Swedish Ingria (Swedish: Svenska Ingermanland, ‘land of Ingrians’) was a dominion of the Swedish Empire from 1583 to 1595 and then again from 1617 to 1721 in what is now the territory of Russia. At the latter date, it was ceded to the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Nystad, at the end of the Great Northern War between the two empires.

Swedish Ingria
Svenska Ingermanland
Coat of arms of Ingria
Coat of arms
Baltic provinces of Swedish Empire in the 17th century.
Baltic provinces of Swedish Empire in the 17th century.
StatusDominion of the Swedish Empire
Common languagesSwedish, Finnish, Ingrian, Votian
King of Sweden 
• 1568–92
John III
• 1592–99
• 1611–32
Gustav II Adolf
• 1720–51
Frederick I
• 1617–
Carl Carlsson Gyllenhielm
• 1659–1673
Simon Grundel-Helmfelt
18 May 1595
• Treaty of Stolbovo
17 February 1617
• Great Northern War
• Treaty of Nystad
30 August 1721
• 1644
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tsardom of Russia
Ingermanland Governorate

History edit

In 1617 Russia ceded Ingria and the County of Kexholm to Sweden under the Treaty of Stolbovo. This area was along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in South-West, and Lake Ladoga in North-East. Kexholm and Swedish Karelia were bordered by the Sestra (Rajajoki /Systerbäck) river in North-West.

Ingria had fallen to Sweden in the 1580s, was returned to Russia by the Treaty of Teusina (1595), and again ceded to Sweden in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). Sweden's interest in the territory was strategic: as a buffer zone against Russian attacks on the Karelian Isthmus and present-day Finland; and Russian trade was to pass through Swedish territory. In addition, Ingria was used as a destination for Swedish deportees.

Ingria remained sparsely populated. In 1664 the population was counted as 15,000. Swedish attempts to introduce Lutheranism were met with repugnance by the Orthodox peasantry obliged to attend Lutheran services. Although converts were promised grants and tax reductions, Lutheran gains were chiefly due to voluntary resettlements from Savonia and Karelia. Ingria was enfeoffed to noble military and state officials, who brought their own Lutheran servants and workmen to the area. The indigenous inhabitants of Ingria have always been Finnic with Finnic culture and language.

Nyen became the trading centre of Ingria, and in 1642 was made its administrative centre. In 1656 a Russian attack badly damaged the town, and the administrative centre was moved to Narva in neighbouring Swedish Estonia.[1]

In the early 18th century the area was reconquered by Russia in the Great Northern War after a century under Swedish possession. The new Russian capital, Saint Petersburg, was founded in 1703 on the site of the Swedish town Nyen (Finnish Nevanlinna, meaning Castle of Neva). This territory, close to the Neva river's estuary at the Gulf of Finland, is now part of Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

Governors-General edit

Ingrian Governors (Narva, Ivangorod, Jaama, Koporje and Nöteborg)
Ingrian and Livonian Governors-General
Ingrian and county of Kexholm Governors-General
Ingrian Governors
Ingrian Governors-General

See also edit

References edit

59°22′33″N 28°11′46″E / 59.3758°N 28.1961°E / 59.3758; 28.1961