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List of Swimming World Swimmers of the Year

Michael Phelps with a gold medal hung around his neck on a red ribbon
Michael Phelps was the male swimmer of the year in 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2012, and 2016

Swimming World Swimmers of the Year is awarded by the American-based Swimming World. There are seven categories: World Swimmer, American Swimmer, European Swimmer, Pacific Rim Swimmer, World Disabled Swimmer, African Swimmer, and Open Water Swimmer of year. An award for male and female is made for each category.[1]

The award was inaugurated in 1964, when Swimming World named Don Schollander as its World Swimmer of the Year. Two years later, a female category was added, and the awards continued in this format until 1980. The winners were mostly American until the rise of East Germany's women in the 1970s, and 1980 saw the creation of subcategories for American and European swimmers. Following the end of the Cold War, Germany declined following the end of the East's systematic state-sponsored doping program, while Australia's swimming team enjoyed a revival. In December 2013, Swimming World announced a decision to strip the drug-fueled East Germans of all World and European Swimmers of the Year awards.[2]

In 1994, Australian swimmers won both awards for World Swimmer of the Year for the first time, and in 1995, a subcategory was inaugurated for Pacific Rim swimmers. A subcategory for disabled swimmers was introduced in 2003, and in the following year, an African award was launched after South Africa became the first country from the continent to win an Olympic relay. In 2005, open water swimming was added to the Olympic program and another category was duly added.

American swimmers have been the most successful in winning awards, with 52 titles, more than three times that of Australia (13). Michael Phelps of the United States has won the global award eight times, followed by Katie Ledecky of the United States and Ian Thorpe of Australia with four. Regionally, German, Hungarian and Dutch swimmers have had the most success in Europe, while Australians have won more than three-quarters of the Pacific awards.

World Swimmers of the YearEdit

 
Katie Ledecky, five-time female World Swimmer of the Year
 
Inge de Bruijn, the only Dutch female World Swimmer of the Year
 
Natalie Coughlin, who was female world Swimmer of the Year in 2002
 
Grant Hackett, male World Swimmer of the Year in 2005
 
Leisel Jones, female World Swimmer of the Year in 2005 and 2006.

The award was inaugurated in 1964, when Swimming World named Don Schollander as its World Swimmer of the Year. One year later, a female category was added. The winners were always American until 1970, and the it was not until 1979 that a non-American male won the award. However, from 1973 until 1989, the rise of East Germany's women saw them win a majority of the awards.[1] Following the end of the Cold War, Germany declined following the end of the East's systematic state-sponsored doping program,[3][4] while Australia's swimming team enjoyed a revival in the late 1990s, winning nine awards since 1997, the most by any country in that period.[1] However, Swimming World has since stripped the East Germans of their titles.

United States swimmers have won the title 51 times, followed by Australia (13 times) and East Germany (11 times).[1] This ratio is approximately proportional to the number of gold medals won by the respective nations at the Olympics. East Germany was particularly successful in the 1970s and 1980s, when they dominated the women's events, aided by systematic state-sponsored doping.[3][4]

With his win in 2016, Michael Phelps (United States) now holds the overall record with eight titles. He won in 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2012, and 2016. Katie Ledecky (United States) is the second most-prolific winner, winning in 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2018. Phelps and Ledecky are the only swimmers to win the award four straight times. Ian Thorpe (AUS) was honored four times, in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002.[1]

Ledecky is the only female swimmer to win the award more than three times.[1] Four female swimmers have won three awards: Debbie Meyer (United States) in 1967, 1968 and 1969, Krisztina Egerszegi (HUN) in 1991, 1992 and 1995, Janet Evans (United States) in 1987, 1989 and 1990, and Kristin Otto (GDR) in 1984, 1986 and 1988. Franziska van Almsick is the youngest female to have won the award, having turned 15 on 5 April in the year of her first award. Thorpe is the youngest male recipient, having turned 16 on 13 October in the year of his first award.[5]

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
1964 Not awarded N/A Don Schollander   United States
1965 Martha Randall[6]   United States Dick Roth   United States
1966 Claudia Kolb   United States Mike Burton   United States
1967 Debbie Meyer   United States Mark Spitz   United States
1968 Debbie Meyer   United States Charlie Hickcox   United States
1969 Debbie Meyer   United States Gary Hall, Sr.   United States
1970 Alice Jones   United States Gary Hall, Sr.   United States
1971 Shane Gould   Australia Mark Spitz   United States
1972 Shane Gould   Australia Mark Spitz   United States
1973 Kornelia Ender   East Germany Rick DeMont   United States
1974 Ulrike Tauber   East Germany Tim Shaw   United States
1975 Kornelia Ender   East Germany Tim Shaw   United States
1976 Kornelia Ender   East Germany John Naber   United States
1977 Ulrike Tauber   East Germany Brian Goodell   United States
1978 Tracy Caulkins   United States Jesse Vassallo   United States
1979 Cynthia Woodhead   United States Vladimir Salnikov   Soviet Union
1980 Petra Schneider   East Germany Rowdy Gaines   United States
1981 Mary T. Meagher   United States Alex Baumann   Canada
1982 Petra Schneider   East Germany Vladimir Salnikov   Soviet Union
1983 Ute Geweniger   East Germany Rick Carey   United States
1984 Kristin Otto   East Germany Alex Baumann   Canada
1985 Mary T. Meagher   United States Michael Groß   West Germany
1986 Kristin Otto   East Germany Matt Biondi   United States
1987 Janet Evans   United States Tamás Darnyi   Hungary
1988 Kristin Otto   East Germany Matt Biondi   United States
1989 Janet Evans   United States Mike Barrowman   United States
1990 Janet Evans   United States Mike Barrowman   United States
1991 Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Tamás Darnyi   Hungary
1992 Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Yevgeny Sadovyi   Russia
1993 Franziska van Almsick   Germany Károly Güttler   Hungary
1994 Samantha Riley   Australia Kieren Perkins   Australia
1995 Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Denis Pankratov   Russia
1996 Penny Heyns   South Africa Denis Pankratov   Russia
1997 Claudia Poll   Costa Rica Michael Klim   Australia
1998 Jenny Thompson   United States Ian Thorpe   Australia
1999 Penny Heyns   South Africa Ian Thorpe   Australia
2000 Inge de Bruijn   Netherlands Pieter van den Hoogenband   Netherlands
2001 Inge de Bruijn   Netherlands Ian Thorpe   Australia
2002 Natalie Coughlin   United States Ian Thorpe   Australia
2003 Hannah Stockbauer   Germany Michael Phelps   United States
2004 Yana Klochkova   Ukraine Michael Phelps   United States
2005 Leisel Jones   Australia Grant Hackett   Australia
2006 Leisel Jones   Australia Michael Phelps   United States
2007 Laure Manaudou   France Michael Phelps   United States
2008 Stephanie Rice   Australia Michael Phelps   United States
2009 Federica Pellegrini   Italy Michael Phelps   United States
2010 Rebecca Soni   United States Ryan Lochte   United States
2011 Rebecca Soni   United States Ryan Lochte   United States
2012 Missy Franklin   United States Michael Phelps   United States
2013 Katie Ledecky   United States Sun Yang   China
2014 Katie Ledecky   United States Kosuke Hagino   Japan
2015 Katie Ledecky   United States Adam Peaty   Great Britain
2016 Katie Ledecky   United States Michael Phelps   United States
2017 Sarah Sjöström   Sweden Caeleb Dressel   United States
2018 Katie Ledecky   United States Adam Peaty   Great Britain

American Swimmers of the YearEdit

 
Katie Hoff, who was female American Swimmer of the Year in 2005–2007

Michael Phelps has been named American Swimmer of the Year on eleven occasions; his streak of 2001 to 2009 was interrupted only by Aaron Peirsol in 2005. Katie Ledecky is the most decorated female swimmer with six awards, followed by Evans, who won five consecutive awards from 1987 to 1991. Tracy Caulkins won four times in the early-1980s, while Natalie Coughlin, Katie Hoff and Jenny Thompson all won three times. On the men’s side, Mike Barrowman and Lenny Krayzelburg won the award four consecutive times, while Matt Biondi and Tom Dolan captured three awards.[1]

Year[1] Female Winner Male Winner
1980 Tracy Caulkins Mike Bruner
1981 Tracy Caulkins Craig Beardsley
1982 Tracy Caulkins Steve Lundquist
1983 Tiffany Cohen Rick Carey
1984 Tracy Caulkins Pablo Morales
1985 Mary T. Meagher Matt Biondi
1986 Betsy Mitchell Matt Biondi
1987 Janet Evans David Wharton
1988 Janet Evans Matt Biondi
1989 Janet Evans Mike Barrowman
1990 Janet Evans Mike Barrowman
1991 Janet Evans Mike Barrowman
1992 Summer Sanders Mike Barrowman
1993 Jenny Thompson Eric Namesnik
1994 Allison Wagner Tom Dolan
1995 Amy Van Dyken Tom Dolan
1996 Amy Van Dyken 4×100 m medley relay team[note 1]
1997 Kristine Quance Lenny Krayzelburg
1998 Jenny Thompson Lenny Krayzelburg
1999 Jenny Thompson Lenny Krayzelburg
2000 Brooke Bennett Lenny Krayzelburg
Tom Dolan
2001 Natalie Coughlin Michael Phelps
2002 Natalie Coughlin Michael Phelps
2003 Amanda Beard Michael Phelps
2004 Amanda Beard Michael Phelps
2005 Katie Hoff Aaron Peirsol
2006 Katie Hoff Michael Phelps
2007 Katie Hoff Michael Phelps
2008 Natalie Coughlin Michael Phelps
2009 Ariana Kukors
Rebecca Soni
Michael Phelps
2010 Rebecca Soni Ryan Lochte
2011 Rebecca Soni Ryan Lochte
2012 Missy Franklin Michael Phelps
2013 Katie Ledecky Ryan Lochte
2014 Katie Ledecky Ryan Cochrane
Tyler Clary
2015 Katie Ledecky Michael Phelps
2016 Katie Ledecky Michael Phelps
2017 Katie Ledecky Caeleb Dressel
2018 Katie Ledecky Chase Kalisz

European Swimmers of the YearEdit

 
Katinka Hosszú, three-time winner of the European Swimmer of the Year award
 
Pieter van den Hoogenband was the European Swimmer of the Year four times.
 
Rebecca Adlington was the European Swimmer of the Year in 2008.
 
Alexander Popov won the European Swimmer of the Year twice.

East Germany was particularly successful in the 1970s and 1980s, when they dominated the women's events, aided by systematic state-sponsored doping.[3][4] Their women swept the award for the first ten years of its existence from 1980 to 1989, with Kristin Otto winning three times, before the Berlin Wall and communism fell. With the end of the state-sponsored doping program, the (East) German stranglehold on women's swimming was broken.[1][3][4] In the two decades since reunification, the female award was won by Germans four times, three by Franziska van Almsick.[1] During the 1980s, Michael Gross of West Germany, nicknamed The Albatross in reference to his vast wingspan, dominated European swimming, winning five consecutive awards from 1982 to 1986, record that stood alone until Adam Peaty of Great Britain equalled the feat between 2014 and 2018.[1] Swimming World has vacated all awards previously awarded to East German swimmers because of the government-sanctioned systematic doping.[1]

Hungary has won the award 17 times, mainly on the back of its strength in medley swimming. Breaststrokers Ágnes Kovács and Károly Güttler, and backstroker Sándor Wladár were the only Hungarian winners who were not champion medley swimmers. Krisztina Egerszegi won four awards, the most by a female swimmer, while Tamás Darnyi claimed three.[1] The Netherlands have won seven awards, through the efforts of Inge de Bruijn (3) and Pieter van den Hoogenband (4), who led the sprinting world for women and men at the turn of the century. Russian or Soviet swimmers have won seven awards, all of them male.[1]

Year[1] Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
1980 Petra Schneider   East Germany Vladimir Salnikov   Soviet Union
1981 Ute Geweniger   East Germany Sándor Wladár   Hungary
1982 Cornelia Sirch   East Germany Michael Groß   West Germany
1983 Ute Geweniger   East Germany Michael Groß   West Germany
1984 Kristin Otto   East Germany Michael Groß   West Germany
1985 Silke Hörner   East Germany Michael Groß   West Germany
1986 Kristin Otto   East Germany Michael Groß   West Germany
1987 Silke Hörner   East Germany Tamás Darnyi   Hungary
1988 Kristin Otto   East Germany Tamás Darnyi   Hungary
1989 Anke Möhring   East Germany Giorgio Lamberti   Italy
1990 Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Adrian Moorhouse   Great Britain
1991 Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Tamás Darnyi   Hungary
1992 Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Yevgeny Sadovyi   Russia
1993 Franziska van Almsick   Germany Károly Güttler   Hungary
1994 Franziska van Almsick   Germany Alexander Popov   Russia
1995 Krisztina Egerszegi   Hungary Denis Pankratov   Russia
1996 Michelle Smith   Ireland Denis Pankratov   Russia
1997 Ágnes Kovács   Hungary Emiliano Brembilla   Italy
1998 Ágnes Kovács   Hungary Denys Sylantyev   Ukraine
1999 Inge de Bruijn   Netherlands Pieter van den Hoogenband   Netherlands
2000 Inge de Bruijn   Netherlands Pieter van den Hoogenband   Netherlands
2001 Inge de Bruijn   Netherlands Roman Sloudnov   Russia
2002 Franziska van Almsick   Germany Pieter van den Hoogenband   Netherlands
2003 Hannah Stockbauer   Germany Alexander Popov   Russia
2004 Yana Klochkova   Ukraine Pieter van den Hoogenband   Netherlands
2005 Otylia Jędrzejczak   Poland László Cseh   Hungary
2006 Laure Manaudou   France László Cseh   Hungary
2007 Laure Manaudou   France Mateusz Sawrymowicz   Poland
2008 Rebecca Adlington   Great Britain Alain Bernard   France
2009 Federica Pellegrini   Italy Paul Biedermann   Germany
2010 Federica Pellegrini   Italy Camille Lacourt   France
2011 Federica Pellegrini   Italy Alexander Dale Oen   Norway
2012 Ranomi Kromowidjojo   Netherlands Yannick Agnel   France
2013 Katinka Hosszú   Hungary Dániel Gyurta   Hungary
2014 Katinka Hosszú   Hungary Adam Peaty   Great Britain
2015 Sarah Sjöström   Sweden Adam Peaty   Great Britain
2016 Katinka Hosszú   Hungary Adam Peaty   Great Britain
2017 Sarah Sjöström   Sweden Adam Peaty   Great Britain
2018 Sarah Sjöström   Sweden Adam Peaty   Great Britain

Pacific Rim Swimmers of the YearEdit

 
Ian Thorpe, who has been the male World swimmer of the year four times & Pacific Rim Swimmer of the Year on six occasions
 
Kosuke Kitajima has been the Pacific Rim Swimmer of the Year four times.

The Pacific Rim award was introduced in 1995, the year after two Australian swimmers—Kieren Perkins and Samantha Riley—became the first two Pacific Rim swimmers to be named as World Swimmer of the Year. It has subsequently been dominated by Australian swimmers, who have won 30 of the 48 awards given. Ian Thorpe won six awards (five consecutively) and Susie O'Neill has won four (three consecutively). Australia’s success has been built on female butterfliers (O’Neill and Petria Thomas), female breaststrokers (Riley and Leisel Jones), and male freestylers (Thorpe, Grant Hackett and Michael Klim). The men's awards have been dominated by Asian swimmers since 2006. Kosuke Kitajima (Japan) was the first non-Australian swimmer to win the award more than once (in 2003, 2007, 2008, and 2010).[7][1] He was followed by Sun Yang of China who won five awards (in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2017 and 2018).

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
1995 Susie O'Neill   Australia Scott Miller   Australia
1996 Le Jingyi   China Danyon Loader   New Zealand
1997 Samantha Riley   Australia Michael Klim   Australia
1998 Susie O'Neill   Australia Ian Thorpe   Australia
1999 Susie O'Neill   Australia Ian Thorpe   Australia
2000 Susie O'Neill   Australia Ian Thorpe   Australia
2001 Petria Thomas   Australia Ian Thorpe   Australia
2002 Petria Thomas   Australia Ian Thorpe   Australia
2003 Leisel Jones   Australia Kosuke Kitajima   Japan
2004 Jodie Henry   Australia Ian Thorpe   Australia
2005 Leisel Jones   Australia Grant Hackett   Australia
2006 Leisel Jones   Australia Park Tae-hwan   South Korea
2007 Libby Lenton   Australia Kosuke Kitajima   Japan
2008 Stephanie Rice   Australia Kosuke Kitajima   Japan
2009 Jessicah Schipper   Australia Zhang Lin   China
2010 Alicia Coutts   Australia Kosuke Kitajima   Japan
2011 Ye Shiwen   China Sun Yang   China
2012 Ye Shiwen   China Sun Yang   China
2013 Cate Campbell   Australia Sun Yang   China
2014 Cate Campbell   Australia Kosuke Hagino   Japan
2015 Emily Seebohm   Australia Mitch Larkin   Australia
2016 Rie Kaneto   Japan Kosuke Hagino   Japan
2017 Emily Seebohm   Australia Sun Yang   China
2018 Cate Campbell   Australia Sun Yang   China

African Swimmers of the YearEdit

 
Oussama Mellouli in action. He was the first African male to win an individual Olympic gold medal.

The African award was introduced in 2004,[1] the year in which South Africa won the men's 4 × 100 m freestyle relay at the Olympics. Although Joan Harrison (1952) and Penny Heyns (1996) had won individual gold medals for South Africa, the 2004 victory was the first time that an African relay team won a medal, indicating their increasing depth. In the same Olympics, Zimbabwe's Kirsty Coventry's won three medals, including one gold, making her the first African swimmer outside of South Africa to stand on the podium.[1][8] Coventry has won the female award nine times. South African Chad le Clos won seven men's awards in a row, and South African sprinter Roland Schoeman four,[1] and in total South African swimmers have claimed nineteen awards. In 2008, Ous Mellouli of Tunisia broke the South African and Zimbabwean duopoly after becoming the first African male to win an individual Olympic gold medal.[1][8]

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
2004 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Roland Schoeman   South Africa
2005 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Roland Schoeman   South Africa
2006 Suzaan van Biljon   South Africa Roland Schoeman   South Africa
2007 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Roland Schoeman   South Africa
2008 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Oussama Mellouli   Tunisia
2009 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Oussama Mellouli
Cameron van der Burgh
  Tunisia
  South Africa
2010 Mandy Loots   South Africa Cameron van der Burgh   South Africa
2011 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Cameron van der Burgh   South Africa
2012 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Chad le Clos   South Africa
2013 Karin Prinsloo   South Africa Chad le Clos   South Africa
2014 Karin Prinsloo   South Africa Chad le Clos   South Africa
2015 Kirsty Coventry   Zimbabwe Chad le Clos   South Africa
2016 Kirsty Coventry[9]   Zimbabwe Chad le Clos[9]   South Africa
2017 Farida Osman   Egypt Chad le Clos   South Africa
2018 Tatjana Schoenmaker   South Africa Chad le Clos   South Africa

Open Water Swimmers of the YearEdit

 
Maarten van der Weijden, Open Water Swimmer of the Year in 2008

The Open Water award was introduced in 2005,[1] when it was announced that an open water swimming event would be included in the Olympics for the first time: the 10 km events at the 2008 Olympics.[10] The award has been won by Dutch and German swimmers five times, while Russian swimmers have won four times. Thomas Lurz of Germany has won the award five times, triumphing in 2005, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2013, while Russia's Larisa Ilchenko has won the award three years in a row (2006–2008).[1][11]

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
2005 Edith van Dijk   Netherlands Thomas Lurz
Chip Peterson
  Germany
  United States
2006 Larisa Ilchenko   Russia Thomas Lurz   Germany
2007 Larisa Ilchenko   Russia Vladimir Dyatchin   Russia
2008 Larisa Ilchenko   Russia Maarten van der Weijden   Netherlands
2009 Keri-Anne Payne   United Kingdom Thomas Lurz   Germany
2010 Martina Grimaldi   Italy Valerio Cleri   Italy
2011 Keri-Anne Payne   United Kingdom Thomas Lurz
Spyridon Gianniotis
  Germany
  Greece
2012 Éva Risztov   Hungary Oussama Mellouli   Tunisia
2013 Poliana Okimoto   Brazil Thomas Lurz   Germany
2014 Sharon van Rouwendaal   Netherlands Andrew Gemmell   United States
2015 Aurélie Muller   France Jordan Wilimovsky   United States
2016 Sharon van Rouwendaal   Netherlands Ferry Weertman   Netherlands
2017 Aurélie Muller   France Ferry Weertman   Netherlands
2018 Sharon van Rouwendaal   Netherlands Kristof Rasovszky   Hungary

World Disabled Swimmers of the YearEdit

This award was created in 2003, and then was not awarded in 2004.[1] The award has been won by American swimmers six times, Brazilian and Australian swimmers four times, and Canadian swimmers twice.

Year Female Winner Nationality Male Winner Nationality
2003 Danielle Watts   United Kingdom Sergei Punko   Belarus
2004 Not awarded N/A Not awarded N/A
2005 Erin Popovich   United States Benoît Huot   Canada
2006 Jessica Long   United States Wang Xiaofu   China
2007 Valérie Grand'Maison   Canada Matthew Cowdrey   Australia
2008 Natalie du Toit   South Africa Matthew Cowdrey   Australia
2009 Mallory Weggemann   United States Daniel Dias   Brazil
2010 Mallory Weggemann   United States Daniel Dias   Brazil
2011 Jessica Long   United States Daniel Dias   Brazil
2012 Jacqueline Freney   Australia Matthew Cowdrey   Australia
2013 Sophie Pascoe   New Zealand Daniel Dias   Brazil
2014 Ingrid Thunem   Norway Ian Silverman   United States
2015 Rebecca Meyers   United States Ihar Boki   Belarus
2015 Rebecca Meyers   United States Ihar Boki   Belarus
2016 Aurélie Rivard   Canada Daniel Dias   Brazil
2017 Sophie Pascoe   New Zealand Vincenzo Boni   Italy
2018 Carlotta Gilli   Italy Ihar Boki   Belarus

World Water Polo Players of the YearEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In 1996 the American Swimmer of the Year award was given to the 4×100 m medley relay team of Jeff Rouse, Jeremy Linn, Mark Henderson, and Gary Hall, Jr. who won gold and broke the world record at the Olympics that year.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Swimmers of the Year". Swimming World. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  2. ^ Marsteller, Jason. "Stripped! Swimming World Vacates Awards of GDR Drug-fueled Swimmers". Swimming World. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d "Swimming's big splash". BBC Sports. 5 July 2004. Retrieved 8 November 2006.
  4. ^ a b c d "Phelps causes biggest splash". BBC Sports. 21 August 2004. Retrieved 19 November 2006.
  5. ^ Hunter, Greg (2004). Ian Thorpe: The Biography. Sydney: MacMillan. pp. 130–133. ISBN 1-4050-3632-X.
  6. ^ Brien, Taylor (13 November 2018). "Who Will Be Swimming World's 2018 World Swimmers of the Year?". Swimming World. Retrieved 25 July 2019. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  7. ^ Jeffery, Nicole (27 November 2008). "Rice on top of world again". The Australian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
  8. ^ a b "Olympic medal winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 26 March 2009.
    Results classification: "By individual" → Competition gender: Select all → Medal: Select all → Continents and nations: "Africa" → Sports and events: "Swimming" → Search ↵
  9. ^ a b "Swimming World Magazine Announces African Swimmers of the Year". Swimming World. 28 November 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  10. ^ VOA Sports (28 October 2005). "IOC Includes 10K Open Water Event in 2008 Beijing Olympics". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
  11. ^ "Lane 9 News Archive: Swimming World Names 2009 Open Water Swimmers of the Year". Swimming World. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2011.