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The Summits of the Americas (SOA) are a series of international summit meetings bringing together the leaders of countries in the Organization of American States (OAS). All countries have sent representatives to all meetings except for Cuba, who was expelled from the OAS under US pressure after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Cuba participated in the 7th Summit held in Panama in 2015 and sent its foreign minister to the subsequent 2018 summit.[1][2] In the early 1990s, what were formerly ad hoc summits came to be institutionalized into a regular "Summit of the Americas" based on the principles of democracy and free trade.[3] The meetings, organized by a number of multilateral bodies led by the Organization of American States, provide an opportunity for discussions about a variety of issues and topics.

List of summitsEdit

Summit Dates Host Country Host City Host leader
1st December 9–11, 1994   United States[4] Miami Bill Clinton
2nd April 18–19, 1998   Chile[5] Santiago Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle
3rd April 20–22, 2001   Canada[6] Quebec City Jean Chrétien
4th November 4–5, 2005   Argentina[7] Mar del Plata Néstor Kirchner
5th April 17–19, 2009   Trinidad and Tobago[8] Port-of-Spain Patrick Manning
6th April 14–15, 2012   Colombia[9] Cartagena Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
7th April 10–11, 2015   Panama[10] Panama City Juan Carlos Varela
8th April 13–14, 2018   Peru[11] Lima Martín Vizcarra

The summits that garnered most general public and media attention were the Quebec City and Mar del Plata events, both of which provoked very large anti-globalization and anti–Free Trade Area of the Americas protests and attendant police response.

OAS member statesEdit

All 35 independent nations of the Americas are members of the OAS.

Nation Capital HDI
2016 est.
for 2015
[12]
Official
language
  Antigua and Barbuda St. John's 0.786 English
  Argentina Buenos Aires 0.827 Spanish
  Bahamas Nassau 0.792 English
  Barbados Bridgetown 0.795 English
  Belize Belmopan 0.706 English
  Bolivia Sucre 0.674 Spanish
  Brazil Brasília 0.754 Portuguese
  Canada Ottawa 0.920 English, French
  Chile Santiago 0.847 Spanish
  Colombia Bogota 0.727 Spanish
  Costa Rica San José 0.776 Spanish
  Cuba Havana 0.774 Spanish
  Dominica Roseau 0.726 English
  Dominican Republic Santo Domingo 0.722 Spanish
  Ecuador Quito 0.739 Spanish
  El Salvador San Salvador 0.680 Spanish
  Grenada St. George's 0.754 English
  Guatemala Guatemala City 0.640 Spanish
  Guyana Georgetown 0.636 English
  Haiti Port-au-Prince 0.493 French, Haitian Creole
  Honduras Tegucigalpa 0.625 Spanish
  Jamaica Kingston 0.730 English
  Mexico Mexico City 0.762 Spanish
  Nicaragua Managua 0.645 Spanish
  Panama Panama City 0.788 Spanish
  Paraguay Asuncion 0.693 Spanish
  Peru Lima 0.740 Spanish
  Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre 0.765 English
  Saint Lucia Castries 0.735 English
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown 0.722 English
  Suriname Paramaribo 0.726 Dutch
  Trinidad and Tobago Port of Spain 0.780 English
  United States Washington D.C. 0.920 English (De Facto)
  Uruguay Montevideo 0.795 Spanish
  Venezuela Caracas 0.767 Spanish

Non-membersEdit

The following jurisdictions are not members of the OAS as they are dependencies of other nations. They are grouped under the nation that has sovereignty over them.

  Denmark

  France

  Netherlands

  United Kingdom

  United States

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Prieto, Alfredo. "Everybody But Cuba," Havana Times. April 15, 2009.
  2. ^ http://www.staradvertiser.com/2018/04/13/business/business-breaking/cubas-raul-castro-skips-summit-of-the-americas/
  3. ^ Twaddle, Andrew C. (2002). Health Care Reform Around the World, p. 382.
  4. ^ Summit Americas: I summit (1st)
  5. ^ Summit Americas: II summit (2nd)
  6. ^ Summit Americas: III summit (3rd)
  7. ^ Summit Americas: IV summit (4th)
  8. ^ Summit Americas: V summit (5th)
  9. ^ Summit Americas: VI summit (6th)
  10. ^ Summit Americas: VII summit (7th)
  11. ^ Summit Americas: VIII summit (8th)
  12. ^ "Human Development Report 2016 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 January 2017.

External linksEdit