Moro Muslims who performed suicide attacks were called mag-sabil, and the suicide attacks were known as Parang-sabil. The Spanish called them juramentado. The idea of the juramentado was considered part of Jihad in the Moro's Islamic religion. During an attack, a Juramentado would throw themselves at their targets and kill them with bladed weapons such as Barongs and Kris until they themselves were killed. The Moros performed juramentado suicide attacks against the Spanish in the Spanish–Moro conflict, the Americans in the Moro Rebellion, and against the Japanese in World War II. The Moro Juramentados aimed their attacks specifically against their enemies, and not non-Muslims in general. They launched suicide attacks on the Japanese, Spanish, Americans and Filipinos, but did not attack the non-Muslim Chinese since the Chinese were not considered enemies of the Moro people. The Japanese responded to these suicide attacks by massacring all the relatives of the attacker.
Muslim Acehnese from the Aceh Sultanate performed "holy war" known as Parang-sabil against invaders such as Americans in the attack on Joseph Peabody's ship Friendship, the First Sumatran expedition and the Second Sumatran expedition, and against the Dutch in the Dutch expedition on the west coast of Sumatra and most notably during the Aceh War, where they performed suicide attacks as part of "parang sabil". It was considered as part of personal jihad in the Islamic religion of the Acehnese. The Dutch called it Atjèh-moord, (Acehmord, Aceh mord, Aceh-mord) or (Aceh Pungo). The Acehnese work of literature, the Hikayat Perang Sabil provided the background and reasoning for the "Aceh-mord"- Acehnese suicide attacks upon the Dutch, . The Indonesian translations of the Dutch terms are Aceh bodoh (Aceh pungo) or Aceh gila (Aceh mord).
Atjèh-moord was also used against the Japanese by the Acehnese during the Japanese occupation of Aceh. The Acehnese Ulama (Islamic clerics) fought against both the Dutch and the Japanese, revolting against the Dutch in February 1942 and against Japan in November 1942. The revolt was led by the All-Aceh Religious Scholars' Association ( PUSA). The Japanese suffered 18 dead in the uprising while they slaughtered up to 100 or over 120 Acehnese. The revolt happened in Bayu and was centred around Tjot Plieng village's religious school. During the revolt, the Japanese troops armed with mortars and machine guns were charged by sword wielding Acehnese under Teungku Abduldjalil (Tengku Abdul Djalil) in Buloh Gampong Teungah and Tjot Plieng on 10 and 13 November. On May 1945 the Acehnese rebelled again.
The original Jawi script Acehnese language work Hikayat Perang Sabil (w:ace:Hikayat Prang Sabi, w:id:Hikayat Prang Sabi) has been transliterated into the Latin alphabet and annotated by Ibrahim Alfian (Teuku.) published in Jakarta. Perang sabi was the Acehnese word for jihad, a holy war and Acehnese language literary works on perang sabi were distributed by Islamic clerics ('ulama) such as Teungku di Tiro to help the resistance against the Dutch in the Aceh War. The recompense awarded by in paradise detailed in Islamic Arabic texts and Dutch atrocities were expounded on in the Hikayat Perang Sabil which was communally read by small cabals of Ulama and Acehnese who swore an oath before going to achieve the desired status of "martyr" by launching suicide attacks on the Dutch. Perang sabil was the Malay equivalent to other terms like Jihad, Ghazawat for "Holy war", the text was also spelled "Hikayat perang sabi". Fiction novels like Sayf Muhammad Isa's Sabil: Prahara di Bumi Rencong on the war by Aceh against the Dutch include references ro Hikayat Perang Sabil. Mualimbunsu Syam Muhammad wrote the work called "Motives for Perang Sabil in Nusantara", Motivasi perang sabil di Nusantara: kajian kitab Ramalan Joyoboyo, Dalailul-Khairat, dan Hikayat Perang Sabil on Indonesia's history of Islamic holy war (Jihad). Children and women were inspired to do suicide attacks by the Hikayat Perang Sabil against the Dutch. Hikayat Perang Sabil is also known as "Hikayat Prang Sabi". Hikayat Perang Sabil is considered as part of 19th century Malay literature. In Dutch occupied Aceh, Hikayat Perang Sabil was confiscated from Sabi's house during a Police raid on September 27, 1917.
In the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese used suicide bombing against the Japanese with explosive vests. A Chinese soldier detonated a grenade vest and killed 20 Japanese at Sihang Warehouse. Chinese troops strapped explosives like grenade packs or dynamite to their bodies and threw themselves under Japanese tanks to blow them up. This tactic was used during the Battle of Shanghai, where a Chinese suicide bomber stopped a Japanese tank column by exploding himself beneath the lead tank, and at the Battle of Taierzhuang where dynamite and grenades were strapped on by Chinese troops who rushed at Japanese tanks and blew themselves up. During one incident at Taierzhuang, Chinese suicide bombers obliterated four Japanese tanks with grenade bundles. The Pacific War of World War II bore witness to the Japanese kamikaze suicide attack pilots ("kamikaze" was not a term used by the Japanese themselves). Late in the war, as the tide turned against Japan, kamikaze pilots were deployed to attempt to crash their aircraft into American and allied ships in the Pacific. The Japanese even developed specialized aircraft for the tactic, such as the Yokosuka Ohka flying bomb. A successful kamikaze attack would both kill the plane's pilot and damage the target ship, possibly even sinking it. Related tactics included the kaiten suicide minisub, a human torpedo which a single Japanese pilot would steer into an Allied ship.
American tanks at Seoul were attacked by North Korean suicide squads, who used satchel charges. A North Korean soldier named Li Su-Bok, who exploded an American tank with a suicide bomb, is hailed as a hero in North Korean propaganda.
Certain aircraft built or projected for the Luftwaffe during the time of the Allied bombing before the surrender of Nazi Germany in World War II, such as the Bachem Ba 349, Fliegende Panzerfaust, Sombold So 344, Zeppelin Rammer or the Blohm & Voss BV 40 are sometimes listed as suicide weapons. However, they were not intended as such, even though the chances of survival would have been very limited for the pilots of such dangerous artifacts. In those years Nazi authorities considered the use of selbstopfer (suicide) planes such as the Messerschmitt Me 328 and the Fieseler 103.
During the Cold War, it was argued[by whom?] that the doctrine of mutual assured destruction turned nuclear weapons into suicide weapons. The idea of a Doomsday weapon took this to its logical extreme.
Political groups using suicide weapons in the post-Cold War era include mainly outfits affiliated to Islamic terrorism, among which even children have been used in order to escape detection when carrying out suicide attacks. However, non-Islamic groups, such as the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, also have been prone to use suicide weapons. Today, the most common suicide weapons used to carry out terrorist attacks are car bombs or truck bombs, as well as antipersonnel bombs carried by a single person. Suicide bombers strap explosives, often covered with nails, screws, or other items intended to act as fragments, to their bodies or otherwise carry them into populated areas and detonate them. The Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka are known for having made high-profile use of this method in the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi. Similar methods have been also used by Palestinian terrorist groups in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, among others.
Kamikaze attacks were mimicked in the September 11, 2001 attacks, in which a group of mostly Saudi terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center and part of the Pentagon by flying hijacked jet airliners into them. It was the first and only time in history that hijacked jet airliners filled with fuel were used as cruise missiles against targets of such magnitude.
- Federspiel, Howard M. (2007). Sultans, Shamans, and Saints: Islam and Muslims in Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-8248-3052-0. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Roces, Alfredo R. Filipino Heritage: The Spanish Colonial period (Late 19th Century): The awakening. Volume 7 of Filipino Heritage: The Making of a Nation, Alfredo R. Roces. Lahing Pilipino Publishing. p. 1702. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Roces, Alfredo R. (1978). Filipino Heritage: The Spanish colonial period (late 19th century). Volume 7 of Filipino Heritage: The Making of a Nation. Lahing Pilipino Pub. ; [Manila]. p. 1702. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Filipinas, Volume 11, Issues 117–128. Filipinas Pub. 2002. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Gowing, Peter G., ed. (1988). Understanding Islam and Muslims in the Philippines (illustrated ed.). New Day Publishers. p. 56. ISBN 9711003864. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, Volume 129. Contributor Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands). M. Nijhoff. 1973. p. 111. Retrieved 10 March 2014.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Amler, Dds Mel (2008). Midnight on Mindanao: Wartime Remembances 1945–1946. iUniverse. pp. 47–8. ISBN 0-595-63260-2. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Ibrahim Alfian (Teuku.) (1992). Sastra perang: sebuah pembicaraan mengenai Hikayat Perang Sabil. PT Balai Pustaka. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-979-407-422-0.
- Jim Baker (15 July 2008). Crossroads (2nd Edn): A Popular History of Malaysia and Singapore. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-981-4435-48-2.
- Christopher Kelly; Stuart Laycock (15 October 2015). All the Countries the Americans Have Ever Invaded: Making Friends and Influencing People?. Amberley Publishing. pp. 154–. ISBN 978-1-4456-5177-4.
- Atjeh. Brill Archive. 1878. pp. 613–. GGKEY:JD7T75Q7T5G.
- J. Kreemer (1923). Atjèh: algemeen samenvattend overzicht van land en volk van Atjèh en onderhoorigheden. E.J. Brill. p. 613.
- John Braithwaite; Valerie Braithwaite; Michael Cookson; Leah Dunn (2010). Anomie and Violence: Non-truth and Reconciliation in Indonesian Peacebuilding. ANU E Press. pp. 347–. ISBN 978-1-921666-23-0.
- Sayed Mudhahar Ahmad; Aceh Selatan (Indonesia) (1992). Ketika pala mulai berbunga: seraut wajah Aceh Selatan. Pemda Aceh Selatan. p. 131.
- A. J. Piekaar (1949). Atjèh en de oorlog met Japan. W. van Hoeve. p. 3.
- Ricklefs 2001, p. 252.
- Martinkus 2004, p. 47.
- "Tempo: Indonesia's Weekly News Magazine, Volume 3, Issues 43–52" 2003, p. 27.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2016-05-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Pepatah Lama Di Aceh Utara
- Pepatah Lama Di Aceh Utara
- "Berita Kadjian Sumatera: Sumatra Research Bulletin, Volumes 1–4" 1971, p. 35.
- Nasution 1963, p. 89.
- "Sedjarah Iahirnja Tentara Nasional Indonesia" 1970, p. 12.
- "20 [i. e Dua puluh] tahun Indonesia merdeka, Volume 7", p. 547.
- "Sedjarah TNI-Angkatan Darat, 1945–1965. [Tjet. 1.]" 1965, p. 8.
- "20 tahun Indonesia merdeka, Volume 7", p. 545.
- Atjeh Post, Minggu Ke III September 1990. halaman I & Atjeh Post, Minggu Ke IV September 1990 halaman I
- Jong 2000, p. 189.
- Ibrahim Alfian (Teuku.) (1992). Sastra perang: sebuah pembicaraan mengenai Hikayat Perang Sabil. PT Balai Pustaka. ISBN 978-979-407-422-0.
- Keat Gin Ooi (1 January 2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
- Anthony Reid (17 March 2014). The Blood of the People: Revolution and the End of Traditional Rule in Northern Sumatra. NUS Press. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-9971-69-637-5.
- Vladimir Braginsky (19 October 2015). The Turkic-Turkish Theme in Traditional Malay Literature: Imagining the Other to Empower the Self. BRILL. pp. 291–. ISBN 978-90-04-30594-6.
- Sayf Muhammad Isa (8 October 2014). Sabil: Prahara di Bumi Rencong. Qanita. GGKEY:EZ5D51UPWRR.
- Mualimbunsu Syam Muhammad (2013). Motivasi perang sabil di Nusantara: kajian kitab Ramalan Joyoboyo, Dalailul-Khairat, dan Hikayat Perang Sabil. Media Madania. ISBN 978-602-19227-2-9.
- Jelani Harun. Jalan ke Taman: Esei-esei Penghargaan untuk Professor Ali Ahmad (Penerbit USM). Penerbit USM. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-983-861-671-3.
- Siti Hawa Hj. Salleh (2010). Malay Literature of the 19th Century. ITBM. pp. 366–. ISBN 978-983-068-517-5.
- Akademika. Jawatankuasa Penerbitan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. 1972. pp. 98, 100, 102.
- Ibrahim Alfian (Teuku.) (1987). Perang di Jalan Allah: Perang Aceh, 1873–1912. Pustaka Sinar Harapan. p. 130.
- Schaedler, Luc (Accepted in Autumn Semester 2007 On the Recommendation of Prof. Dr. Michael Oppitz). Angry Monk: Reflections on Tibet: Literary, Historical, and Oral Sources for a Documentary Film (PDF) (Thesis Presented to the Faculty of Arts of the University of Zurich For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy). University of Zurich, Faculty of Arts. p. 518. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-19. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Check date values in:
- Harmsen, Peter (2013). Shanghai 1937: Stalingrad on the Yangtze (illustrated ed.). Casemate. p. 112. ISBN 161200167X. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "Chinese Tank Forces and Battles before 1949". TANKS! e-Magazine (#4). Summer 2001. Archived from the original on 7 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Xin Hui (1-8-2002). "Xinhui Presents: Chinese Tank Forces and Battles before 1949:". Newsletter 1-8-2002 Articles. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014. Check date values in:
- Ong, Siew Chey (2005). China Condensed: 5,000 Years of History & Culture (illustrated ed.). Marshall Cavendish. p. 94. ISBN 9812610677. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Olsen, Lance (2012). Taierzhuang 1938 – Stalingrad 1942. Numistamp. Clear Mind Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9838435-9-7. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- "STORM OVER TAIERZHUANG 1938 PLAYER'S AID SHEET" (PDF). grognard.com. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Dr Ong Siew Chey (2011). China Condensed: 5,000 Years of History & Culture (reprint ed.). Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 79. ISBN 9814312991. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- International Press Correspondence, Volume 18. Richard Neumann. 1938. p. 447. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Epstein, Israel (1939). The people's war. V. Gollancz. p. 172. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Francillon, Ph.D., René J. "Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" and Ohka Bomb" Aircraft in Profile, Vol. 9. Windsor, Berkshire, UK: Profile Publications Ltd., 1971. ISBN 0-85383-018-5.
- World War II in the Pacific – Japanese Suicide Attacks at Sea
- International Journal of Korean Studies. Korea Society and the International Council on Korean Studies. 2001. p. 40.
- Carter Malkasian (29 May 2014). The Korean War. Osprey Publishing. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-1-4728-0994-0.
- T. I. Han (1 May 2011). Lonesome Hero: Memoir of a Korea War POW. AuthorHouse. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-4634-1176-3.
- Charles R. Smith. U.S. Marines in the Korean War. Government Printing Office. pp. 183–. ISBN 978-0-16-087251-8.
- Sonia Ryang (16 January 2009). North Korea: Toward a Better Understanding. Lexington Books. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-0-7391-3207-4.
- German Suicidal Aircraft
- Sombold So 344. Das "Rammschussjäger" Projekt22. Januar 1944
- Ulrich Albrecht: Artefakte des Fanatismus; Technik und nationalsozialistische Ideologie in der Endphase des Dritten Reiches
- Explaining Suicide Terrorism: A Review Essay
- Child Bombers Terror's Newest Weapon
- Tamil Tigers: Suicide Bombing Innovators
- Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States
- Lewis, Jeffrey William (April 2013). "The Human Use of Human Beings: A Brief History of Suicide Bombing". Origins. 6 (7). Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Media related to Suicide weapons at Wikimedia Commons
- Japanese suicide weapon：Human torpedo Kaiten and Human Bomb Ohoka(Japanese)