Swiss cheese (North America)

Swiss cheese is any variety of cheese that resembles Emmental cheese, a yellow, medium-hard cheese that originated in the area around Emmental, Switzerland. Some types of Swiss cheese have a distinctive appearance, as the blocks or rounds of the cheese are riddled with holes known as "eyes". Swiss cheese without eyes is known as "blind".[1] It is classified as a Swiss-type or Alpine cheese.

Swiss cheese
Swiss cheese cubes.jpg
Cubes of Swiss cheese
Source of milkCows milk

Swiss cheese is now manufactured in many countries, including the United States, Finland, Estonia, and Ireland. It is sometimes made with pasteurized or part-skim milk, unlike the original from Switzerland made with raw milk.[2] The United States Department of Agriculture uses the terms Swiss cheese and Emmentaler cheese interchangeably.[3][4] In Australia, both terms are used, along with Swiss-style cheese, in some cases differentiating the two.[5][6] The term Swiss cheese is sometimes used in India,[7] although it is also often referred to as Emmental, which is the more common name in Europe.

Production

Three types of bacteria are used in the production of Swiss cheese: Streptococcus salivarius subspecies thermophilus (also known as Streptococcus thermophilus),[8] Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus helveticus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus), and Propionibacterium (Propionibacterium freudenreichii subspecies shermani).[9] In a late stage of cheese production, the propionibacteria consume the lactic acid excreted by the other bacteria and release acetate, propionic acid, and carbon dioxide gas. The carbon dioxide slowly forms the bubbles that develop the "eyes".[10] The acetate and propionic acid give Swiss its nutty and sweet flavor.[11] A hypothesis proposed by Swiss researchers in 2015 notes that particulate matter may also play a role in the holes' development and that modern sanitation eliminated debris such as hay dust in the milk played a role in reduced hole size in Swiss cheeses, or even "blind cheese".[12][13] Historically, the holes were seen as a sign of imperfection and cheese makers originally tried to avoid them by pressing during production -the holes only became an identifier of the cheese in modern times.[14]

In general, the larger the eyes in a Swiss cheese, the more pronounced its flavor because a longer fermentation period gives the bacteria more time to act.[15] This poses a problem, however, because cheese with large eyes does not slice well and comes apart in mechanical slicers. As a result, U.S. industry regulators have reduced the minimum eye size with which Swiss cheese can receive the Grade A stamp.[16]

In 2014, 297.8 million pounds of Swiss cheese was reportedly produced in the United States.[17]

Variants

Baby Swiss and Lacy Swiss are two varieties of American Swiss cheeses. Both have small holes and a mild flavor. Baby Swiss is made from whole milk, and Lacy Swiss is made from low fat milk.[18] Baby Swiss was developed in the mid-1960s outside of Charm, Ohio, by the Guggisberg Cheese Company, owned by Alfred Guggisberg.[19]

Nutrition

MacroNutrients (g) of common cheeses per 100 g
Cheese Water Protein Fat Carbs
Swiss 37.1 26.9 27.8 5.4
Feta 55.2 14.2 21.3 4.1
Cheddar 36.8 24.9 33.1 1.3
Mozzarella 50 22.2 22.4 2.2
Cottage 80 11.1 4.3 3.4
Vitamin contents in %DV of common cheeses per 100 g
Cheese A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 Ch. C D E K
Swiss 17 4 17 0 4 4 1 56 2.8 0 11 2 3
Feta 8 10 50 5 10 21 8 28 2.2 0 0 1 2
Cheddar 20 2 22 0 4 4 5 14 3 0 3 1 3
Mozzarella 14 2 17 1 1 2 2 38 2.8 0 0 1 3
Cottage 3 2 10 0 6 2 3 7 3.3 0 0 0 0
Mineral contents in %DV of common cheeses per 100 g
Cheese Ca Fe Mg P K Na Zn Cu Mn Se
Swiss 79 10 1 57 2 8 29 2 0 26
Feta 49 4 5 34 2 46 19 2 1 21
Cheddar 72 4 7 51 3 26 21 2 1 20
Mozzarella 51 2 5 35 2 26 19 1 1 24
Cottage 8 0 2 16 3 15 3 1 0 14


[20] Ch. = Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium;


Note : All nutrient values including protein are in %DV per 100 g of the food item except for Macronutrients. Source : Nutritiondata.self.com

See also

References

  1. ^ The Nibble. Cheese Glossary. See the asterisked footnote at the very bottom of that page Thenibble.com
  2. ^ Everything you need to know about Swiss cheese by Erica Marcus, Newsday, July 23, 2014, accessed March 25, 2020
  3. ^ Swiss Cheese, Emmentaler Cheese Grades and Standards, U.S. Department of Agriculture, accessed March 25, 2020
  4. ^ How to Buy Cheese, U.S. Department of Agriculture (1971), p. 15
  5. ^ How to Make Swiss Cheese, Country Brewer, accessed March 25, 2020
  6. ^ Valerie Pearson. Home Cheese Making in Australia: Simple Recipes You Can Make at Home, 2nd edition, unpaged, Chapter 4, "Eye Cheeses"
  7. ^ Why do some types of cheese have holes, Times of India, July 13, 2019, accessed March 25, 2020
  8. ^ "Validation of the Publication of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively Published Outside the IJSB: List No. 54". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 45 (3): 619–620. July 1995. doi:10.1099/00207713-45-3-619.
  9. ^ Swiss Cheese Niche. Microbewiki.kenyon.edu
  10. ^ A bacterium used in the production of Emmental. Genoscope. 16 January 2008. Genoscope.cns.fr. See the "Activities in cheese" section.
  11. ^ Making Swiss Cheese. David B. Fankhauser, PhD. Professor of Biology and Chemistry. University of Cincinnati Clermont College
  12. ^ Swiss cheese hole mystery solved: It's all down to dirt. BBC (28 May 2015). Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  13. ^ Nicola Twilley (10 June 2015). "How Does Swiss Cheese Get Its Holes?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 10 June 2015. Switzerland’s cheese-blindness epidemic seems to have been caused by excessively clean milk.
  14. ^ Scientific American Cheese Story, August 2010, p. 33
  15. ^ Swiss Cheese Niche. Microbewiki.kenyon.edu
  16. ^ Swiss Cheese.Professorshouse.com See the eighth paragraph.
  17. ^ "Swiss Cheese Production Rises, As Does Output Of Cream, Hispanic, Blue, Feta, And Muenster". Cheese Reporter. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  18. ^ Swiss Cheese. Recipetips.com
  19. ^ George Zimmermann, Carol Zimmermann (24 November 2009). Ohio Off the Beaten Path. Globe Pequot. p. 58. ISBN 9780762761678.
  20. ^ "SELF Nutrition Data - Food Facts, Information & Calorie Calculator". nutritiondata.self.com.

External links