissungen". Finanz und Wirtschaft. 19 September 2015 – via
  25. ^ Revill, John. "Some Syngenta Shareholders Unhappy After Monsanto's Bid Was Rejected". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  26. ^ "Disgruntled Syngenta investors set up shareholder group". Reuters. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
  27. ^ "Syngenta Chairman: "Going alone is hardly an option anymore"". Finanz und Wirtschaft. 22 December 2015.
  28. ^ "ChemChina offers to buy Syngenta for $43bn". BBC News. 3 February 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  29. ^ Tsang, Amie (6 April 2017). "Deal's Approval Buoys China in Its Quest for Food Security". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  30. ^ "FTC Requires China National Chemical Corporation and Syngenta AG to Divest U.S. Assets as a Condition of Merger". Federal Trade Commission. 4 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  31. ^ "Mergers: Commission clears ChemChina acquisition of Syngenta, subject to conditions". European Commission. 5 April 2017. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
  32. ^ Syngenta ChemChina provisional interim results.[permanent dead link] Press Release Syngenta, 5 May 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017
  33. ^ ChemChina Promises Growth. DTN/The Progressive Farmer
  34. ^ "China's Cofco International sells Nidera seeds business to Syngenta". Reuters. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  35. ^ Seaman, Jessica (29 March 2018). "Syngenta acquires Brazilian agtech company". Triad Business Journal.
  36. ^ Ayers, Rebecca (27 July 2018). "Syngenta acquires U.K.-based seeds breeder Floranova". Triad Business Journal.
  37. ^ Whittington, Lloyd (2 September 2019). "Syngenta acquires agri-business software company". Triad Business Journal. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
  38. ^ "Syngenta Buys Agricultural Technology Firm Cropio". Successful Farming. 2 September 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Syngenta acquires innovative bio-control technology to improve usable crop yields". Archived from the original on 13 May 2015.
  41. ^ a b "Syngenta acquires U.S. lettuce seed companies". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
  42. ^ "Syngenta acquires Maribo Seed sugar beet business from Nordic Sugar". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
  43. ^ "Syngenta to acquire Pasteuria Bioscience". Archived from the original on 4 May 2015.
  44. ^ "Syngenta announces commencement of tender offer to acquire Devgen NV". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
  45. ^ "Syngenta to acquire Sunfield Seeds". Archived from the original on 29 March 2015.
  46. ^ a b "Syngenta to acquire African corn seed business". Archived from the original on 29 March 2015.
  47. ^ "Syngenta acquires leading Italian durum wheat seed company".
  48. ^ "Syngenta to acquire Lantmännen's winter wheat and winter oilseed rape businesses in Germany and Poland". Archived from the original on 29 March 2015.
  49. ^ a b c d "Annual Report 2013". Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  50. ^ "Full-Year Results 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  51. ^ a b c d 2009 Full Year Results Archived 30 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine Syngenta, 5 February 2010
  52. ^ "A Valuable Reputation: Tyrone Hayes said that a chemical was harmful, its maker pursued him" by Rachel Aviv, The New Yorker, 10 February 2014
  53. ^ "Chemical Review: Atrazine". Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  54. ^ a b c Rachel Aviv for The New Yorker. 10 February 2014. A Valuable Reputation
  55. ^ USEPA. White Paper on the Potential for Atrazine to Affect Amphibian Gonadal Development; Submitted to the FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel for Review and Comment; 9–12 October 2007.
  56. ^ European Commission. Bees & Pesticides: Commission to proceed with plan to better protect bees; Press Release, 29 April 2013.
  57. ^ Cressey, Daniel (28 August 2013). "EU insecticide ban triggers legal action". Nature News Blog.
  58. ^ World Health Organization Chlordimeform Environmental Health Criteria, No 199. ISBN 9789241571999
  59. ^ Environmental Protection Agency Office Of Pesticide Programs Case Number 0141 Guidance for the Reregistration Of Pesticide Products Containing Chlordimeform or Chlordimeform Hydrochloride As Active Ingredients 059701 and 059702
  60. ^ "431. Chlordimeform (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)". Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  61. ^ "Syngenta Global Website – Bringing plant potential to life" (PDF). 17 December 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  62. ^ "U.S. Approves Corn Modified for Ethanol". 11 February 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  63. ^ Syngenta and Three Rivers Energy signed Enogen® trait technology agreement. AgroPages, 26 Nov. 2013. Retrieved 2014-5-8
  64. ^ "Syngenta in Australian biofuel research -". 1 August 2007. Archived from the original on 1 August 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  65. ^ "IChemE | News | Syngenta recognised as IChemE Silver Corporate Partner for growing talent". Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  66. ^ "Monsanto and Syngenta Settle All Litigation Between the Companies". Patent Docs. 30 May 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  67. ^ City of Greenville v. Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., and Syngenta AG Case No. 3:10-cv-00188-JPG-PMF, accessed 23 August 2013
  68. ^ Ian Berry Syngenta Settles With Water Utilities Over Weedkiller,, 25 May 2012 (subscription required)
  69. ^ Clare Howard Special Report: Syngenta's campaign to protect atrazine, discredit critics. Environmental Health News, 17 June 2013
  70. ^ Dalton, Rex (2010). "E-mails spark ethics row". Nature. 466 (7309): 913. doi:10.1038/466913a. PMID 20725013.
  71. ^ Tillery planning to file new litigation involving atrazine, Madison County Record, 19 June 2013, accessed 23 August 2013
  72. ^ a b "Syngenta Speaks Out About Viptera, Duracade Launch". Agriculture.Com. 31 October 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  73. ^ "USDA Export Sales Reporting System". 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  74. ^ "Table 9--Corn and sorghum: Average prices received by farmers, United States". USDA. 17 August 2015. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  75. ^ Cronin Fisk, Margaret; Bross, Tim (23 June 2017). "Syngenta Loses $218 Million Verdict in First GMO Trial Test". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  76. ^ Doyle, Leonard (5 November 2007). "Brazilian land activist killed in dispute over experimental GM farm". The Independent. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  77. ^ Miguel Portela for CONTAG (Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura) Press Office. 21 November 2007 Polícia indicia seguranças por morte English translation via Google
  78. ^ Marcus Vinícius for Bem Paraná. 28 December 2007. A multa continua Archived 24 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine English translation via Google
  79. ^ Staff, Bem Paraná. 11 June 2008. Desocupação da fazenda da multinacional Syngenta é finalizada Archived 30 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine English translation via Google
  80. ^ Instituto Agronômico do Paraná 14 October 2008. Antiga fazenda experimental da Syngenta Seeds abrigará centro de pesquisa do IAPAR English translation via Google
  81. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  82. ^ a b Direitos, Terra de. "Syngenta condenada: Justiça responsabiliza empresa por morte de sem terra no Paraná". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  83. ^ Direitos, Terra de. "Syngenta é condenada na Europa por violações de direitos humanos no Brasil". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  84. ^ Juan Gonzalez and Amy Goodman for Democracy Now. 21 February 2014. Silencing the Scientist: Tyrone Hayes on Being Targeted by Herbicide Firm Syngenta
  85. ^ "Syngenta Defends Senior Scientist". 7 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  86. ^ Dalton, Rex (18 August 2010). "E-mails spark ethics row". Nature. 466 (7309): 913. doi:10.1038/466913a. PMID 20725013.
  87. ^ Slater, Dashka (January–February 2012). "The Frog of War". Mother Jones.
  88. ^ "European Register". Archived from the original on 8 August 2018.
  89. ^ "Agricultural Services & Products: Top Contributors to Federal Candidates, Parties, and Outside Groups". Archived from the original on 8 August 2018.
  90. ^ "Agricultural Services & Products: Lobbying, 2018". Archived from the original on 8 August 2018.
  91. ^ [1] Archived 31 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  92. ^ "Science: Agriculture: Sustainable Agriculture". DMOZ. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2014.
  93. ^ "Watch Videos Online | Syngenta Foundation For Sustainable Agriculture". Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  94. ^ "Reasons for Selection 2007 Canada's Top 100 Employers". Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  95. ^ "Reasons for Selection, 2009 Waterloo Area's Top Employers Competition". Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  96. ^ Milano, Carol (16 September 2011). "Innovation and Research: The Human Factor | Science Careers". Retrieved 4 February 2014.
  97. ^ "DJSI recognition". 8 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.

External linksEdit