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Superhuman qualities are enhanced qualities that exceed those naturally found in humans.

The Übermensch or "Superman" was postulated by Friedrich Nietzsche as a type of supreme, ultra-aristocratic achievement which becomes possible in the transcendence of modernity, morals or nihilism.[1]

In transhumanism and futurology, superhuman abilities are the technological aim either of human enhancement by genetic modification or cybernetic implants or of future superhuman artificial intelligence.

Speculation about human nature and the possibilities of both human enhancement and future human evolution have made superhumans a popular subject of science fiction.

Superhuman abilities are also associated with the genre of superheroes.

Contents

Human enhancement and advancementEdit

Human enhancement is an attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means. Human enhancement may be through the use of technological means to select or alter human characteristics and capacities, whether or not the alteration results in characteristics and capacities that lie beyond the existing human range.

Some bioethicists restrict the term to the non-therapeutic application of specific technologiesneuro-, cyber-, gene- and nano-technologies — to human biology.[2][3][page needed]

According to transhumanist thinkers, a posthuman is a hypothetical future being "whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer unambiguously human by our current standards."[4]

Artificial beingsEdit

Superhuman is one of the stages in classification of progress in artificial intelligence where an entity of artificial intelligence performs better than most humans do in a specific task.[citation needed] Examples of where computers have achieved superhuman performance include Backgammon,[5] Bridge,[citation needed] Chess,[citation needed] Reversi,[citation needed] Scrabble,[6] Go[7] and Jeopardy!.[8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nietzsche, Friedrich (2007). "Why I Write Such Good Books". Ecce Homo: How One Becomes What One Is & The Antichrist: A Curse on Christianity. New York: Algora Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 9780875862835. Retrieved 4 July 2018. The word "Superman" as the designation for a type of the highest successfulness as opposed to "modern" men, to "good" men, to Christians and other nihilists.
  2. ^ Hughes, James (October 2004). "Human Enhancement on the Agenda". Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  3. ^ Moore, Pete (2008). Enhancing Me: The Hope and the Hype of Human Enhancement. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 047069999X.
  4. ^ Nick Bostrom (October 2003). "The Transhumanist FAQ" (PDF). Humanity+. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 27 August 2006.
  5. ^ Tesauro, Gerald (1 March 1995). "Temporal difference learning and TD-Gammon". Communications of the ACM. 38 (3): 58–68. doi:10.1145/203330.203343.
  6. ^ Sheppard, Brian (January 2002). "World-Championship-Caliber Scrabble". Artificial Intelligence. 134 (1–2): 241–275. doi:10.1016/S0004-3702(01)00166-7.
  7. ^ Metz, Cade (15 March 2016). "Google's AI Wins Fifth And Final Game Against Go Genius Lee Sedol". WIRED. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  8. ^ Rashid, Fahmida Y. (14 February 2011). "IBM's Watson Ties for Lead on Jeopardy but Makes Some Doozies". eWEEK. Retrieved 4 July 2018.