Susenyos I

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Susenyos I or Sisinios, Sisinnius, Susənyos, Socinios; (Ge'ez: ሱስንዮስ sūsinyōs), whose throne name was Malak Sagad III (መልአክ ሰገድ mal'ak sagad, 'to whom the angel bows')[1] was an Emperor of Ethiopia from Gojjam, whose rule lasted from 1606 to 1632.

Susenyos I
Emperor of Ethiopia
Susenyos Wellcome L0031387 (cropped).jpg
Reign1606–1632
Coronation1608
PredecessorYaqob
SuccessorFasilides
Born1572
Died(1632-09-17)17 September 1632 (aged 59-60)
HouseHouse of Solomon
ReligionOriental Orthodox (1572-1622) Catholic (1622-1632)

He was the son of Abeto Fasil, as well as the grandson of Abeto Yakob and the great-grandson of Dawit II. As a result, while some authorities list Susenyos as a member of the Solomonic dynasty, others consider him—rather than his son, Fasilides—as the founder of the Gondar line of the dynasty (which is, however, ultimately a subset of the Solomonic dynasty).

Susenyos I was raised by a Borana clan through gudifacha (or adoption). His fellow Oromo Luba age-group generals were instrumental in his coming to power.

Manuel de Almeida, a Portuguese Jesuit who lived in Ethiopia during Susenyos' reign, described the emperor as tall with the features of a man of quality, large handsome eyes, "and an ample and well groomed beard." He wore "a tunic of crimson velvet down to the knee, breeches of the Moorish style, a sash or girdle of many large pieces of fine gold, and an outer coat of damask of the same colour, like a capelhar."[2]

Early lifeEdit

Susenyos I was born on 1572 to Ḥamelmal Werq and Abeto Fasil. However, some argue that Susenyos was born to a slave woman who conceived him with Abeto Fasil while married to another man.[3]

As a boy, a group of marauders captured him and his father, holding them captive for over a year until they were rescued by the Dejazmach Asebo. Upon his rescue, Susenyos went to live with Queen Admas Mugessa, the mother of Sarsa Dengel and widow of Emperor Menas.

In the 1590s, Susenyos was perceived as one of the potential successors to the throne, as Emperor Sarsa Dengel's sons were very young. In order to eliminate Susenyos from the competition, Empress Maryam Sena had him exiled; however, he would manage to escape and find refuge amongst the Oromo.

From 1597 to 1603, initially adopted by the Oromo in the Walaqa area, Susenyos assembled a powerful army of these wild tribes, at the head of a Kafre and Tulama clan army, successively raiding Gafat, Menz, and southern Gojjam. He was helped in these campaigns by fellow Luba age-group generals Mecha, Yilma and Densa, who were rewarded by Rist feudal lands, in the present-day Gojjam districts of the same name.[4]

At the death of his one-time ally, Emperor Za Dengel, Susenyos was proclaimed his successor and returned to the realm, although the fight against Emperor Yaqobcontinued.[5]:375–83

ReignEdit

 
Ruins of Susenyos' palace at Dankaz

Susenyos became Emperor following the defeat of first Za Sellase, then on 10 March 1607 Yaqob at the Battle of Gol in southern Gojjam.[6]:259 After his defeat, Za Sellase became a supporter of Susenyos, but fell out with Susenyos early in his reign, and was imprisoned on an amba in Guzamn. After a year, Za Sellase managed to escape and lived as a brigand for a year until he was killed by a peasant, who sent his head to the Emperor.[7]:287–9

In 1608, a rebel appeared near Debre Bizen. Because the body of Yaqob had never been found after the Battle of Gol, there had been some doubt that the previous Emperor was truly dead, and a pretender announced that he was the dead Emperor Yaqob. The pretender managed to disguise the fact he did not resemble Yaqob by keeping part of his face covered, claiming that he had suffered grievous wounds to his teeth and face from the battle.[7]:289 The governor of Tigray, Sela Krestos, eventually heard of the revolt, and not trusting the loyalty of a general levy of troops struck against the rebel with his own household and the descendants of the Portuguese soldiers who had followed Cristóvão da Gama (son of the legendary Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama) into Ethiopia. Despite their defeating the rebels three different times, the pretender managed to escape each battle to hide in the mountains of Hamasien.[7]:290–2

Meanwhile, Emperor Susenyos was preoccupied with raiding parties of the Oromo. An initial encounter with the Marawa Oromo near the upper course of the Reb River ended in a defeat for the Ethiopian advance guards; Susenyos rallied his men and made an attack which scattered the Oromo. The Marawa allied with other Oromo, and the united force entered Begemder to avenge their defeat. Upon hearing of this, the Emperor responded by summoning his son-in-law Qegnazmach Julius and Kifla Krestos to join him with their troops, and defeated the raiders at Ebenat on 17 January 1608. According to James Bruce, the Royal Chronicle of Susenyos reports 12,000 Oromo were killed while only 400 on the Emperor's side were lost.[7]:292–6 With the Oromo threat dealt with, Susenyos now could turn his attention to Yaqob the pretender; he marched to Axum by way of the Lamalmo and Waldebba, where he was formally crowned Emperor 18 March 1608, in a ceremony described by João Gabriel, the captain of the Portuguese in Ethiopia.[7]:296–300 Despite this act legitimizing his rule, Susenyos had no luck capturing the pretender, and was forced to leave the task to his servant Amsala Krestos. Amsala Krestos induced two brothers who had joined the rebellion to assassinate Yaqob the pretender, who then sent the dead man's head to Susenyos. Without a scarf obscuring his features, writes Bruce, "it now appeared, that he had neither scars in his face, broken jaw, nor loss of teeth; but the covering was intending only to conceal the little resemblance he bore to king Jacob, slain, as we said before, at the battle of Lebart."[7]:299f

Sennar - Ethiopia WarEdit

Abd al Qadir II of Sennar acknowledged Susenyos' authority in 1606, receiving a negarit drum, sign of vasselage, and giving a trained falcon. Similarly, his brother and successor Adlan I maintained the relationship, giving a number of fine horses as a present.[8]Badi I of Sennar, son of Abd al-Qadir II and successor of Adlan I, however, outraged by the shelter given in Chilga to his father by the Ethiopians, severed these ties, sending as an insult two lame horses and an army led by the Nail Weld Ageeb from Atbara, to pillage the border areas.[6]:298

The hostilities between the two kingdoms increased when the governor of the Mazaga, Aleko, who was a servant of Emperor Susenyos, fled to Sennar with a number of the Emperor's horses and kettledrums.[9] Susenyos complained of this to Badi, who refused to reply; further insulting him.

In 1615, Susenyos, this time allied with the Nail Weld Ageeb,[7]:316f re-conquered and annexed the Kingdom of Fazughli into the Ethiopian Empire,[10] on the Sennar Sultanate borderlands. The emperor sent priests to renew the Orthodox Christianity of the province, though the missionaries seem to have become mired in doctrinal disputes, and their accomplishments were limited.[10]

In 1618-1619, the war continued, this time the Emperor sent three of his vassals to campaign against Sennar. Welde Hawaryat, Melca Chrestos and the governor of Tigray, Ras Tekle Giyorgis, led a three-pronged assault on the border from their respective provinces. Welde Hawaryat finally conquered and sacked the town of Atbara on the Nile after a 19-day march.[11]

Susenyos finally sent Bahir Negash Gebre Mariam to attack Mandara, whose queen controlled a strategic caravan road from Suakin.[6]:303 Bahir Negash was successful in capturing Queen Fatima, who was brought back to Susenyos palace in Danqaz, and renewed submission to the Empire.[6]:305

According to his Royal Chronicle, Susenyos hence made his power felt along his western frontier from Fazogli, north to Suakin.[12]

Susenyos and CatholicismEdit

Susenyos' reign is perhaps best known as the brief period in Ethiopian history when Catholic Christianity became the official religion. The Emperor became interested in Catholicism, in part due to Pedro Páez's persuasion, but also hoping for military help from Portugal and Spain (in union at the time of Susenyos' reign). Some decades earlier, in 1541, Cristóvão da Gama had led a military expedition to save the Ethiopian emperor Gelawdewos from the onslaught of Ahmed Gragn, a Muslim Imam who almost destroyed the existence of the Ethiopian state. Susenyos hoped to receive a new contingent of well-armed European soldiers, this time against the Oromo, who were ravaging his kingdom, and to help with the constant rebellions. Two letters of this diplomatic effort survive, which he entrusted to Páez to send to Europe: the one to the King of Portugal is dated 10 December 1607, while the other is to the Pope and dated 14 October of the same year; neither mention his conversion, but both ask for soldiers.[13] He showed the Jesuit missionaries his favor by a number of land grants, most importantly those at Gorgora, located on a peninsula on the northern shore of Lake Tana.

In 1613, Susenyos sent a mission heading for Madrid and Rome, led by Jesuit priest António Fernandes. The plan was to head south, in an attempt to reach Malindi, a port on the Indian Ocean in what is Kenya today, hoping to break through the effective blockade that the Ottoman conquests had created around the Ethiopian empire by sailing all the way around the southern tip of Africa. However, they failed to reach Malindi, due to delays caused by local Christians hostile to the mission.

Susenyos at last publicly converted to Catholicism in 1622, and separated himself from all of his wives and concubines except for his first wife, Wäld Śäʿala. However, the tolerant and sensitive Pedro Páez died soon afterwards, and he was replaced by Afonso Mendes, who arrived at Massawa on 24 January 1624. E. A. Wallis Budge has stated the commonly accepted opinion of this man, as being "rigid, uncompromising, narrow-minded, and intolerant."[5]:390 Strife and rebellions over the enforced changes began within days of Mendes' public ceremony in 1626, where he proclaimed the primacy of Rome and condemned local practices which included Saturday Sabbath and frequent fasts. Yet a number of Ethiopians did embrace Catholicism: Richard Pankhurst reports 100,000 inhabitants of Dembiya and Wegera alone are said to have converted.[14] The most serious response was launched by a triumvirate composed of his half-brother Yimena Krestos, a eunuch named Kefla Wahad, and his brother-in-law Julius. Susenyos avoided their first attempt to assassinate him at court, but while he was campaigning against Sennar they raised a revolt, calling to their side "all those who were friends to the Alexandrian faith". However, Susenyos had returned to Dembiya before the rebels expected, and quickly killed Julius. Yimena Krestos held out a while longer on Melka Amba in Gojjam, before Af Krestos captured him and brought him to Dankaz where Susenyos had his camp; here the Emperor's brother was tried and sentenced to banishment.[15]

More revolts followed, some led by champions of the traditional Ethiopian Church. One revolt which resisted all of Susenyos' efforts to put down was by the Agaw in Lasta. Their first leader was Melka Krestos, a distant member of the Solomonic dynasty, whom the Agaw had sued to be their leader. Susenyos' first campaign against them, which began in February 1629 with raising an army of 30,000 men in Gojjam, was defeated and his son-in-law Gebre Krestos slain.[16] While Melka Krestos' master of horse was slain along with 4000 men not long after while pillaging Semien Gonder, at the same time the men of Lasta made a successful raid out of their mountains into Susenyos' territory.[17] When he attempted a second expedition against the rebels in Lasta, Susenyos found his men's morale so low that he was forced to allow them to observe one of the traditional Wednesday fasts—which brought an immediate reproach from the Catholic Patriarch. Although Susenyos eloquently defended himself, Bruce notes that "from this time, it plainly appears, that Socinios began to entertain ideas, at least of the church discipline and government, very opposite to those he had when he first embraced the Romish religion."[18] Despite this concession to his troops, and despite the fact they reached Melka Krestos' headquarters, his forces fell to an ambush and Susenyos was forced to return to Dankaz with nothing to show for his effort.

Susenyos attempted one more campaign against the rebels, only to find his men mutinous. They saw no end to unrewarding expeditions to Lasta, and when at home confronted by the executions used to enforce Catholicism on Ethiopia. While expressing some skepticism at the matter, Bruce states the Royal Chronicle reports his son told the troops that if they were victorious in Lasta, the Emperor would restore the traditional Ethiopian practices. However, as they marched behind Susenyos to Lasta, his scouts reported that Melka Krestos had descended from Lasta with 25,000 men, and were at hand. On 26 July 1631 the armies clashed; 8,000 of the rebels were dead and Melka Krestos had fled the field. Upon viewing the field of battle, Susenyos' son Fasilides is reported to have said,

These men, whom you see slaughtered on the ground, were neither Pagans nor Mahometans, at whose death we should rejoice—they were Christians, lately your subjects and your countrymen, some of them your relations. This is not victory, which is gained over ourselves. In killing these, you drive the sword into your own entrails. How many men have you slaughtered? How many more have you to kill? We have become a proverb, even among the Pagans and Moors, for carrying on this war, and apostatizing, as they say, from the faith of our ancestors.[19]

Less than a year afterwards, on 14 June 1632 Susenyos made a declaration that those who would follow the Catholic faith were allowed to do so, but no one would be forced to do so any further. At this point, all Patriarch Mendes could do in response was to confirm that this was, indeed, the actual will of the Emperor, his protector. Catholic Ethiopia had come to an end.[20]

SuccessionEdit

In 1630, after years of rebellion, Sarsa Krestos, Viceroy of Begemder, proclaimed Susenyos' son, Fasilides, as emperor; Sarsa Krestos was promptly captured and hanged. Despite this, father and son stayed on good terms.[21] After announcing his act of toleration, Susenyos abdicated in favor of Fasilides. He was buried at the church of Genneta Iyasus.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Rossini, Carlo Conti, and C. Jaeger Louvain, eds. 1954. Vitae Sanctorum Indigenarum: I Acta S. Walatta Petros, II Miracula S. Zara-Baruk. L. Durbecq. p. 62.
  2. ^ Beckingham, C.F., and G.W.B. Huntingford. 1954. Some Records of Ethiopia, 1593-1646. London: Hakluyt Society. p. 189. Beckingham and Huntingford gloss capelhar as a "kind of short mantle of Moorish origin."
  3. ^ Takla Sellase. 1900. "Tinno." In Chronica De Susenyos: Rei De Ethiopia: Traducção E Notas, vol. 2, edited by F. M. Esteves Pereira. Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional. p. 374
  4. ^ Solomon GETAHUN, A History of Ethiopia's Newest Immigrants to the United States: Orphans, https://journals.openedition.org/africanistes/4104
  5. ^ a b E. A. Wallis Budge. [1928] 1970. A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia. Oosterhout, the Netherlands: Anthropological Publications.
  6. ^ a b c d James Bruce, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, vol. 2.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g James Bruce, Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile (1805 ed.), vol. 3.
  8. ^ H. Weld Blundell, The Royal chronicle of Abyssinia, 1769-1840 (Cambridge: University Press, 1922), p. 530
  9. ^ A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Darfur by MacMichael, Harold Alfred, Sir, 1882, p. 436, https://books.google.com/books?id=xeM8AAAAIAAJ
  10. ^ a b Spaulding, Jay. 1974. "The Fate of Alodia". Meroitic Newsletter (15):20–30. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.
  11. ^ A History of the Arabs in the Sudan and Some Account of the People who Preceded Them and of the Tribes Inhabiting Darfur by MacMichael, Harold Alfred, Sir, 1882, p. 437-438, https://books.google.com/books?id=xeM8AAAAIAAJ
  12. ^ Richard Pankhurst, The Ethiopian Borderlands (Lawrenceville: Red Sea Press, 1997), p. 369
  13. ^ Bruce, p. 287
  14. ^ Pankhurst, The Ethiopians: A History (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), p. 107
  15. ^ Bruce, pp. 344–350
  16. ^ Bruce, pp. 381–384
  17. ^ Bruce, pp. 390f
  18. ^ Bruce, p. 398
  19. ^ Bruce, pp. 402f
  20. ^ Bruce, pp. 403ff
  21. ^ Paul B. Henze, Layers of Time (New York: Palgrave, 2000), pp. 98f

Further readingEdit

  • Richard K. P. Pankhurst. The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles. Addis Ababa: Oxford University Press, 1967.
  • E. A. Wallis Budge. A History of Ethiopia: Nubia and Abyssinia, 1928. Oosterhout, the Netherlands: Anthropological Publications, 1970.
Preceded by
Yaqob
Emperor of Ethiopia
1606–1632
Succeeded by
Fasilides