Suraj Mal

Maharaja Suraj Mal (February 1707 – 25 December 1763) or Sujan Singh was a Hindu Jat ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India. Under him, the Jat rule covered the present-day districts of Agra, Aligarh, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Etawa, Gurgaon, Hathras, Mainpuri, Mathura, Mewat, Meerut, Rewari, and Rohtak.[2]

Suraj Mal
Maharaja of Bharatpur
Bahadur Jung
Maharaja Suraj Mal
Maharaja Suraj Mal
Reignr. 1755 – 1763 AD
CoronationDeeg, 23 May 1755
PredecessorBadan Singh
SuccessorJawahar Singh
BornFebruary 1707
Died25 December 1763(1763-12-25) (aged 56)
near Delhi
WivesMaharani Kishori
Rani Gauri of the Gori clan[1]
IssueJawahar Singh
Nahar Singh
Ratan Singh
Nawal Singh
Ranjit Singh
HouseSinsinwar Dynasty[citation needed]

A contemporary historian had described him as "the Plato of the Jat tribe" and by a modern writer as the "Jat Odysseus", because of his "political sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision".[3] The Jats, under Suraj Mal, overran the Mughal garrison at Agra. Suraj Mal was killed in an ambush by the Mughal Army on the night of 25 December 1763 near Hindon River, Shahadra, Delhi.[citation needed] In addition to the troops stationed at his forts, he had an army of 25,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry when he died.[2]

Suraj Mal's Cenotaph at Govardhan, a photo by William Henry Baker, c.1860.

Battle of KumherEdit

Mughal Emperor Alamgir II and his rebellious courtier Siraj ud-Daulah were having a factional feud. Suraj Mal had sided with Siraj. Alamgir sought the help of the Holkar Marathas of Indore. Khanderao Holkar, son of the Maharaja of Indore, Malhar Rao Holkar, laid a siege on Suraj Mal's Kumher in 1754. While inspecting the troops on an open palanquin in the battle of Kumher, Khanderao was hit and killed by a cannonball from the Bharatpur army. The siege was lifted and a treaty was signed between Jats and Marathas, which later proved helpful for Suraj Mal in consolidating his rule.[4][5]


His large cenotaph is at Kusum Sarovar, Govardhan, Uttar Pradesh.[6] His imposing chattri is flanked on either side by two smaller chattris of his two wives, "Maharani Hansiya" and "Maharani Kishori".[7] These memorial chattris were built by his son and successor Maharaja Jawahar Singh.[citation needed] The architecture and carving is in the pierced stone style and the ceiling of cenotaphs are adorned with paintings of the life of Krishna and Suraj Mal.[7] His court poet Sūdan recorded his biography in Sujān Charitra.

Notable institutes named after him include Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology and Maharaja Surajmal Brij University, Bharatpur.


  1. ^ Dwivedi, Girish Chandra; Prasad, Ishwari (1989). The Jats, their role in the Mughal Empire. Arnold Publishers. p. 238. ISBN 978-81-7031-150-8.
  2. ^ a b Chaudhuri, J. N. (1977). "Disruption of the Mughal Empire: The Jats". In Majumdar, R. C. (ed.). The History and Culture of the Indian People. Vol. 8: The Maratha Supremacy. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 157. OCLC 1067771105. Retrieved 20 December 2019.
  3. ^ R.C.Majumdar, H.C.Raychaudhury, Kalikaranjan Datta: An Advanced History of India, fourth edition, 1978, ISBN 0-333-90298-X, Page-535
  4. ^ Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813, by Jaswant Lal Mehta, pp606
  5. ^ Images of Women in Maharashtrian Literature and Religion, edited by Anne Feldhaus, pp185-186
  6. ^ Cenotaph of Raja Sooruj Mull, Govurdhun. 97140, British Library online collection
  7. ^ a b D. Anand, 1992, Krishna: The Living God of Braj, Page 56.
Suraj Mal
Sinsiniwar Jat Dynasty
Born: 1707 Died: 1763
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Badan Singh
Maharaja of Bharatpur
1755–1763 AD
Succeeded by
Maharaja Jawahar Singh