Sukhumi Okrug

The Sukhumi or Sukhum Okrug (pre-reform Russian: Суху́мскій о́кругъ, tr. Sukhúmsky ókrug; Georgian: სოხუმის ოკრუგი; Abkhazian: Акалакь Аҟәа) was a special administrative okrug ("district") in the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire, part of the Kutais Governorate from 1883 until 1905. The administrative center of the district was the Black Sea port city of Sukhum (Sukhumi). The okrug bordered the Kutais Governorate to the southwest, the Kuban Oblast to the north and the Black Sea Governorate to the northwest and in terms of its area corresponded to most of contemporary Abkhazia. During 1905-1917 the Sukhumi Okrug was one of the smallest independent (not part of any province or region) administrative units of the Russian Empire, second to the Zakatal Okrug.

Sukhumi Okrug
Сухумскій округъ
The Sukhumi Okrug in the Caucasus Viceroyalty
The Sukhumi Okrug in the Caucasus Viceroyalty
CountryRussian Empire
ViceroyaltyCaucasus
Established1883
Abolished1921
CapitalSukhum (Sukhumi)
UchastoksGudauta, Gumista, Kodor, and Samurzakan
Area
 • Total6,591.42 km2 (2,544.96 sq mi)
Population
 (1916)
 • Total209,671
 • Density32/km2 (82/sq mi)
 • Urban
29.56%
 • Rural
70.44%

HistoryEdit

In 1864, when the Principality of Abkhazia was abolished, its territory, along with Tsebelda, Samurzakan, and the former Pskhu community, became the Sukhum Military District (Sukhumsky Voenny Otdel), with a total area of 6,942 square versts and a population of 79,195. Between 1864 and the uprising of 1866, the Sukhum Military District was administratively divided into three okrugs (Abkhaz, Bzyb, and Abzhua) and two pristavstvos (Tsebelda and Samurzakan).[1]

In 1883, the Sukhum Military District (otdel) became the Sukhum Okrug and was incorporated into the Kutais Governorate.[2] In 1905, the Sukhum District (okrug) was removed from the Kutais Governorate and placed directly under the Viceroy of the Caucasus.[3]

Administrative divisionsEdit

The uchastoks ("subcounties") of the Sukhumi Okrug in 1912 were as follows:[4]

Uchastok Russian name 1912 population Area
sq. vst. sq. km.
Gudauta Гудаутскій участокъ 24,107 869.53 989.58
Gumista Гумистинскій участокъ 10,210 2,897.89 3,297.98
Kodor Кодорскій участокъ 20,808 887.85 1,010.43
Samurzakan Самурзаканскій участокъ 34,617 1,136.52 1,293.43

DemographicsEdit

Russian Empire census (1897)Edit

According to the Russian Empire census of 1897, the Sukhumi Okrug had a population of 106,179, including 59,836 men and 46,343 women. The majority of the population indicated Abkhazian to be their mother tongue, with significant Mingrelian, Armenian, Greek, and Russian speaking minorities.[5]

Linguistic composition of the Sukhumi Okrug in 1897[5]
Language Native speakers %
Abkhazian 58,697 55.28
Mingrelian 23,810 22.42
Armenian 6,552 6.17
Greek 5,393 5.08
Russian 5,135 4.84
Georgian 1,830 1.72
Turkish 1,347 1.27
Ukrainian 809 0.76
Estonian 604 0.57
German 406 0.38
Polish 234 0.22
Persian 186 0.18
Tatar[a] 171 0.16
Imeretian 141 0.13
Jewish 136 0.13
Romanian 133 0.13
Svan 92 0.09
Lithuanian 72 0.07
Belarusian 67 0.06
Avar-Andean 26 0.02
Ossetian 11 0.01
English 6 0.01
Kurdish 2 0.00
Kazi-Kumukh 1 0.00
Other 318 0.30
TOTAL 106,179 100.00

Caucasian Calendar (1917)Edit

According to the 1917 publication of the Caucasian Calendar, the Sukhumi Okrug had 209,671 residents, including 127,619 men and 82,052 women, 135,838 of whom were the permanent population, and 73,833 were temporary residents.[6]

Nationality Urban Rural TOTAL
Number % Number % Number %
Asiatic Christians[b] 4,700 7.58 98,464 66.67 103,164 49.20
Georgians[c] 25,156 40.59 25,227 17.08 50,383 24.03
Russians 18,890 30.48 6,585 4.46 25,475 12.15
Armenians 8,250 13.31 12,493 8.46 20,743 9.89
Other Europeans[d] 1,720 2.78 4,928 3.34 6,648 3.17
Sunni Muslims 2,390 3.86 0 0.00 2,390 1.14
North Caucasians 399 0.64 0 0.00 399 0.19
Jews 250 0.40 0 0.00 250 0.12
Shia Muslims 219 0.35 0 0.00 219 0.10
TOTAL 61,974 100.00 147,697 100.00 209,671 100.00

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Later known as Azerbaijani.
  2. ^ Many Abkhazians and Greeks were included in the number of Asiatic Christians.
  3. ^ Many Mingrelians were included in the number of Georgians.
  4. ^ Many Estonians were included in the number of Europeans.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Tsutsiev, Arthur (2014), Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus, New Haven and London, p. 173, ISBN 978-0-300-15308-8, OCLC 884858065, retrieved 2021-12-25
  2. ^ Tsutsiev, Arthur (2014), Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus, New Haven and London, p. 162, ISBN 978-0-300-15308-8, OCLC 884858065, retrieved 2021-12-25
  3. ^ Tsutsiev, Arthur (2014), Atlas of the Ethno-Political History of the Caucasus, New Haven and London, p. 174, ISBN 978-0-300-15308-8, OCLC 884858065, retrieved 2021-12-25
  4. ^ Кавказский календарь на 1913 год [Caucasian calendar for 1913] (in Russian) (68th ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1913. pp. 164–167. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Демоскоп Weekly - Приложение. Справочник статистических показателей". www.demoscope.ru. Retrieved 2022-03-26.
  6. ^ Кавказский календарь на 1917 год [Caucasian calendar for 1917] (in Russian) (72nd ed.). Tiflis: Tipografiya kantselyarii Ye.I.V. na Kavkaze, kazenny dom. 1917. pp. 363–364. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021.

Coordinates: 43°00′15″N 41°02′34″E / 43.00417°N 41.04278°E / 43.00417; 41.04278