Super Sentai

Super Sentai (Japanese: スーパー戦隊シリーズ, Hepburn: Sūpā Sentai Shirīzu, translated as "Super Squadron Series") is a Japanese superhero team metaseries and media franchise consisting of television series and films produced by Toei Company, and Bandai, and aired by TV Asahi ("Sentai" is the Japanese word for "task force" or "fighting squadron").[citation needed] The shows are of the tokusatsu genre, featuring live action characters and colorful special effects, and are aimed at children. Super Sentai airs alongside the Kamen Rider series in the Super Hero Time programming block on Sunday mornings. In North America, the Super Sentai series is best known as the source material for the Power Rangers series.[1]

Super Sentai
Super Sentai (logo).png
The official logo of the Super Sentai series introduced in 2000 during the run of Mirai Sentai Timeranger
Created byShotaro Ishinomori
Toei Company
Original workHimitsu Sentai Gorenger
Films and television
Television seriesSee below
Games
TraditionalRangers Strike
Video game(s)Super Sentai Battle: Dice-O
Audio
Original musicProject.R
Miscellaneous
Toy(s)S.H. Figuarts
Soul of Chogokin
Super Robot Chogokin

Series overviewEdit

In every Super Sentai series, the protagonists are a team of people who – using wrist-worn or hand-held devices – transform into superheroes and gain superpowers – color-coded uniforms, signature weapons, sidearms, and fighting skills – to battle a group of otherworldly supervillains that threaten to take over the Earth. In a typical episode, the heroes thwart the enemies' plans and defeat an army of enemy soldiers and the monster of the week before an enlarged version of the monster confronts them, only to be defeated again when the heroes fight it with their mecha. Each Super Sentai series is set in its own unique fictional universe; various TV, video and film specials feature a team-up between one or more teams.

Super Sentai SeriesEdit

The first two Super Sentai series were created by Shotaro Ishinomori,[citation needed] then known for the 1971–1973 Kamen Rider TV series and the long-running manga Cyborg 009. He developed Himitsu Sentai Gorenger, which ran from 1975 to 1977, and J.A.K.Q. Dengekitai, released in 1977. Toei Company put the franchise on hiatus in 1978,[citation needed] collaborating with Marvel Comics to produce a live action Spider-Man series, which added giant robots to the concept of tokusatsu shows. The giant robot concept was carried over to Toei and Marvel's next show, Battle Fever J, released in 1979, and was then used throughout the Super Sentai series.

Power RangersEdit

In 1993, American production company Saban Entertainment adapted 1992's Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger into Mighty Morphin Power Rangers for the Fox Kids programming block, combining the original Japanese action footage with new footage featuring American actors for the story sequences. Since then, nearly every Super Sentai series that followed became a new season of Power Rangers.[citation needed] Some countries, such as France, Brazil, Thailand, and the Philippines, switched from broadcasting Super Sentai to Power Rangers.[citation needed] In 2002, Saban sold the Power Rangers franchise to Disney's Buena Vista division,[citation needed] who owned it until 2010, broadcasting Power Rangers on ABC Kids, ABC Family Channel, Jetix, and Toon Disney.[citation needed] On 12 May 2010, Saban bought the franchise back from Disney, moving the show to the Nickelodeon network for 2011 with Power Rangers Samurai.[2] On 1 May 2018, toy company Hasbro announced they had acquired the Power Rangers franchise from Saban Capital Group for $522 million.[3]

Power Rangers Dino Force BraveEdit

Power Rangers Dino Force Brave is a 2017 South Korean tokusatsu television show produced by Daewon Media, the same company which distributes the Super Sentai series in South Korea under the "Power Rangers" label. It serves as a sequel to the 2013 Super Sentai series Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger.[citation needed]

ProductionsEdit

Main seriesEdit

The following is a list of the Super Sentai series and their years of broadcast:

No. Title Episodes Originally aired Power Rangers adaptation Other notes
First aired Last aired
1 Himitsu Sentai Gorenger 84 April 5, 1975 March 26, 1977 N/A First series in the franchise
2 J.A.K.Q. Dengekitai 35 April 9, 1977 December 24, 1977 Last series to be produced by Shotaro Ishinomori
3 Battle Fever J 52 February 3, 1979 January 26, 1980
4 Denshi Sentai Denjiman 51 February 2, 1980 January 31, 1981
5 Taiyo Sentai Sun Vulcan 50 February 7, 1981 January 30, 1982
6 Dai Sentai Goggle-V 50 February 6, 1982 January 20, 1983
7 Kagaku Sentai Dynaman 51 February 5, 1983 January 28, 1984 Parody dub with Night Flight of first 6 episodes
8 Choudenshi Bioman 51 February 4, 1984 January 26, 1985
9 Dengeki Sentai Changeman 55 February 2, 1985 February 22, 1986
10 Choushinsei Flashman 50 March 1, 1986 February 21,1987
11 Hikari Sentai Maskman 51 February 28, 1987 February 20, 1988
12 Choujuu Sentai Liveman 49 February 27, 1988 February 18, 1989 Last Shōwa era series
13 Kousoku Sentai Turboranger 50 + 1 sp. March 4, 1989 February 23, 1990 First Heisei era series, TV special was aired on February 25, 1989
14 Chikyu Sentai Fiveman 48 March 2, 1990 February 8, 1991
15 Chōjin Sentai Jetman 51 February 15, 1991 February 14, 1992
16 Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger 50 February 21, 1992 February 12, 1993 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers season 1 Started the Power Rangers franchise
17 Gosei Sentai Dairanger 50 February 19, 1993 February 11, 1994 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers season 2
18 Ninja Sentai Kakuranger 53 February 18, 1994 February 24, 1995 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers season 3;
Mighty Morphin Alien Rangers
19 Chouriki Sentai Ohranger 48 March 3, 1995 February 23, 1996 Power Rangers Zeo
20 Gekisou Sentai Carranger 48 March 1, 1996 February 7, 1997 Power Rangers Turbo
21 Denji Sentai Megaranger 51 February 14, 1997 February 15, 1998 Power Rangers in Space
22 Seijuu Sentai Gingaman 50 February 22, 1998 February 14, 1999 Power Rangers Lost Galaxy
23 Kyuukyuu Sentai GoGoFive 50 February 21, 1999 February 6, 2000 Power Rangers Lightspeed Rescue
24 Mirai Sentai Timeranger 50 + 1 sp. February 13, 2000 February 4, 2001 Power Rangers Time Force TV Special was aired on February 11, 2001
25 Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger 51 February 18, 2001 February 10, 2002 Power Rangers Wild Force
26 Ninpuu Sentai Hurricaneger 51 February 17, 2002 February 9, 2003 Power Rangers Ninja Storm
27 Bakuryū Sentai Abaranger 50 February 16, 2003 February 8, 2004 Power Rangers Dino Thunder
28 Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger 50 February 15, 2004 February 6, 2005 Power Rangers S.P.D.
29 Mahō Sentai Magiranger 49 February 13, 2005 February 12, 2006 Power Rangers Mystic Force
30 GoGo Sentai Boukenger 49 February 19, 2006 February 11, 2007 Power Rangers Operation Overdrive
31 Juken Sentai Gekiranger 49 February 18, 2007 February 10, 2008 Power Rangers Jungle Fury
32 Engine Sentai Go-onger 50 February 17, 2008 February 8, 2009 Power Rangers RPM
33 Samurai Sentai Shinkenger 49 February 15, 2009 February 7, 2010 Power Rangers Samurai;
Power Rangers Super Samurai
34 Tensou Sentai Goseiger 50 February 14, 2010 February 6, 2011 Power Rangers Megaforce
35 Kaizoku Sentai Gokaiger 51 February 13, 2011 February 19, 2012 Power Rangers Super Megaforce
36 Tokumei Sentai Go-Busters 50 February 26, 2012 February 10, 2013 Power Rangers Beast Morphers First Super Sentai series to be initially skipped over for a Power Rangers adaptation, but adapted later on
37 Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger 48 February 17, 2013 February 9, 2014 Power Rangers Dino Charge;
Power Rangers Super Dino Charge
38 Ressha Sentai ToQger 47 February 16, 2014 February 15, 2015 N/A
39 Shuriken Sentai Ninninger 47 February 22, 2015 February 7, 2016 Power Rangers Ninja Steel;
Power Rangers Super Ninja Steel
40 Doubutsu Sentai Zyuohger 48 February 14, 2016 February 5, 2017 N/A
41 Uchu Sentai Kyuranger 48 February 12, 2017 February 4, 2018
42 Kaitou Sentai Lupinranger VS Keisatsu Sentai Patranger 51 February 11, 2018 February 10, 2019 First series to follow two distinct Sentai teams at the same time
Super Sentai Strongest Battle 4 February 17, 2019 March 10, 2019 Only miniseries in the franchise
43 Kishiryu Sentai Ryusoulger 48 March 17, 2019 March 1, 2020 Power Rangers Dino Fury Series transitioned between Heisei era and Reiwa era
44 Mashin Sentai Kiramager 45 + 5 sp. March 8, 2020 February 28, 2021 N/A TV specials were aired from May 17 to June 14, 2020
45 Kikai Sentai Zenkaiger TBA March 7, 2021 2022
46 Avataro Sentai Donbrothers TBA 2022 2023

Theatrical releasesEdit

V-Cinema releasesEdit

Televi Magazine releasesEdit

The following releases were on Super Video or Special DVD bundled with special issues of Kodansha's Televi Magazine:

  • 1992: Kyoryu Sentai Zyuranger Dino Video
  • 1994: Ninja Sentai Kakuranger Super Video: The Hidden Scroll
  • 1995: Chōriki Sentai Ohranger Member Notebook
  • 1996: Gekisou Sentai Carranger Super Video
  • 1997: Denji Sentai Megaranger Super Video: You Can Be One Too! A Mega Hero
  • 1998: Seijuu Sentai Gingaman Super Video: The Secret Fruit of Wisdom
  • 1999: Kyuukyuu Sentai GoGoFive: Five Lessons of Rescue Spirits
  • 2000: Mirai Sentai Timeranger Super Video: All the Strongest Hero Secrets
  • 2001: Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger Super Video: Showdown! Gaoranger vs. GaoSilver
  • 2002: Ninpuu Sentai Hurricaneger Super Video: Super Ninja vs Super Kuroko
  • 2003: Bakuryū Sentai Abaranger Super Video: All Bakuryuu Roaring Laughter Battle
  • 2004: Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger Super Video: Super-Special Technique Showdown! DekaRed vs. DekaBreak
  • 2005: Mahō Sentai Magiranger Special DVD: Great Presentation! The Super Magic of the Gold Grip Phone ~Goru Gooru Goo Goo~
  • 2007: Juken Sentai Gekiranger Special DVD: Gyun-Gyun! Fist Sage Great Athletic Meet
  • 2008: Engine Sentai Go-Onger Special DVD: It's a Seminar! Everyone GO-ON!!
  • 2009: Samurai Sentai Shinkenger Special DVD: The Light Samurai's Surprise Transformation
  • 2010: Tensou Sentai Goseiger Special DVD: Gotcha☆Miracle! Total Gathering Collection
  • 2011: Kaizoku Sentai Gokaiger Special DVD: Let's Do This Goldenly! Roughly! 36 Round Gokai Change!!
  • 2012: Tokumei Sentai Go-Busters vs. Beet Buster vs. J
  • 2013: Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger: It's Here! Armed On Midsummer Festival!!
  • 2014: Ressha Sentai ToQger: Farewell, Ticket! The Wasteland Super ToQ Battle!
  • 2015: Shuriken Sentai Ninninger: Aka Ninger vs. Star Ninger Hundred Nin Battle!
  • 2018: Kaitou Sentai Lupinranger VS Keisatsu Sentai Patranger: Girlfriends Army

DistributionEdit

Although the Super Sentai series originated in Japan, various Sentai series have been imported and dubbed in other languages for broadcast in several other countries.

EuropeEdit

Bioman, Flashman, Maskman, Liveman, Turboranger, Fiveman, and Jetman were broadcast in France in the 1980s and early 1990s, with Maskman and Liveman marketed as Bioman 2 and Bioman 3, respectively.[citation needed] Additionally, Liveman, Turboranger, and Jetman were broadcast in Spain and Portugal. Denjiman, Goggle-V, Sun Vulcan and Battle Fever J were broadcast in Italy. In addition, some episodes of Bioman and Turboranger were released on VHS in Greece. By the early 1990s, the Sentai broadcasts were replaced by Power Rangers.

AsiaEdit

MalaysiaEdit

Various Sentai series were broadcast in Malaysia starting with Hikari Sentai Maskman during the early 1990s, dubbed in English and later in Malay. However, these were replaced by the American-produced Power Rangers.

ThailandEdit

Almost all Super Sentai shows were broadcast in Thailand since the 1980s, a year following their Japanese debut. They were exclusively broadcast on Channel 9 from the late 1980s to early 1990s until Power Rangers replaced Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger in the mid-1990s. Since then, the series have appeared on various channels.

VietnamEdit

In Vietnam, most of the Super Sentai series were fansubbed into Vietnamese and posted on public Internet sites. Phuong Nam Film licensed Vietnamese distribution of Super Sentai series, starting with Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger in 2003, which was the best-selling series in the country at that time.

In 2007, Phuong Nam Film continued to release the Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger series. The following Sentai series were released: Mahou Sentai Magiranger (2008); GoGo Sentai Boukenger (2009-2010); Engine Sentai Go-onger (2011); Samurai Sentai Shinkenger (2012); Tensou Sentai Goseiger (2013); then released DVD only as Kaizoku Sentai Gokaiger (2014) and Tokumei Sentai Go-Busters (2015) series. Since 2016, Phuong Nam Film has collaborated with children's TV channel Sao TV to broadcast Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger, then Ressha Sentai ToQger and finally Shuriken Sentai Ninninger. Therefore, the production of Super Sentai DVD, VCD or broadcast of Super Sentai series on TV channels has ended.

PhilippinesEdit

In the late 1970s, J.A.K.Q. Dengekitai was the first Sentai series to be shown in the Philippines. Choudenshi Bioman (the last tokusatsu dubbed in English on Philippine television) and Hikari Sentai Maskman (the first Super Sentai series dubbed in Filipino on IBC) were broadcast in the Philippines in the 1980s. Choudenshi Bioman was so popular that many people from that generation came to associate all the Super Sentai series as continuations of it,[original research?] and Hikari Sentai Maskman was marketed as Bioman 2 Maskman on local TV. During the early 1990s, some other series were shown, such as Kousoku Sentai Turboranger, Chikyu Sentai Fiveman and Chōjin Sentai Jetman which became the last Sentai series to broadcast on ABC5 in 1994. Dai Sentai Goggle-V was also aired on RPN 9 in 1998 every Sunday morning. From 1995 to 1999 and 2004 to 2015, ABS-CBN aired the American-produced Power Rangers.

South KoreaEdit

Super Sentai has been broadcast in South Korea, dubbed in Korean. The first such series was Choushinsei Flashman which aired as Jigu Bangwidae Flash Man (Earth Defence Squadron Flashman), released in video format in 1989 by the Daeyung Panda video company; this was followed by Hikari Sentai Maskman and Chodenshi Bioman. Throughout the 1990s, Dai Sentai Goggle Five, Dengeki Sentai Changeman, Choujuu Sentai Liveman, and Kousoku Sentai Turboranger were also released in video format. In the 2000s and early 2010s, Tooniverse (formerly Orion Cartoon Network), JEI-TV (Jaeneung Television), Champ TV/Anione TV (Daewon Broadcasting), Cartoon Network South Korea, and Nickelodeon South Korea have broadcast Super Sentai series a year following their original Japanese broadcast, but have changed the titles to "Power Rangers".[4][5][6] Recently,[when?] there have been broadcasts of Bakuryuu Sentai Abaranger, Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger, Mahō Sentai Magiranger, GoGo Sentai Boukenger, Juken Sentai Gekiranger, Engine Sentai Go-onger, Hyakujuu Sentai Gaoranger, Tensou Sentai Goseiger, Kaizoku Sentai Gokaiger, Tokumei Sentai Go-Busters, Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger, Ressha Sentai ToQger, Shuriken Sentai Ninninger, Doubutsu Sentai Zyuohger, Uchu Sentai Kyuranger, Kishiryu Sentai Ryusoulger and Kaitou Sentai Lupinranger VS Keisatsu Sentai Patranger under the titles of Power Rangers Dino Thunder, Power Rangers S.P.D., Power Rangers Magic Force, Power Rangers Treasure Force, Power Rangers Wild Spirits, Power Rangers Engine Force, Power Rangers Jungle Force, Power Rangers Miracle Force, Power Rangers Captain Force, Power Rangers Go-Busters, Power Rangers Dino Force, Power Rangers Train Force, Power Rangers Ninja Force, Power Rangers Animal Force, Power Rangers Galaxy Force, Power Rangers Dino Soul and Power Rangers Lupin Force VS Patrol Force, respectively.[original research?] Furthermore, Power Rangers Dino Force has the South Korea-exclusive sequel called Power Rangers Dino Force Brave.

Latin AmericaEdit

Choushinsei Flashman and Choujuu Sentai Liveman were broadcast in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru in the early 1990s, and as reruns in the early 2000s. Flashman arrived with Spanish dubbing done in Brazil and Liveman in Venezuela.

Dengeki Sentai Changeman, Flashman, Maskman and Goggle V were broadcast in Brazil. The first season to air was Changeman in 1988, on the TV Manchete channel (now RedeTV), and caused a tremendous impact in its time, considered a cult classic.[original research?]

In the early 1990s, the Sentai broadcasts in Latin America were replaced by Power Rangers.[citation needed]

United StatesEdit

 
Official Super Sentai logo for the North American DVDs by Shout! Factory

After Honolulu's KIKU-TV had success with Android Kikaider (marketed as Kikaida) and Kamen Rider V3 in the 1970s, multiple Super Sentai series, including Himitsu Sentai Gorenger and Battle Fever J, were brought to the Hawaiian market, broadcast in Japanese with English subtitles by JN Productions.[citation needed] In 1985, Marvel Comics produced a pilot for an American adaptation of Taiyo Sentai Sun Vulcan,[citation needed] but the show was rejected by the major US TV networks.[7] In 1986, Saban Productions produced a pilot for an American adaptation of Choudenshi Bioman titled Bio Man.[8][9] In 1987, some episodes of Kagaku Sentai Dynaman were dubbed and aired as a parody on the USA Network television show Night Flight.[citation needed] Starting in 1993, footage from Super Sentai was extensively used in the American-produced Power Rangers franchise.

On 25 July 2014, Shout! Factory announced that they would release Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger on DVD in the United States.[10] Since then, Shout! has been the official distributor of Super Sentai DVDs in North America, and as of 2019 has released all subsequent series up to Ninpuu Sentai Hurricaneger, plus Chōjin Sentai Jetman. Beginning in 2016, Super Sentai episodes would be available on demand on ShoutFactoryTV.com.[citation needed] These episodes can only be viewed in North America.[citation needed]

MerchandiseEdit

As of March 2021, Bandai Namco has sold 30.89 million Super Sentai shape-changing model robots since 1979.[11]

Bandai Namco Super Sentai (Power Rangers) retail sales
Fiscal period Net sales Notes Ref
April 2002 to December 2005 ¥108.9 billion Bandai sales [12]
April 2006 to March 2007 ¥10.1 billion Toy sales [13]
April 2007 to March 2012 ¥102.4 billion [14][15][16]
April 2002 to March 2012 ¥221.4 billion ($2,775 million)
April 2012 to March 2013 ¥20.8 billion ($261 million) [16]
April 2013 to March 2014 ¥25.3 billion ($259 million) [17]
April 2014 to December 2020 ¥103.3 billion ($1,002 million) [18][19]
April 2002 to December 2020 ¥370.8 billion ($4.298 billion)
Super Sentai licensed merchandise in Japan
Year Retail sales Ref
2003 ¥24 billion [20]
2008 ¥37.28 billion [21]
2010 ¥24.58 billion [22]
2012 ¥40.96 billion [23]
2013 ¥37.99 billion [24]
2014 ¥39.21 billion [25]
2003 to 2014 ¥204.02 billion+ ($2.349 billion+)
Power Rangers licensed merchandise
Year(s) Retail sales Ref
1993 to 1999 $6 billion [26]
2005 $112 million [27]
2006 $131 million [27]
2012 $300 million [28]
2013 $333 million
2014 $326 million [29]
2015 $330 million [30]
2016 $361 million
2017 $548 million [31]
2018 $281 million [32]
1993 to 2018 $8.722 billion+

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "CSR Report 2009". Bandai Namco Group. Retrieved 9 February 2021.
  2. ^ Littleton, Cynthia (12 May 2010). "Saban re-acquires rights to 'Rangers'". Variety. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  3. ^ Arrant, Chris (1 May 2018). "SABAN Sells POWER RANGERS for $522 Million". Newsarama. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  4. ^ "파워레인저". 파워레인저. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  5. ^ "파워레인저 S.P.D." 파워레인저 S.P.D. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  6. ^ "파워레인저 트레인포스". 파워레인저 트레인포스. Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
  7. ^ Carvell, Tim; McGowan, Joe (28 October 1996). "Showdown In Toontown Children's Television, Once a Sleepy Business, Is Becoming as Hotly Competitive as the Grownup Variety. Turner, Fox, and Disney Are Trying to Topple Viacom's Nickelodeon--But How's a TV Mogul to Know What Kids Really Want?". CNN. Fortune. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  8. ^ Bates, James (12 August 1986). "Kidd Stuff : A Crop of New Shows Sprouts From Saban Firm's TV Success". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  9. ^ Bruck, Connie (10 May 2010). "The Influencer - An entertainment mogul sets his sights on foreign policy". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  10. ^ "Last for Brian: And Super Sentai Zyuranger #PowerRangers". @ShoutFactory. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
  11. ^ Fact Book 2021. Bandai Namco Group. 2021. pp. 3–6. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  12. ^ "Financial Highlights for the Nine Months ended December 31, 2005". Bandai Namco Holdings. 23 February 2006. p. 4. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  13. ^ "Financial Highlights for the Fiscal Year Ended March 2007". Bandai Namco Holdings. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  14. ^ "Financial Highlights for the Fiscal Year Ended March 2008". Bandai Namco Holdings. 8 May 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  15. ^ "Financial Highlights for the Fiscal Year Ended March 2011". Bandai Namco Holdings. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  16. ^ a b "Financial Highlights for the Fiscal Year Ended March 2013". Bandai Namco Holdings. 9 May 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  17. ^ "Financial Highlights for the Fiscal Year Ended March 2015". Bandai Namco Holdings. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  18. ^ "Financial Statements". Bandai Namco Holdings. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  19. ^ "Historical currency converter with official exchange rates (103,300 JPY to USD)". fxtop.com. 31 December 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  20. ^ Market Share in Japan. Yano Research Institute. 2005. p. 18. Retrieved 12 February 2021. 9 | Combat Force Series | 240
  21. ^ "Japan's Character Products Market in 2008". Licensing Industry Merchandiser's Association. Character Databank (CharaBiz). 2010. Archived from the original on 9 September 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  22. ^ コンテンツ2次利用市場(ライセンス市場)に係る 競争環境及び海外市場動向実態調査 (PDF) (in Japanese). Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). 2011. pp. 22–23. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  23. ^ "慶應義塾大学学術情報リポジトリ(KOARA)". KeiO Associated Repository of Academic Resources (in Japanese). Keio University: 8–9. 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  24. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2014(13) (in Japanese). Character Databank, Ltd. 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  25. ^ CharaBiz DATA 2015⑭ (in Japanese). Character Databank, Ltd. 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  26. ^ Kerry, Dollan (26 November 2001). "Beyond Power Rangers". Forbes. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  27. ^ a b State of the Toy Industry – Annual 2006 Data. The NPD Group. 3 April 2007. pp. 55–8. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  28. ^ "44 entertainment/character properties reach $100 m in sales of licensed merchandise". The Licensing Letter. The Free Library. 3 November 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  29. ^ "42 entertainment character properties reach $100 million in sales of licensed merchandise; "Frozen" debuts at No. 6". The Licensing Letter. The Free Library. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  30. ^ "Retail Sales of Licensed Merchandise Based on $100 Million+ Entertainment/Character Properties". The Licensing Letter. November 2017. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  31. ^ "Retail Sales of Licensed Merchandise Based on $100 Million+ Entertainment/Character Properties". The Licensing Letter. 23 July 2018. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  32. ^ "Retail Sales of Licensed Merchandise Based on $100 Million+ Entertainment/Character Properties". The Licensing Letter. 18 November 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2021.

External linksEdit