This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2019)
In phonology, syncope (//; from Ancient Greek: συγκοπή, romanized: sunkopḗ, lit. 'cutting up') is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel. It is found in both synchronic and diachronic analyses of languages. Its opposite, whereby sounds are added, is epenthesis.
Synchronic analysis studies linguistic phenomena at one moment of a language's history, usually the present, in contrast to diachronic analysis, which studies a language's states and the patterns of change across a historical timeframe. In modern languages, syncope occurs in inflection, poetry, and informal speech.
- In some verbs
- imir (to play) should become *imirím (I play). However, the addition of the -ím causes syncope and the second-last syllable vowel i is lost so imirim becomes imrím.
- כָּתַב (katav), (he) wrote, becomes כָּתְבוּ (katvu), (they) wrote, when the third-person plural ending ־וּ (-u) is added.
- In some nouns
- inis (island) should become *inise in the genitive case. However, instead of *Baile na hInise, road signs say, Baile na hInse (the town of the island). Once again, there is the loss of the second i.
If the present root form in Irish is the result of diachronic syncope, synchronic syncope for inflection is prevented.
As a poetic deviceEdit
Sounds may be removed from the interior of a word as a rhetorical or poetic device: for embellishment or for the sake of the meter.
- Latin commōverat > poetic commōrat ("he had moved")
- English hastening > poetic hast'ning
- English heaven > poetic heav'n
- English over > poetic o'er
- English ever > poetic e'er, often confused with ere ("before")
Various sorts of colloquial reductions might be called "syncope" or "compression".
Contractions in English such as "didn't" or "can't" are typically cases of syncope.
- English Australian > colloquial Strine, pronounced //
- English did not > didn't, pronounced //
- English I would have > I'd've, pronounced //
- English going to > colloquial gonna (generally only when unstressed and when expressing intention rather than direction), pronounced // or, before a vowel, //
- English every pronounced [ˈɛvɹi]
- English library pronounced as // (haplology)
In historical phonology, the term "syncope" is often limited to the loss of an unstressed vowel, in effect collapsing the syllable that contained it: trisyllabic Latin calidus (stress on first syllable) develops as bisyllabic caldo in several Romance languages.
Loss of any soundEdit
- Old English hlāfweard > hlāford > Middle English loverd > Modern English lord, pronounced //
- English Worcester, pronounced //
- English Gloucester, pronounced //
- English Leicester, pronounced //
- English Towcester, pronounced //
- English Godmanchester, pronounced // (archaic)
Loss of unstressed vowelEdit
- Latin cálidum > Italian caldo [ˈkaldo] "hot"
- Latin óculum > Italian occhio [ˈɔkkjo] "eye"
- Proto-Norse armaʀ > Old Norse armr "arm"
- Proto-Norse bókiʀ > Old Norse bǿkr "books"
- Proto-Germanic *himinōz > Old Norse himnar "heavens"
A syncope rule has been identified in Tonkawa, an extinct American Indian language in which the second vowel of a word was deleted unless it was adjacent to a consonant cluster or a final consonant.
- Wells, John C. (2000). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (2nd ed.). Longman. pp. 165–6. ISBN 0-582-36467-1.
- "syncope noun - Definition, pictures, pronunciation and usage notes | Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com". www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
the pronunciation of library as /laɪbri/
- Hayes, Bruce (2009). Introductory Phonology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 255.