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{
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' { 
  \clef treble 
  \time 7/4 c4 \once \override NoteHead.color = #red d e \once \override NoteHead.color = #red f g \once \override NoteHead.color = #red a b  \time 2/4 c2 \bar "||"
  \time 4/4 <d, f a>1 \bar "||"
} }

{
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' { 
  \clef treble
  \time 7/4 c4 \once \override NoteHead.color = #red d es \once \override NoteHead.color = #red f g \once \override NoteHead.color = #red aes bes  \time 2/4 c2 \bar "||"
  \time 4/4 <d, f aes>1 \bar "||"
} }
The scale and supertonic triad in C major (top) and C minor (bottom).

In music, the supertonic is the second degree (scale degree 2) of a diatonic scale, one step above the tonic.[1] In the movable do solfège system, the supertonic note is sung as re.

The triad built on the supertonic note is called the supertonic chord. In Roman numeral analysis, the supertonic chord is typically symbolized by the Roman numeral "ii" in a major key, indicating that the chord is a minor chord (in C: D-F-A). In a minor key, it is indicated by "iio" if it is built on the a natural minor scale, indicating that the chord is a diminished chord (in C: D-F-A). Because it is a diminished chord, this it usually appears in first inversion (iio6) so that no note dissonates with the bass note.

These chords may also appear as seventh chords: in major, as ii7 (in C: D-F-A-C), while in minor as iiø7 (in C: D-F-A-C) or rarely ii7. They are the second-most-common form of nondominant seventh chords.[2]


{
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' {
   \clef treble 
   \time 4/4
   \key c \major
   <d f a c>1_\markup { \concat { "ii" \raise #1 \small "7" } } \bar "||"

   \clef treble 
   \time 4/4
   \key c \minor
   <d f aes c>1_\markup { \concat { "ii" \raise #1 \small "ø7" } }
   <d f a c>^\markup { "rare" }_\markup { \concat { "ii" \raise #1 \small "7" } } \bar "||"
} }

About this soundPlay ii7 (first and third chords)  and About this soundPlay iiø 7 (second chord) 

Supertonic (ii) in ii-V-I progression on C, found at the end of the circle progression About this soundPlay 

The supertonic chord normally functions as a predominant chord, a chord that naturally resolves to chord with dominant function. The supertonic chord lies a fifth above the V chord. Descending fifths are a strong basis for harmonic motion (see circle of fifths). The supertonic is one of the strongest predominants and approaches the V chord from above by descending fifth.

In C Major: A Neapolitan sixth chord in first inversion contains an interval of a sixth between F and D (About this soundPlay ).
Common-tone diminished seventh chord resolving to I 6 About this soundPlay .

In major or minor, the major chord built on the lowered supertonic (scale degree 2) is called a Neapolitan chord (in C: D-F-A), notated as N6 or II6, usually used in first inversion. The supertonic may be raised as part of the common-tone diminished seventh chord, iio7 (in C: D-F-A-C). One variant of the supertonic seventh chord is the supertonic diminished seventh[3] with the raised supertonic, which equals the lowered third through enharmonic equivalence (in C: D=E).

The term supertonic may also refer to a relationship of musical keys. For example, relative to the key of C major, the key of D major (or D minor) is the supertonic.

In Riemannian theory, the supertonic is considered the subdominant parallel: Sp/T in major though sP/T in minor (AM).

SourcesEdit

  1. ^ Benward & Saker (2003). Music: In Theory and Practice, Vol. I, p.32. Seventh Edition. ISBN 978-0-07-294262-0. "One step above the tonic."
  2. ^ Kostka, Stefan; Payne, Dorothy (2004). Tonal Harmony (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. p. 216. ISBN 0072852607. OCLC 51613969.
  3. ^ Kitson, C. H. (2006). Elementary Harmony, p.43. ISBN 1-4067-9372-8.