Sultanate of Dawaro

The Sultanate of Dawaro was a Somali Muslim Sultanate founded around the 10th century by the Jarso people, sub-clan of the Dir, centred in Hararghe.[1]

Sultanate of Dawaro
10th Century–1329
StatusSovereign state
Religion
Islam
GovernmentSultanate
Sultan 
• 10th Century
ʿAli Madaḥweyne Dir Ajii Irir Samāle
• ?-1329
Ḥaydar
History 
• Established
10th Century
• Conquered by Abyssinia and Ifat
1329
Succeeded by
Ethiopian Empire
Ifat Sultanate
Today part ofHararghe

OriginsEdit

The founder of Dawaro Sultanate was Jarso people belonging to the Ali Madaḥweyne branch which is a sub-clan of the Somali Dir clan. After the Oromo migrations, the jārso along with other Somali ʿAli Madaḥweyne Dir clans were absorbed into the Afran Qallo Barentuma confederation, and today the Jarso are reckoned as Jārsō Daggā Qāllō Barentuma Oromō. Although a large amount of the Jārso clan have assimilated with the Oromos, they are not ethnically Oromo and are ethnically Somali.[2]

Conquering of DawaroEdit

Emperor Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia conquered many of the adjacent independent Muslim sultanates during his reign. In 1329, Sulṭān Ḥaydar of Dawaro was captured and imprisoned together with his ally Sulṭān Sabir ad-Dīn Maḥamed. Despite several rebellions and a brief period when Ahmeduddin Badlay a powerful Somali ruler from Adal Sultanate captured Dawaro and turned it into a vessel of Adal and after the weakening of Adal Sultanate, the opportunist Oromos captured the vassal state and assimilated the local native Somali population. Just like many Somalis in Hararghe, the Jarso people were also assimilated into the Oromo confederation after the weakening of Adal Sultanate by its war with the Ethiopian Empire and Portuguese Empire.[3]

LegacyEdit

Dawaro was a major power prior to its defeat and subjugation. It was roughly equal in size, population and power to the early Ifat Sultanate.[4]

Sultans of DawaroEdit

Ruler Name Reign Note
? Ḥaydar (or Haydara) ??? - 1329 Ally of Sulṭān SabiradDīn Maḥamed "Waqōyi" Naḥwi of Ifat, imprisoned along with him by Amda Seyon I

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Braukämper, Ulrich (2002). Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Collected Essays. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 12. ISBN 978-3-8258-5671-7.
  2. ^ Hassen, Mohammed (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300-1700. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  3. ^ Futūḥ al-Ḥabasha. (n.d.). Christian-Muslim Relations 1500 - 1900. doi:10.1163/2451-9537_cmrii_com_26077
  4. ^ Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Collected Essays