Sydney Tower is Sydney's tallest structure and the second tallest observation tower in the Southern Hemisphere. The name Sydney Tower has become common in daily usage; however, the tower has been known as the Sydney Tower Eye, AMP Tower, Flower Tower, Glower Tower, Westfield Centrepoint Tower, Big Poke, Centrepoint Tower or just Centrepoint.
|Alternative names||Sydney Tower, AMP Tower, Westfield Tower, Westfield Centrepoint Tower, Centrepoint Tower|
|Type||Observation and communications tower|
|Construction started||1970 (office building),|
|Owner||Westfield, Operated By Trippas White Group and The Merlin Entertainments Group|
|Antenna spire||309 m (1,014 ft)|
|Top floor||279 m (915 ft) for Sydney Tower Skywalk|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Donald Crone and Associates (Now Crone Architects)|
The Sydney Tower is a member of the World Federation of Great Towers.
The tower stands 309 m (1,014 ft) above the Sydney central business district (CBD), located on Market Street, between Pitt and Castlereagh Streets. It is accessible from the Pitt Street Mall, Market Street or Castlereagh Street and sits above the Westfield Sydney (formerly Centrepoint) shopping centre. The tower is open to the public, and is one of the most prominent tourist attractions in the city, being visible from a number of vantage points throughout town and from adjoining suburbs. Auckland's Sky Tower is taller but Sydney Tower's main observation deck is almost 30 m (98 ft) higher than the observation deck on Auckland's Sky Tower.
While the shopping centre at the base of the tower is run by Scentre Group, the tower itself is occupied by Trippas White Group, which owns and operates Sydney Tower Dining, and Merlin Entertainments, which owns and operates the "Sydney Tower Eye" observation deck and "Oztrek" simulated ride attraction.
Designed by Australian architect Donald Crone, the first plans for Sydney Tower were unveiled in March 1968. Construction of the office building commenced in 1970, and tower construction began in 1975. Prior to construction of the tower, the height limit in Sydney had been set at 279 m (915 ft), to allow for the harbour's flying boats that were popular before the modern jet era.
Public access to the tower began in September 1981. The total cost of construction was A$36 million. In 1998, the addition of a lightning rod to the top of spire extended the tower's overall height from 305 m to 309 m (1,014 ft), which is 327 m (1,073 ft) above sea level.
While AMP managed the Centrepoint shopping centre, the tower was officially referred to as "AMP Tower". After the Westfield Group took over ownership of Centrepoint in December 2001, the name was changed to Sydney Tower.
In 2009, the base building was closed and stripped for a major refurbishment. This involved the connection of the shopping centre to other arcades and a complete upgrade of all the sites. The shopping centre was progressively reopened from 2010 and was renamed Westfield Sydney. On 25–26 June 2011 the "AMP" banner was removed from the tower and replaced by a large illuminated "Westfield" logo. This was achieved by helicopter after two previous attempts on 22 May and 12 June were aborted due to bad weather.
Four sections of the tower are open to the public, three being occupied by Sydney Tower Dining. 360 Bar and Dining, which offers revolving views of the Sydney skyline, is located on level one of the Sydney Tower. Sydney Tower Buffet, a contemporary self-select restaurant, is on the tower's second level. STUDIO, located on level three can cater for cocktail functions for 200 people and 156 sit-down guests.
The observation deck, currently called the Sydney Tower Eye, is located on level four of Sydney Tower. To access this level, visitors can buy a pass from the operating company or at the gate. The pass allows access to other Sydney attractions including Wild Life Sydney and the Sydney Aquarium. The Sydney Tower Eye is located 250 m (820 ft) above ground level. It has a fully enclosed viewing platform featuring 360-degree views of the city and surrounding areas. This floor also houses a small gift shop, multilingual touchscreens and a readout that displays data about the wind speed, direction, sway amplitude, and other statistics of the tower. On 23 September 2011, a 4D cinema was opened on the fourth floor of the arcade, playing a film with footage from various locations in Sydney. The theatre is the first of its kind in Australia; in-theatre effects include wind, bubbles, and fire.
Skywalk is an open-air glass-floored platform encircling the Sydney Tower Eye at a height of 268 m (879 ft) above ground level. The viewing platform extends over the edge of the main structure of the deck. It was opened on 18 October 2005, cost A$3.75 million to construct, took four years to design and two months to build. This platform is only accessible as part of planned and booked tours.
The golden turret near the top of the tower has a maximum capacity of 960 people. Travel to the observation deck is by three high speed double-deck lifts, each with a capacity of 8 to 10 people. The lifts travel at full, half or quarter speed, depending on wind conditions. At full speed the lifts reach the deck in 45 seconds.
Leading up to the Sydney 2000 Olympics, the tower was decorated with sculptures by Australian artist Dominique Sutton (an athlete rising from starting blocks, a gymnast performing a handstand, and a wheelchair basketball player passing the ball) which were positioned above the main body of the tower and in some cases overhung the edges. These sculptures were removed in 2003 and relocated to Sydney Olympic Park at Homebush Bay. The figures were placed atop the tower using an S-64 Aircrane heavy lift helicopter known as "Elvis".
On several occasions, the tower has been used to launch fireworks or it has been illuminated with coloured lights as part of various celebrations in Sydney, such as New Year's Eve or during the Olympics in 2000.
Each year the Sydney Tower Stair Challenge comprises the challenge of running up 1,504 stairs from Pitt Street Mall to the Observation Deck. The event is to raise money for the Cancer Council, and the two winners become eligible to compete in the Empire State Building Run-up. However, the event was cancelled in both 2011 and 2012.
The Tower was climbed by French 'Spiderman' Alain Robert in 1997.
On 8 March 2018, the Skywalk was closed for five weeks following the suicide of a 21-year-old woman who removed her safety harness and leapt from the tower while on a tour. The Skywalk reopened on 12 April 2018, after conducting a probe into the incident and the tower having upgraded the safety equipment.
Engineering heritage awardEdit
In popular cultureEdit
- The tower appeared in the 2003 Disney/Pixar animated film Finding Nemo.
- In the film Mission: Impossible 2, the tower is seen in several shots, usually shown whenever the CBD of Sydney appears.
- The tower was featured in the 1995 film Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie, where it was used as the Angel Grove Observatory. A CGI simulation of the tower was used when it became a weapon for the main villain, Ivan Ooze in the film's climatic battle.
- The tower is destroyed in the films Godzilla: Final Wars and Supernova.
- "Sydney Tower Eye". Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "The World Federation of Great Towers: Sydney Tower". Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Centrepoint Tower". Sydney Architecture. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- "Sydney Tower Official Site". Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Sydney Showcase". Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Home". Trippas White Group. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Campion, Vikki (8 September 2011). "UK firm Merlin Entertainment Group eyeing off Sydney Tower for a makeover". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "Sydney Tower Fact Sheet" (PDF). Internet Archive Wayback Machine. 29 August 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2009.
- About Sydney Tower (from the Sydney Tower Eye website. Accessed 23 Sep 2020.) Archived 23 September 2020 at sydneytowereye.com.au [Error: unknown archive URL]
- Westfield Group Limited. Westfield Centrepoint Archived 5 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine (from the Westfield Group website. Accessed on 2 March 2008.)
- Hardie, Giles (18 August 2011). "EyePhoney: Sydney Tower goes over the top". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "360 Bar and Dining". Trippas White Group. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Sydney Tower Buffet". Trippas White Group. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Sky Venue". Trippas White Group. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "Ticket Prices". Sydney Tower Eye. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "Observation Deck". Sydney Tower Eye. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "4D Cinema". Sydney Tower Eye. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "Sydney Tower Eye". Sydney.com. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Skywalk". Sydney Tower Eye. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "Sydney Skywalk opens 880 feet up on tower". The Free Lance-Star. 29 October 2005. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- "About Sydney Tower". www.sydneytowereye.com.au/. Merlin Entertainments. 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "School Excursions - Background information for Teachers making Risk Assessments" (PDF). www.sydneytowereye.com.au/. The Sydney Tower Eye. n.d. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "New home for athletes of steel". Australian Government: Department of Communication, Information Technology and the Arts. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 14 October 2006. (Updated 11 January 2016).
- Sydney Tower Run Up Archived 24 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine (from the 'Supersprint' website)
- "Results". Stair Climbing Australia. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Sydney Tower Run-up 2012 is cancelled". Stair Climbing Australia. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Sydney Tower's Skywalk shut for probe into woman's fatal plunge". Sydney Morning Herald, 9 March 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "Sydney Tower's Skywalk boosts safety measures after woman's fatal fall". Sydney Morning Herald, 11 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "Sydney Tower, 1981-". Engineers Australia. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- "IMDb: Filming Location Matching "CentrePoint Tower, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia" (Sorted by Popularity Ascending)". IMDb. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- Saiful H. Esa: Sydney Tower at Centrepoint, Sydney, University of New South Wales, 1991.
- A. Wargon, E. Smith, A. Davids: Sydney Tower Design for Comfort and Strength, in: National Structural Engineering Conference, 1990, ISBN 0-858255065.
- Alexander Wargon: Sydney Tower at Centrepoint (Australia), in: IBASE STRUCTURES C-34/85 (Telecommunication Towers), Mai 1985, S. 24–27, ISSN 0377-7286. (here online)
- B. J. Vickery, Alan Garnett Davenport: An Investigation of the Behaviour in Wind of the Proposed Centrepoint Tower in Sydney, Australia, University of Western Ontario. Faculty of Engineering Science 1970.
- John Steven Gero, Wargon, Chapman and Associates: Preliminary Report on the Model Investigation of the Centrepoint Tower for the A.M.P., Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney, 1969, ISBN 978-0855890162.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sydney Tower.|
- Sydney Tower at Structurae
- Sydney Tower Eye official website
- "Centrepoint (formerly AMP Tower) (see also Westfield Sydney City)". Sydney Architecture. Retrieved 22 June 2013. – Includes photos taken during construction.
- Sydney Tower gets "re-badged" – blog with historic images and newspaper articles of Sydney Tower
- The Sydney Morning Herald: newspaper article for opening of Sydney Tower, 25 September 1981
- Mark Dunn (2008). "Centrepoint Tower". Dictionary of Sydney. Dictionary of Sydney Trust. Retrieved 9 October 2015.